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garrison was commanded, and he set nearly at that amount, had not only out himself to Florence, to conduct the broken through the barrier of the Alps, expedition against Rome, leaving to subdued Piedmont, conquered Lombardy, his General Serrurier the honour of humbled the whole Italian states, but seeing the Marshal with his staff defile defeated, and almost destroyed, four. before him.
powerful armies which Austria raised to Wurmser appreciated this, and defend her possessions, and wrenched the shortly after had an opportunity of re- keys of Mantua from her grasp, under quiting the delicate generosity of his the eyes of the greatest array of armed
men she had ever sent into the field. conqueror, by giving him timely information of a conspiracy against his life,
Successes so immense, gained against which was the means of causing it to forces so vast, and efforts so indefatigable, be defeated.
may almost be pronounced unparalleled
in the annals of war." The remaining objects of the campaign were soon accomplished. The In this campaign it was that Buona. Pope was easily intimidated into sul)- parte first introduced that new system mission, and the most humiliating terms of tactics which he afterwards brought were imposed upon him. He was com- to such perfection, and by the skilful pelled to close his ports against the application of which he achieved his Allies, to cede Avignon and the Venaisin most brilliant victories. This consisted to France, to abandon Bologna, Fer- chiefly in accumulating forces in a rara, and the whole of the Romagna, central situation, striking with the to their allies in the Milanese, to admit whole mass the detached wings of the a garrison of French troops into An- enemy, separating them from each cona, till the conclusion of a general other, and thus compensating by rapeace, and to pay a contribution of pidity of movement for inferiority of 30,000,000 of franks to the victorious numbers. For the success of such a republic.
system, Mr. Alison well observes, that “ Besides this, he was obliged to sur
it is indispensable that the troops who render a hundred of his principal works undertake it should be superior in of art to the French Commissioners; the bodily activity and moral courage to trophies of ancient and modern genius in chief should feel such confidence in
their adversaries ; and that the general were seized on with merciless rapacity; and in a short time the Apollo Belvidere, his men, as that he may leave a slender the Laocoon, the transfiguration of force to cope with the enemy in one Raphael, and the St. Jerome of Domi- quarter, while he is accumulating nichino, were placed on the banks of the masses to overwhelm them in another. Seine."
But the composition of the French
army was at that time such as might Such was the campaign of 1796, in well inspire a less sanguine temperawhich Buonaparte first acquired his ment than Napoleon's with a persuasion European reputation, and which may that it could not casily be overcome. well be pronounced unparalleled for the extent, the rapidity, and the brilli
« The world had never seen an array ancy of its achievements, in the pre- framed of such materials. The terrible vious history of the world.
whirlwind which had overthrown the
fabric of society in France, the patriotic Certainly on no former occasion had spirit which had brought its whole popusuccesses so great been achieved in solation into the field, the grinding misery short a time, or powers so vast been which had forced all its activity into war, vanquished by forces so inconsiderable. had formed a union of intelligence, skill, From maintaining a painful contest on the and ability, among the private soldiers, mountain ridges of their own frontier, from such as had never before been witnessed defending the Var and the maritime Alps, in modern warfare. The middling-even the Republicans found themselves trans- the higher ranks -- were to be seen with ported to the Tyrol and the Tagliamento, a musket on their shoulders; the great threatening the hereditary states of Aus- leries of 1793 had spared neither high tria, and subduing the whole southern nor low; the career of glory and ambition powers of Italy. An army which never could be entered only through the humble mustered 50,000 men in the field, though portals of the bivouac. Hence it was maintained by successive reinforcements that the spirit which animated them was 80 forvent, and their intelligence so re- glance the importance of securing the markable, that the humblest grenadiers harrier fortresses as a base for his anticipated all the designs of their com- operations ; and, accordingly, he made manders, and knew of themselves, in it' his first object, setting at nought the every situation of danger and difficulty, instructions which he received from what should be done. When Napoleon home, to seize upon Coni, Alexandria, spoke to them, in his proclamations, of and Tortona. Had he not obtained Brutus, Scipio, and Tarquin, he was ad- possession of these Piedmontese citadressing men whose hearts thrilled at dels, he would not, Mr. Alison obthe recollections which these awaken ; and when he led them into serves, have been able to push his adaction after a night-march of ten leagues, bastions of Mantua, he might have
vantages beyond the Po; - but for the he commanded those who felt as thoroughly as himself the inestimable im- carried them, as in the succeeding portance of time in war. With truth campaign, to the Danube.” But, whatmight Napoleon say that his soldiers had
ever may have been the deficiencies of surpassed the far-famed celerity of Cæsar's the Austrian generals, or the errors of legions."
