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tribes and clans. These latter seldom glory of his race. He, and all his attend to agriculture, while the others Koords listened with the greatest atten. never become soldiers. A tribesman tion, and appeared deeply interested in confessed to Mr. Rich, that he believed the narration. The scene was very picthe peasant was only created for his turesque, and would have made a fine use; and

subject for a painting. The Pasha after

wards very naively exclaimed, • I wonder “ Wretched indeed,” says he is the if my family were of consequence at that condition of the Koordish cultivators. It much resembles that of a negro slave in the West Indies; and the worst of it is, I have never found it possible to make other Greeks and events. In a room

They have traditions, however, of these Koordish masters ashamed of their cruelty to their poor dependents.”

next to one appropriated for his recep

tion, our author found sundry paintBut, while the unfortunate peasant ings, representing various persons and is thus put out of the pale of pity, the events. One of the former was Alexattachment of a clansman, to every ander the Great,“ with a watch lying member of his tribe,-the sacrifices he beside him!” dressed in the Persian is ready to make for him, is absurdly fashion, with the face of a coquetish romantic, particularly to their chiefs :

This reminds one of the “ In Bagdad they live with their mas

anachronism of the Dutch painter, ters in miserable exile, struggling, with- senting, among other gifts, to the in

who represented the wise men preout a murmur, with every sort of priva- fant Jesus, a little gun. They have, tion and suffering. Gentlemen who, in their own country, have a horse hand

however, a tradition of this extraordisomely caparisoned, and a servant, are

nary conqueror, that he was a beard

In seen in Bagdad in rags, and are fre- less and a beautiful young man. quently known to work as porters, or another room were various tawdry water-carriers, that they may take their paintings, representing several famous day's wages to their master, to contri- persons, from Solomon down to Buobute to his support. When the brother naparte,—which last, with more proof Abdurrhaman Pasha died at Bagdad, priety than Alexander, had a musket one of bis Koords was standing on the and bayonet in his hand. On the side terrace, or flat roof of the house, at the of this picture-gallery were two other moment his master expired, • What !' said smaller ones, called Bala Koneh, from he, is the Bey dead 2-then I will not whence, says our author, is derived our live another moment,' And he imme- English word balcony. We, certainly, diately threw himself off the top of the were not aware, nor Johnson either, house, and was dashed to pieces." that any word in our language came

from the mountains of Koordistan. This human sacrifice, either volun- This is a pendant for another etymotary or involuntary, is of


ancient usage here. Herodotus mentions that neighbourhood. The Turks, it seems,

logy from Toorkistan, in the same it was usual among the Scythians, on the death of their king, to offer up his Doodli; whence some etymologists

call America, as the new world, Yeni prime ministers as proper victims to

derive the much controverted Yankihis manes.

doodle. Koord is probably a corruption of the ancient name, Kapdouxon, given by is Sulimania, built about thirty-six

The present capital of Koordistan Xenophon to these mountaineers, through whose mountains the Grecians years, and called after a pasha of Bag

dad. On its site stood an ancient passed in their memorable retreat from Persia ; but they do not seem to re

mount, which they pared down, and

found among its rubbish some coins, tain any tradition of the event. The

so as to indicate that it had been the Pasha had promised to procure for Mr. Rich a famous History of Koor spot of some foriner city. It contains distan, called Tarikh al Akrad. In

ten thousand people, in two thousand

Mohammedan houses, one hundred return, said he,

and thirty Jewish, nine of Chal“ I told him the story of Xenophon dean Christians, who have a wretched and the Ten Thousand, and the ancient small church, and five of Armenian

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Christians, who have neither church usage of Turks and Persians. In or priest. The Mohammedans have five Constantinople a respectable Turk, mosques; and for the whole population seen in the streets after dark, is a phethere are six caravansaries, and five pub- nomenon ; and if any man be not prelic baths. The former capital was Karst- ceded by a servant and lantern he is cholan, which was abandoned for a cha- taken up by the Coolok guard. But racteristic reason, because it stood in a night is the visiting time of the rocky valley, unfavourable for the enjoy- Koords. When it grows dark, they ment of hunting. The ordinary houses begin to go about to each other's are mere mud hovels, which cover the houses, and amuse themselves with town, and resemble an Arab village. conversation, smoking, and music, They are quite open and exposed; but till three or four in the morning, bethe inhabitants do not seem to regard fore which time no gentleman thinks this, as the women go about like men, of retiring to rest.

