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first drawn figure. Beginning at the Its valley is bounded by lofty and concapital, where the circunference of the tinued ranges of mountain, at a sufficircle touches the sea, and travelling cient distance to admit of the richest southward, we find the first vacant cultivation on its banks : its banks nod space between the limestone country with the ruins of castles and abbeys, or and the channel, occupied by a ridge of smile with splendid modern mansions granite and clay-slaie, interspersed and rich demesnes. But in this section with peaks of quartz, stretching south- we cannot linger over particular beauward through the counties of Wicklow ties; we must proceed with our sketch und Wexford, and terminating near of the general features of the district. the confluence of the Barrow and The Blackwater, the Lee, and the the Nore. Among the northern val- Bandon fowing eastward, parallel to, leys, on the seaward side of this and at equal distances from, each other, group, lie these picturesque spots divide the county of Cork into three which have made the scenery of the ridges, of which the northernmost is occounty Wicklow so celebrated—the cupied with the slate and sandstone range Dargle, Luggelaw, Glendaloch, and of the Boggra mountains, the middle is the Meeting of the Waters. The de- enriched with a tongue of limestone, scent on the opposite side is by no and the southernmost rises towards the means so varied : but Mount-Leinster sea in slaty elevations, that assume a and Blackstairs, which are a continu. character of increasing grandeur, as ation of the same chain, face inland, they verge westward, until, after formand overlook the southern part of the ing the harbours of Clovakilty, Balticounty of Carlow with considerable more, and Dunmanus, they rise to boldness. The highest elevation of their highest pitch in this county about this range is Lugnaquilla, at the head 2500 feet-to stoop from the clouds of Glenmalure, in Wicklow, 3070 feet into the blue depths of Bantry. Baniabove the level of the sea. The next try bay is unquestionably the finest mountain-group which claims the at- harbour, both in extent, depth, situation, tention, consists of clay-slate, support- safety, and scenery in the king's domi. ing sandstone, which have been tilled nions. Bearhaven, now spoken of 20 up along the southern border of the
a general packet station, is but an inlimestone plain, into ridges of great dentation at its entrance, and Glengariff, elevation, steepness, and grandeur. the grandest piece of sea-scenery in The group may be divided into three Ireland, is only a subordinate portion chains, all stretching cast and west. of its inner harbour. Of a somewhat As the detached conical hill of Bran- similar character with Bantry bay, of don terminates the granite group, so about the same extent, and nearly padoes the similarly situated mountain of rallel to it, are the more northern Slievenaman commence the sandstone estuaries of Kenmare and Dingle ; each continuation of the chain. Westward of the three stretching about five and from this, the Mounavoullagh or Com- twenty miles into the heart of the meragh, Gaultee, and Knockmildown country, and opening on the Atlantic. ranges successively extend their masses, in a direction pretty nearly south-west. in elevations of from 2000 to 3000 feet The promontory comprehended beacross the south of Tipperary and Li- tween Bantry and Kenmare is narrow, merick, till meeting the Lacfodery averaging little
than seven group, upon the northern border of English miles in breadth, and is totally Kerry, they are lost in the sea, upon occupied with mountain ; but between the southern shore of the Shannon. the estuary of Kenmare on the south, Under the southern side of this great and the bay of Dingle on the north, barrier, which southward to the sea lies a considerable extent of counis propped by huge masses of up- try, comprising the main , district of heaved slate, runs the Blackwater, from the county of Kerry, and here the west to east, and cuts off the rough shistous elevations which we have foltriangle of Cork and southern Kerry, lowed out of the county of Cork, of all the districts in Ireland the most expand themselves into their greatest rocky, mountainous, and romantic. area, and attain their loftiest altitude.