the Aulic council, it cannot be denied
that the Austrian government and It cannot be doubted that the ope- people evinced a heroic and unconrations of the Austrian generals were querable tenacity in the prosecution of greatly clogged by the Aulic council, this disastrous contest. which exercised an influence over them in the field, which Napoleon refused to out admiration, the vast armies which
"It is impossible to contemplate, withyield to the directory under whom he they successively sent into the field, and held his command, and which, had he the unconquerable courage with which yielded, might have rendered the cam- they returned to a contest where so paign as disastrous to the French army many thousands of their countrymen had as it was glorious. But the Austrian perished before them. Had they been commanders knew that the views of guided by greater, or opposed by less their cabinet were pacific, and they ability, they unquestionably would have were, on that account, the more liable been successful; and even against the to be deceived by the stratagems of soldiers of the Italian army, and the Napoleon, who always endeavoured to genius of Napoleon, the scales of fortune lure them with the hope of peace when repeatedly hung equal. A nation, capable he was on the point of striking some of such sacrifices, can hardly ever be perdecisive blow, by which advantages manently subdued ; a government, actuwere to be gained, such as must throw ated by such steady principles, must ultiall hopes of a favourable termination mately be triumphant. Such, accordof hostilities at a farther distance. ingly, has been the case in the present They seemed determined to make instance : aristocratic firmness in the end their diplomacy the regulator of their asserted its wonted superiority over demilitary success, while he was resolved mocratic vigour; the dreams of Republic to make his military success the foun
can equality have been forgotten, but the dation of his diplomacy. Under Austrian government remains unchanged; ordinary circumstances, their steadi. the French eagles have retired over the ness and skill might have propped the Alps; and Italy, the theatre of so much fortunes, and sustained the reputation bloodshed, has finally remained to the of the monarchy. But a crisis had successors of the Cæsars." arrived when new elements of strife While Buonaparte was thus splenwere introduced into European warfare, didly triumphant in Italy, his contemand when, if the revolutionary fervour porary, Moreau, was unsuccessful in by which the French armies were ani- Germany, but signalized his military mated was not encountered by an anti- reputation by retreats, in the presence revolutionary spirit, with which, at of the Archduke Charles, which might that period, the old governments were be deemed equivalent to victories: not as yet sufficiently imbued, it must The details, which are too lengthened eventually prove successful. When to for our pages, will well repay the this is added the genius of Napoleon, reader. we must cease to wonder at the prodi- At home, the directory were still gies that were achieved. He saw at a embarrassed by the lingering contest in
La Vendee ; but it was soon subdued entered into the latter town, preceded by by the vigour and the ability of Hoche, a numerous escort, closely guarded by and the hopes of the insurgents finally gens-d'armes and generals glittering in crushed by the unhappy fate of the gold and plumes; himself on foot, with gallant Charette, the last of the royalist his clothes torn and bloody, pale and exleaders. So anxious was the directory tenuated; yet more an object of interest to get quit of so formidable an enemy, than all the splendid throng by whom he that they offered him “a safe retreat
was surrounded. Such was his exhaus. into England with his family, and such tion from loss of blood, that he fainted on
but no of his followers as he might select, and leaving the Quarter of Commerce ; a million of franks for his own main sooner was bis strength revived by a glass
of water, than he marched on, enduring tenance."
for two hours, with heroic constancy, the “ Charette replied—I am ready to die abuse and imprecations of the populace. with arms in my hands; but not to fly He was immediately conducted to the miand abandon my companions in misfortune. litary commission. His examination lasted All the vessels of the republic would not
two hours; but his answers were all clear, be suficient to transport my brave soldiers consistent and dignified; openly avowing into England. Far from fearing your bis Royalist principles, and resolution to menaces, I will myself come to seek you maintain them to the last. Upon hearing in your own camp. The royalist officers, the sentence of death, he calmly asked who perceived that farther resistance had for the succours of religion, which were become hopeless, urged him to retire to granted him, and slept peaceably the night Britain, and await a more favourable op- before his execution. portunity of renewing the contest at the
« On the following morning, he was head of the princes and nobility of France. brought out to the scaffold. The rolling • Gentlemen,' said he, with a severe air, of drums, the assembly of all the troops · I am not here to judge of the orders and national guard, a countless multitude which my sovereign has given me: I know of spectators announced the great event them; they are the same which I myself which was approaching. At length the have solicited. Preserve towards them hero appeared, descended with a firm step the same fidelity which I shall do; nothing the stairs of the prison, and walked to shall shake me in the discharge of my the Place des Agriculteurs, where the duty.'