In other respects, and perform their ordinary business with also, they differ greatly from their retheir faces displayed, without any veils, tiring, unsocial, and taciturn neighThis extraordinary deviation from Ori. bours of the same faith. They are ental usage, is probably the result of remarkably cheerful-very fond of comthat free and unrestrained condition pany-have no pride — practise no which mountaineers always enjoy, and ceremonious formalities. There is one which mixes itself with all their feel- trait of character very remarkable inings. The Bagdad merchants, who deed, which we wish many Euroresort here on their business, and who pean and cultivated Christians would bring with them their rigid notions imitate them. They are divested of of female seclusion, were not only all envy ; and our author “never heard shocked at this exposure, but were a Koord speak an ill word of another, greatly scandalized at the simple ques. however different they may be in party tion, usually put to them, “what is or interest." We quote this for the your wife's name?” “ How does she benefit of our Whigs and Tories. dress ?" In the mountains of Shina, The condition, also, of their women which abound in the magnificent Ori- is another remarkable deviation from ental platanus, and where timber mer- oriental usage, and Mohammedan prechants go to purchase wood for the judice. They are treated as equals by plains of the Euphrates, men and wo- their husbands, and laugh at or despise men live together openly, without res- the slavish subjection of Turkish wives. traint, or the affectation of conceal. There is a domestic comfort and equament.

lity in a Koordish house, which is unNevertheless, the Koords are such known among other Moslems, and a rigid Mohammedans, that in three confidence entirely divested of that years two thousand persons, from the hrutal precaution which stigmatizes province of Sulimania alone, descend. them. The male servants who attend ed from their elevation, crossed the the Harems, are not the revolting burning deserts of Arabia, and visited mutilated objects one sees among other the tomb of their prophet at Mecca. oriental people. They are as wellThose who have done so are distin- looking, and well bearded as European guished ever after by the privilege of domestics. The women never hide wearing a white turban.

themselves in terror at the sight of any The principal amusement of the man but their husbands; and when Mrs. Koords is partridge-fighting. The Rich returned the visits of Koordish little birds are trained up like game ladies, she always found a mixture of cocks with us, and show, like them, both sexes to receive her. Women of astonishing spirit and resolution. the better classes wear a veil of black There is generally a large house in the horse hair, which they seldom let fall meidan, or open space left for the pur- over their faces, unless when they wish pose, which is a club-house, where, at to avoid the notice of some person sunset the better sort assemble and they meet, and the lower classes go make partridge-matches. The Koords, about freely without any covering to it appears, are the only Mohammedans their face, forming a strong contrast to who sit up late at night, not retiring the same classes in Turkey, where, to rest with the sun, as is the general wheu a woman does come forth, no


thing is seen uncovered but her nose. know, often return to Constantinople A still more remarkable display occurs, with the point of a Koord's pike in the which would scandalize even Euro- back of their neck. This state of pean notions of female freedom. The things Mr. Rich himself acknowledges houses of Sulimania are very low, in some parts. “ We were obliged," scarcely more than five or six feet high, said he, “ to keep a sharp look out for with flat roofs, which are frequently made thieves—this place being infamous for in summer the sleeping apartments in them; and nothing but their poverty the open air. In walking through the protected the poor Chaldeans from narrow streets, the head sometimes is their attacks." above the roof of the house, and those Having ascended the mountains of who pass early in the morning, see the the Koords, we were in great hopes man and his wife in bed together, close our travellers would have penetrated beside him, and sometimes rising out into the country of the Chaldeans, and of it to go to their daily occupation. given some detailed account of those “ Nutwithstanding, however," says our primitive Christians. We recollect a author, “this freedom and apparent notice of these interesting people was shamelessness, no women can conduct published in an early number of our themselves with more real propriety « Christian Examiner,” about 15 years than the Koordish ladies, and their ago, contained in a letter from a cor. morality far exceeds that of the Turkish respondent at Constantinople.

It exfemales." Mr. Rich concludes his cited much curiosity and remark at the visit to Koordistan, with this estimate time—as the existence of such a Chrisof a people we have always considered tian nation in the centre of Asiatic as a horde of robbers and murderers : mountains was scarcely known. Since “I left Koordistan with unfeigned travellers skirted the confines of Chal

that time Kinnaird, Frazer, and other regret. I most unexpectedly found in dea, and gave some scattered notices of it the best people that I have ever met

the inhabitants en passant. We expected with in the east. I have formed friendships, and been uniformly treated with that Mr. Rich would have connected a degree of sincerity, kindness, and un

the detached sketches, and filled his

up bounded hospitality, which I fear I must

account by a perfect picture of the not again look for in the course of my place and people, from actual residence weary pilgrimage, and the remembrance among them at their capital. But he will last as long as life endures."

