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duced the desired effect, and our brave indignation is to be felt at the perfidy of tars returned to their duty. Parker, France, the cupidity of Austria, the weakthe ring leader, was seized, and after a ness of the Venetian aristocracy, or the solemn trial, condemned to death ; insanity of the Venetian people. “which he underwent with great firin

« For the conduct of Napoleon no posness, acknowledging the justice of his sible apology can be found. He first ex. sentence, and hoping only that mercy cited the revolutionary spirit to such a dewould be extended to his associates" gree in all the Italian possessions of the Others were also executed ; but many republic, at the very time that they were who remained still under sentence, fed and clothed by the bounty of its gowere, after the glorious victory of Cam. vernment, that disturbances became unaperdown, pardoned by royal proclama. voidable, and then aided the rebels, and

made the efforts of the government to tion.

Thus was England delivered from crush the insurrection the pretext for dethe most formidable danger that ever

He then

claring war against the state. beset her since she was a nation ; and excited to the uttermost the democratic delivered by the wisdom and firmness spirit in the capital, took advantage of it of that aristocratic government, which

to paralyze the defences and overturn the

government of the country; established has recently, under Lord Grey's admi

a new constitution on a highly popular nistration, been razed to its foundations, · basis, and signed a treaty on the 16th or rather, indeed the foundations of May at Milan, by which, on payment of which have been utterly overthrown. a heavy ransom, he agreed to maintain How we might act in similar circum- the independence of Venice under its new stances, if such an exigency should and revolutionary government. Having again arise, it is not for us to antici- thus committed all his supporters in the pate ; and let us hope that such an evil state irrevocably in the cause of freedom, may be long averted.

and got possession of the capital, as that While we continued victorious at of an allied and friendly power, he plunsea, France was indefatigable in pursu- dered it of every thing valuable it posing her plans of territorial aggrandise- sessed ; and then he united with Austria ment and continental aggression. In in partitioning the republic; took posthe campaign of 1797, Buonaparte and session of one half of its territories for the Archduke Charles measured swords, France and the Cisalpine republic; and and the results were in the highest de- banded over the other half, with the cagree favourable to Gallic enterprise and

pital, and its burning democrats, to the ambition. But the losses which Aus- most aristocratic government in Europe." tria sustained were even less than the Never did Napoleon appear so comdisgrace which she incurred by being pletely an impersonation of the evil a consenting party to the infamous principle. He first tempted, then hetreaty for the partition of Venice.- trayed, and afterwards punished his "The page of history,” observes our victims ; nor can we omit the beautiful author,“ stained as it is with acts of and instructive observations of Mr. oppression and violence, has nothing Alison, on this part of his conductmore iniquitous to present. It is darker in atrocity than the partition of Poland,

“ These transactions throw as imporand has only excited less indignation

tant a light upon the moral as the intellecin subsequent years, because it was at

tual character of Napoleon. To find a tended with no heroism or dignity in

parallel to the dissimulation and rapacity the vanquished.”

by which his conduct to Venice was chaIt may also be

racterised, we must search the annals of added, that much of the commiseration with which the people of that interest. tions to the north of the Alps, abounding

Italian treachery; the history of the naing country would, otherwise, in such

as it does in deeds of atrocity, is stained circumstances, have been regarded, was by no similar act of combined duplicity denied them, because of their profligate and violence. This opens a new and readiness to side with the anarchists of hitherto unobserved feature in his chaFrance, and to become the propagan- racter, which is in the highest degree imdists of that revolutionary mania portant. The French Republican writers which was desolating Europe.

uniformly represent his Italian campaigns “ In contemplating this memorable as the most pure and glorious period of event, it is difficult to say whether most his history, and pourtray his character, at first almost perfect, as gradually deterio- Ireland. These we pass over, as being rated by the ambition and passions con- in substance for the most part familiar sequent on the attainment of supreme to our readers. power.

This was in some respects The last chapter of this volume, with true; but in others the reverse; his which we must, for the present conmoral character never again appears so clude, is very instructive. It exhibits base as during his earlier years ; and, con. the rapid strides of Napoleon to sutrary to the usual case, it was in some

preme power, and shews the inevitable particulars improved by the possession of tendency of all democratic movements, regal power, and to the last moment of by disgusting the rational, and dehis life was progressively throwing off bauching the irrational portion of the it was at first stained. Extraordinary as

community, to prepare the way for the this may appear, abundant evidence of it whose iron sway may be felt å relief

tyranny

of

some eminent military chief, will be found in the sequel of this work. It was the same with Augustus, whose from the harassing oppressions, or the early life, disgraced by the proscriptions or less capable rulers. The fervour of

inefficient control of more unprincipled and horrors of the triumverate, was almost overlooked in the wisdom and be. Jacobinism seemed to have expired with neficence of his imperial rule. Nor is it institutions which they had reduced to difficult to perceive in what principle of ruins ; and the most vehement demoour nature the foundation is laid for so

crats now found it difficult to enkindle singular an inversion of the causes which anew that sanguinary zeal, upon the usually debase the human mind. It is continuance of which their ascendancy the terrible effect of revolution, as Mad. chiefly depended. The new election de Staël has well observed, to obliterate of a third of the lrgislature evinced the altogether the ideas of right and wrong; change which had taken place in the and instead of the eternal distinctions of public mind ; and the opposition which morality and religion, to apply no other the directory began to experience contest in general estimation to public actions vinced many that the time had come but success. It was out of this corrupted when an effort on behalf of the exiled atmosphere that the mind of Napoleon, family might be attended with advanlike that of Augustus, at first arose, and tage. it was then tainted by the revolutionary The struggle for power continued proflicacy of the times; but with the pos- with various success, until the return of session of supreme power he was called Buonaparte from Egypt. He, immeto nobler employments, relieved from the diately became the centre of attraction, necessity of committing iniquity for the to which the disaffected of all parties sake of advancement, and brought in con- resorted, and not only republicans, but tact with men professing and acting on more elevated principles; and in the disa royalists solicited his countenance for charge of such duties, he cast off

the promotion of their very different many

of the stains of his early career. Thisob

objects. Never did that extraordinary servation is no impeachment of the cha

man act with more profound dissimula.