execution was to take place. A breathless • This indomitable chief, however, silence prevailed. Charette advanced to could not long withstand the immense the appointed place, bared his breast, took bodies which were now directed against his yet bloody arm out of the scarf, and him. His band was gradually reduced without permitting his eyes to be banfrom 700 to 50, and at last, ten followers. daged, himself gave the command, utterWith this handful of heroes he long kept ing, with his last breath, the words— at bay the republican forces; but at length,
« Vive le Roi!” pursued on every side, and tracked out like a wild beast by blood-hounds, he was While France was engaged in a seized, after a furious combat, and con
death struggle with Germany, Prussia ducted, bleeding and mutilated, but un
was intently occupied upon those obsubdued, to the Republican headquarters. jects of territorial aggrandizement
« General Travot, with the considera- which she never lost sight of, and extion due to illustrious misfortune, treated hibited an eager selfishness in availing him with respect and kindness, but could herself of every facility which was prenot avert his fate. He was conducted to Angers, where he was far from experienc sented for securing to herself some ading from others the generous treatment vantages from the war, which was of this brave Republican general. Mal- strikingly contrasted with the self retreated by the brutal soldiery, conducted nouncing generosity which was evialong, yet dripping with blood from his denced by Great Britain during every wounds, before the populace of the town, period of the contest. The French weakened by loss of blood, he had need of minister at Berlin found it easy to in. all his fortitude of mind to sustain his duce that mercenary and unprincipled courage ; but, even in this extremity, his cabinet to enter into a secret treaty, firmness never deserted him. On the by which they recognised the exten27th March he was removed from the sion of France to the Rbine, and the prison of Angers to that of Nantes. He principle that the dispossessed German
princes were to be provided for at the nearly twenty years the catastrophe which expense of the empire. An infamous closed the war. convention which divided between “ Few sovereigns will occupy a more France and Prussia the guilt of the conspicuous place in the page of history, robber, and the mean conniver at
or have left in their conduct on the throne robbery ; with this difference, indeed, a more exalted reputation. Prudent in that the one was only supporting con
council, and intrepid in conduct; cautious sistently the character which she as
in forming resolutions, but vigorous in sumed, the other was compromising carrying them into execution ; ambitious, the character
, and deserting the station but of great and splendid objects only; which she was called upon to maintain passionately fond of glory, yet without a amongst the states of Europe.
tincture of selfish or unworthy inclination;
discerning in the choice of her counsellors, “ • Such was the secret convention,' and swayed only in matters of state by says Hardenbergh, which in a manner lofty intellects ; munificent in public, liput the cabinet of Berlin at the mercy of beral in private, firm in resolution, she France in the affairs of Germany.'' It dignified a despotic throne by the magmay be added, such was the commence- nanimity and patriotism of a ment of that atrocious system of indem- virtuous age. In the lustre of her adminilying the greater powers at the expense nistration, the career of her victories, and of the lesser, and providing for the rapa- the rapid progress of her subjects under city of temporal powers by the sacrifice so alle a government, mankind forgot of the Church, which soon after not only her dissolute manners, the occasional eleshook to its foundation the constitution vation of unworthy favorites, frequent of the Germanic empire, but totally over- acts of tyranny, and the dark transaction turned the whole balance of power and which signalized her accession to the system of public rights in Europe.” throne; they orerlooked the frailties of
the woman in the dignity of the princess ; The close of the year 1796 was and paid to the abilities and splendour of signalized by the death of Catherine. the Semeramis of the north that involunHer character is here given, with tary homage which commanding qualities graphical fidelity, by our historian. on the throne never fail to acquire, even • The close of this year was marked by life.”