has not done so, and we confess we

are disappointed that he seems to take This character of the people is very but little interest in the subject. He well for Mr. Rich, and no doubt justi- does, indeed, notice the people, passes fied by what he had experienced ; but through some of their towns, and visits it must be recollected he travelled in

one of their convents ; but it is only the country with a large escort, pro- that portion of them who have been tected under the sacreil sanction of converted by missionaries from the being in some measure an ambassador, college de propaganda fide at Rome, and strongly recommended to the care and they are no more than Roinan of the authorities. Those who pass Catholics scattered through the skirts through it without those advantages, of the mountains. The primitive Nesmeet a very different reception. It is a torian race, who refuse all submission kind of boundary between Turkey and to the papal sce, and renounce all conPersia, and the people are at present nection with its doctrines or discipline in that state of society, in which the whose capital is Jolemark, in a mounborderers on the marches of England tain ravine, and whose country is deand Scotland lived in former times. fended by a natural battlement of They are all freebooters, and live by rocks---who wear felt hats like Europlunder as their trade. All the tra

peans, and have a patriarch of their yellers who make this their way from own creed-have not yet been exConstantinople to India, know this by plored, or, as far as we know, visited experience. They always calculate on by any intelligent traveller.

What the loss of property, or hazard of life Mr. Rich has seen, however, must not in this wild region, and their Surrogees, be omitied. or Tartar janissaries, as we happen to He risited the town of Teliskof, or


Bishops Mount, entirely inbabited by and greatly increased the gloominess of Chaldean Christians, about 20 miles its aspect and its apparent height. We north of Mousul :

seemed to be retreating from the world,

and entering on some wild and untried « The crowds assembled to see us were state of existence, when we found ourprodigious, and the village seemed to

selves in the rocky strait by which it was pour forth twice as many people as I approached. The situation seemed well thought it would have contained. They chosen for, devotion ; but devotion of a were all Chaldean Catholics, I have

savage and gloomy character. The hill never been so much stared at in a Mo- gradually rose very soon after the slope hammedan town. The Christians seemed had terminated. An immense torrent, to take a pride in me, and to look at the

now dry, had brought down prodigious Turks with me, and before whom they fragments of rock. Keeping along its had been used to cower, as if they might edge we reached, at eleven o'clock, the now defy them. This made me have entrance into the defile, along a rocky some patience with them, though their and rough road. This defile expands and crowding and staring was rather incom- scoops out the mountain into a kind of modious. We were met at a mile from wild amphitheatre, in which, not halfthe village, by the Kiahya ; and an old way up, the convent is situated. It is woman wanted to burn incense before me, only the latter part of the road that was but my horse would admit of no such very steep. The red building we had seen familiarity. We lodged, of course, in the from afar was part of a church, or rather best house, close by the old mount which churches, there being several together. gives a name to the village. It would be All the amphitheatre, from the top to the a tolerable place but for the extreme dirti- bottom, is full of little caves and grottos ness, which, with the smell of liquor, is, those near the church, and extending up I am sorry to say, the characteristic of a the rock far above it, being appropriated Christian village in this country.” to the use of the monks, of whom there Mr. Rich had seen no Christians but

are fifty, only four or five of whom are Roman Catholics; and we are sorry


Each monk has a separate cell, say the character is universal. He need and the communications between them

are by little terraces. The rocks are not have travelled farther than Ireland to

craggy and broken, and of fine harmoni. see dirt and drunkenness—the prevail. ing characteristic of every village in the church is built. It is now under

ous tints, being of freestone, of which Munster and Connaught. The primi- going a thorough repair, in a very neat tive Nestorians, who, by other ac

manner. It stands on a platform, elecounts, are a different people in their

vated from the precipice; but very little habits, had all retired to the moun- of the ancient fabric remains. tains, or been absorbed among the


“ We arrived at half-past eleven. converts. « For more than 25 years

were accommodated in rather an airy there had been no Nestorians nearer lodging, in a kind of sacristy or chapel than Amadia, or rather beyond Ama- adjoining the church. Our people esdia."

tablished themselves as well as they could Near the town of Alkosh, at

in the surrounding caves, and the greater distance from Mousul, he horses we sent back to the village. visited a very singular monastery: « In the afternoon I went to vespers.