tion. He listened to every one, while racter of Napoleon ; on the contrary, it is its best vindication. His virtues and ta

he committed himself to no one, and lents were his own ; his vices, in part at

turned the hopes and the fears of least, the fatal bequest of the revolution." friends and foes alike to his own ad

vantage. The directory feared, the The revolution of the 18th Fructi- people respected, the army adored him. dor may be considered the natural re- His recent exploits, both in Italy and sult of the struggle, which took place Egypt, were the theme of every tongue, between the feeble good, and the dar- and the increasing disorders and the ing and desperate bad men of the re- perilous insecurity of France, convinced volution. It was the true commence, the most moderate men that his invesment of the reign of despotism in ture with supreme power would be France, which eventuated in the do- the least of the many evils which might mination of an imperial ruler.

be apprehended. The two next chapters are occupied Most of the military leaders had been with an account of the expedition to gained to favour the proposal by which Egypt, the revolution and subjugation the consular government was to be of Switzerland, and the rebellion in established. This, however, was not effected without a struggle with the with our account of the important work council of five hundred, for which Na- from which we have made such large poleon was scarcely prepared, and an citations, as we can assure them that application of military force which he its interest will be found, upon perusal, would rather have avoided. But the to exceed any idea that could be formed bayonets prevailed; and the object of of it, from any detached passages which his ambition was attained after he had could, in a notice like this, be presented felt himself more than once upon the to their view. As it is the most exverge of ruin. The feelings of the tended, so it is by far the ablest and people during this critical contest, are the most philosophical history which thus described

we possess of the French revolution. “ During these two eventful days, the The military details are given with people of Paris

, though deeply interested singular accuracy and power, and the in the issue of the struggle, and trembling various characters, who figured during with anxiety lest the horrors of the Re- those eventful times, are described with volution should be renewed, remained a rigid impartiality and a force of perfectly tranquil. In the evening of the truth that are at once a test of this 19th, reports of the failure of the enter- able writer's integrity and discriminaprise were generally spread, and diffused tion. ihe most mortal disquietude; for all We do not know any service which ranks, worn out with the agitation and the conservative leaders could, at presufferings of past convulsions, passionately sent, perform for their country, greater longed for repose, and it was generally than that which might facilitate the cirfelt that it could be obtained only under culation of these admirable volumes the shadow of military authority. But amongst all classes of the people ; and at length the result was communicated by if we may flatter ourselves with being the fugitive members of the Five Hun- in any degree instrumental thereto, our dred, who arrived from St. Cloud, loudly labours in the good cause will be amply exclaiming against the military violence requited. As ignorance, or what is of which they had been the victims; and

worse than ignorance, imperfect knowat nine at night the intelligence was offi- ledge, has been the source, so complete cially announced by a proclamation of knowledge must be the cure of our Napoleon, which was read by torchlight evils ; and convinced are we that that to the agitated groups."

can never be presented in so engaging But our space admonishes us that we or so efficacious a form as that of must conclude. Most earnestly do we the “philosophy which teaches by entreat our readers not to be satisfied example."

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE.

No. XLV.

SEPTEMBER, 1836.

Vol. VIII.

CONTENTS.

Page 247

GALLERY OF ILLUSTRIOUS IRISHMEN.-No. VI.-STERNE.

CHAPTERS OF COLLEGE ROMANCE.-BY EDWARD S. O'BRIEN, Esq. A.M.

CHAP. V.-THE BRIBED SCHOLAR-PART I.

264

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315

THE ATTRACTIONS OF IRELAND-No. II.--SCENERY AND SOCIETY
JANE SINCLAIR, OR THE FAWN OF SPRINGVALE-BY THE AUTHOR OF

“ TRAITS AND STORIES OF THE IRISU PEASANTRY"

331

GOETHE AND HIS CONTEMPORARIES

330

LETTERS FROM AN IRISH PROTESTANT ON THE STATE OF AFFAIRS

IN IRELAND. LETTER 1.-TO THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND-IN WHICH THE
IRISH PROTESTANT EXPLAINS HOW HE CAME TO WRITE-AND TELLS, BY WAY OF
INTRODUCTION, SOME PLAIN TRUTHS

367

DUBLIN

WILLIAM CURRY, JUN. AND COMPANY.

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO., LONDON.

SOLD BY ALL BOOKSELLERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.

GALLERY OF ILLUSTRIOUS IRISHMEN,

For reasons, which it is unnecessary to particularize, we think it right to state that the paper on Goldsmith, with which this Series commenced, was written by the gentleman who afterwards enriched the Gallery with the admirable biography of Bishop Berkeley.

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