when stained by irregularities in private the death of the Empress Catherine, and the accession of the Emperor Paul to the The commencement of 1797 was Russian throne; an event of no small marked in England by a degree of importance to the future fate of the war,
embarrassment and gloom, such as had and destiny of the world. Shortly before not, since the commencement of the her death, she had by art and flattery war, perplexed or darkened her councontrived to add Courland to her immense cils. The extraordinary loans to the dominions : she had recently made herself imperial government had caused a mistress of Derbent in Persia ; and the drain of the specie of the country, such alliance with Great Britain and Austria secured to her the concurrence of these
as materially obstructed its financial powers in her favorite project of dismem- operations, and caused such a run bering the Turkish dominions, and placing upon the bank, as produced an order
in council suspending all payments in her youngest son on the throne of Constantine. She thus seemed to be fast cash, until the sense of parliament approaching the grand object of her am
could be taken upon the best means of bition, and might have lived to see the restoring public credit. Of this the cross planted on the domes of St. Sophia, malcontents did not fail to take full when death interrupted all her schemes of advantage ; and nothing was left unambition, in the sixty-seventh year of her said which could stir up a spirit of reage, and the thirty-sixth of her reign. volt against the government, or increase Her latest project was the formation of a the alarm and the discontent of the powerful confederacy for the defence of people. Happily without effect. The Europe against the French Republic ; and sound good sense and loyal feeling of she had given orders for the levy of England was then undebauched, and 150,000 men, destined to take a part in Lord (then Mr.) Grey, found the prothe German campaigns; a design which, ject of reform, which more than thirty if carried into effect by her firm and in- years afterwards he was cnabled to actrepid hand, might have accelerated by complish, treated with the derision which
it deserved by all the better informed Applying these principles to the classes of the people. Upon this sub- question of parliamentary reform, as it ject, Mr. Alison makes some very just was then agitated, there seems no doubt observations, which partake so little of that the changes which were so loudly the spirit of the partizan, and so much demanded could not have redressed any of that of the philosophic historian, considerable real grievance, or removed that we feel persuaded they must make any prolific sonrce of discontent; because a deep impression upon a large and an they could not have diminished in any influential class of his readers.
great degree the public burdens without • In deciding on the difficult question stopping the war, and experience has of parliamentary reform, which has so proved in every age, that the most demolong divided, and still divides so many cratic states, so far from being pacific, able men in the country, one important
the most ambitious of military consideration, to be always kept in mind, renown.
From a greater infusion of is the double effect which any change in popular power into the legislature, the constitution of government must nothing but fiercer wars and additional always produce, and the opposite conse
expenses could have been anticipated. quences with which, according to the The concession, if granted, therefore, temper of the times
, it is likely to be would neither have been to impatience of followed. In so far as it remedies any suffering, nor to the necessities of freeexperienced grievance, or supplies à dom, but to the desire of power in cirpractical defect, or concedes powers to cumstances where it was not called for; the people essential to the preservation of and such a concession is only throwing freedom, it necessarily does good; in so
fuel on the flame. And the event has far as it excites democratic ambition, proved the truth of these principles; confers inordinate power, and awakens reform was refused by the Commons in or fosters passions inconsistent with 1797, and so far from being either public tranquillity, it necessarily does enslaved or thrown into confusion, the mischief, and may lead to the dissolution nation became daily freer and more of society. The expedience of making united, and soon entered on a splendid any considerable change, therefore, and unrivalled career of glory; it was depends on the proportions in which conceded by the Commons, in a period of these opposite ingredients are mingled in comparative tranquillity, 1831, and a the proposed measure, and on the temper century will not develope the ultimate of the people among whom it is to take effects of the change, which, hitherto at place. If the real grievance is great, least, has done anything rather than and the public disposition unruffled, save augment the securities of durable liberty. by its continuance, unalloyed good may
Still less was it called for as a safeguard be expected from its removal, and serious to real freedom, because, though it was peril from a denial of change; if the evil constantly refused for four-and-thirty is inconsiderable or imaginary, and the years afterwards, the power of the people people in a state of excitement from steadily increased during that period, and other causes, concession to their demands at length effected a great democratic will probably lead to nothing but in- alteration in the constitution." creased confusion, and more extravagant The naval armaments of France and expectations. Examples exist on both Spain were now united against Great sides of the rule; the gradual relaxation Britain, and by the mutiny at the of the fetters of feudal tyranny, and the Nore that great arm of our own force emancipation of the boroughs, led to the glories of European civilization ; while
was paralyzed, and there was even a the concessions of Charles I., extorted fear lest it should be transferred to the by the vehemence of the Long Parlia- enemy. But the parliament did itself ment, brought that unhappy monarch to immortal honour by the wisdom and the block; the submission of Louis to
the firmness of its proceedings on this all the demands of the States-General, important occasion, and the opposition did not avert his tragic fate ; and the joined with the government in passing granting of emancipation to the erce
a bill, in which it was declared death outcry of the Irish Catholics, instead of for any person to hold communication peace and tranquillity, brought only with the mutineers.
This vigour, acincreased agitation, and more vehement companied by a reasonable considerpassions to the peopled shores of the ation of the real grievances of which Emerald Isle.
the sailors had to complain, soon pro