“ The town of Alkosh, entirely in- The congregation of rather dark-Jooking habited by Chaldean Christians, was just monks, together with the gloominess and before us a little way up the foot of the simplicity of the church, which is merely mountain, and on the right of it, about a a narrow, arched or vaulted room, with mile higher up, in a rocky defile or open- no light but what is admitted from a ing in the mountain, was the Chaldean small dome, might well remind one of convent of Rabban Hormuzd, whither the solitude of St. Saba. Indeed the we were journeying, and which from this monks were not less Thebaid in their spot had a very imposing appearance. appearance, being dusky looking men, Nothing was clearly distinguishable but clothed in the coarsest manner,

like a heavy square building, of a dusky red peasants, but more sombre in their colour, hanging quite over a precipice, colours—their gown being of a dark blue like some Lama pagoda. The dark or black canvas, with the cominon abba clouds rolled over the summit of the or Arab cloak of brown woollen over it. mountain, almost down to the convent, On their heads they wear a small skull


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cap of brown felt, with a black handker. lection was so damaged, they were carechief tied round it. The priests are lessly torn up or thrown about. Some rather better clothed, in black dresses, scattered leaves were produced, which with black turbans on their heads. The appeared evidently of the highest anmonks are of all trades, weavers, tailors, tiquity. Mr. Rich justly remarks that smiths, carpenters, and masons ; so that manuscripts are fast perishing in the the wants of the convent are entirely East, and it is the duty of every trasupplied by the convent itself. Their veller to rescue as many as he can wants are, indeed, very few—the order from destruction. Of this he has set being that of St. Anthony, and very a laudable example in his own person. rigorous in its observances. The monks He procured several Chaldean MSS. never eat meat, except at Christmas and in his present tour, and it appears that Easter. Sometimes, indeed, if any of he sent 800 in different languages to their friends bring them a little as a pre- the British Museum, collected in the sent, they are not forbidden to eat it; East, of which 3 are in Greek ; 59 in but no meat is provided for the convent. Their daily food is some boiled wheat Syriac ; 8 in Carshunia ; 389 in Araand bread, and even this in small quan- 2 in Armenian ; and 1 in Hebrew. One

bic ; 231 in Persian; 108 in Turkish ; tities. Wine and spirits are altogether prohibited, and none but the treasurer is of them is the New Testament in allowed to touch money."

Syriac, written in 768 of our era, and

so the most ancient copy now extant. The Editor adds :-*

It is to be deplored that our author “ The monks live separately in their

did not apply himself as assiduously cells, when not employed in their work, to acquire other qualifications necesand are forbidden to talk to one another. sary for a tourist, as well as the imA bell summons them to church several portant one of languages. He regrets, times a day, besides which they meet at as we have occasion to do, that he church at midnight for prayers; again at knows little of botany, in countries daybreak and sunset, when they retire to of such various aspects, and aboundtheir cells without fire or candle. Some of ing in such vegetable riches, which these cells are far from the others, in very have never been explored. What lonely situations, high up the mountains additions might he not have made to in steep places, and look difficult to get those of Hasselquest, Forskal, Shaw, and at by day; but how much more so in others, who have their botanical knowdark and stormy nights! They are sur- ledge so applied as to be subservient to rounded by wild plundering tribes of biblical and other illustrations! What Koords, who might come down and mur. acquisitions might not geology obtain, der them in their different retreats, with- in that spine of the earth, the central out their cries for help being heard ; but ridges of Asia, which no intelligent their poverty preserves them from such traveller has explored, since Noah attacks."

anchored his ark on the top of one of The quantity of those caves or little them. Even his knowledge of languages grottos scattered over all the hollow

seems confined to oriental literature. of the mountain, is surprising. An We naturally expected classical illusearthquake filled up a great number of trations of Xenophon, &c. but have them, and many are obliterated by the been obliged to offer a scanty supply crumbling of the rock washed down by ourselves. Notwithstanding these dethe mountain rains. Many may have ficiences, which we remark with great been natural, but many more, are evi- diffidence, and a few others of style dently artificial. Some resembled de- and arrangement, which we pass over, positories for dead bodies ; and Mr. we are disposed to say that this posRich conjectures it might have been thumous work is one of the most imoriginally a dakhmeh or burying-place portant and interesting that has been for the ancient Persians. About 500 published of this often visited but little volumes of old MSS. on vellum, known portion of Asia. We should appear to have been formerly kept at add that the work is illustrated by this convent, but they were thrown maps and plates, with copious apinto an old vault, at the side of the pendices, one of which contains a lively hill, a part of which was carried away by sketch, by Mrs. Rich, of the particulars a mountain torrent, and the whole cols of this tour.


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