The Blackwater itself forms a noble Here is the highest ground in Ireland, basc line for such a stretch of country. and here are, perhaps, the lovelicst
lakes in the world. Midway, between froin any favourable station will the heads of Kenmare and Dingle bays, have wood, in forest, in grove, in bosomed in the landward or eastern de- copse, in shrubbery; hanging, spread. clivities of the great mountain group, ing, waving or matted_water he will which stretches back with little inter- have, in lake, in river, and in cascade ; ruption from this frontier line to the At- sleeping, running, or leaping—and lantic, lie two lakes. The smaller, deep mountain in every form, from the lawny set in the heart of the advanced ridges, elevations of a demesne, to masses of lies about six miles from the head of from one to three thousand four hundred Kenmare bay, from which it is sepa- feet ; wooded, naked, pasturable, rated by a mountain range 2500 feet barren; peaked, rounded, swelling, or in height, and discharges its waters precipitous, with cliffs and islands; through a tortuous defile of two and eyries and the habitation of men; music, a half miles into the greater. The and echoes; “ the light drip of the susgreater of the two lakes verging north- pended oar,” the lighter laugh of many ward, skirts the external step of the a happy creature floating about, as mountain barrier for some seven miles, through an atmosphere of enchantment, and then contracting its expanse to the limits of a river, discharges itself for the dark pinnace stirring the green sha. by a course of six miles into the Afloat on the water, seems floating in air ;) head of Dingle bay. There are the Lakes of Killarney; and if we have woods, and, while in the musical cla
or, perhaps the accustomed roar is in inade ourselves understood in our de
mour of hounds and horns O'Sullivan's scription of their situation so far, cascade is dumb, the stag bursting from there will be little difficulty in con
the thickets of Glenaa, hurls himself veying a correct idea of the charac. headlong into the startled waters; then teristics of each. The lesser, or upper tossing on high his wet antlers with a lake, confined on every side, save at its snort of defiance, strikes out like a strong narrow outlet, by precipitous and very swimmer for Denis or Brickeen-But lofty mountains, wears a lonely and it is time to sing somewhat stern, but grand, and many
Sweet Innisfallen, fare thee well. have thought even a sublime aspect ; the lower lake, lying on the sunny side of For many a misty mountain lies before one of the most picturesque steeps in us, and we have still to travel round the world, where a forest of oak, ar- more than one half the rim of our terbutus, yew, and holly of full six miles raqueous trencher. The Reeks, an enorin length, by a mile to a mile and-a-half mous ridge of slate and clayey rubble, in depth hangs to the water's edge from back both lakes in a chain of about the continuous sides of successive iin- ten miles, trending north and south ; a pending mountains, varied by projec- gigantic and sterile barrier between tions and recesses the most graceful, the rest of Ireland and the western and broken by the white lines of wilderness of Iveragh. Carran Tual, numerous cascades, exhibits, perhaps, so called from its falciform summit, is the rarest combination of grandeur and the loftiest, not only of the Reeks, but loveliness to be met with on any equal of all the mountains of Ireland : its extent of land and water in these altitude is given at 3394 feet above the islands ; for, while its western shore is mean level of the sea ; an elevation thus horrid with hanging woods, and very nearly the same with that of streaked with torrents, its eastern ex- Snowdon. Behind the Reeks lie panse not only skirts a rich, undulating, other scenes, which, if equally easy of and highly cultivated country, but is access might, perhaps, claim an equal itself broken by promontories and share of attention with some parts of islands the most fantastic in their forms, Killarney ; but they may console and the most luxuriant in their natural themselves among their mountain soli. verdure. Wood, water, and mountain tudes, with the certainty that they will are the main constituents of a land- not long remain in obscurity, for, whescape ;
and in proportion as we have ther the much agitated railway to Vathese in the greater variety, so will lentia be carried through the borders the scene rise in picturesque ex- of this country or not, the new gocellence. At Killarney, the spectator vernment roads, either projected or in
progress of completion, will, eré long, be considered the vertex of the triopen up the whole of central Kerry, angle, we will have Connamara-proper and let in the tide of expectant tour- on the south; Morisk, in the county of ists, down even to the walls of Darry, Mayo, occupying the upper and
The mountains on the north of greater portion of the northern half ; Dingle Bay are by no means unworthy and Joyce country between. In Conrivals of their southern neighbours : namara we are again in a granite counthe noble sheet of water between is, try, diversified with peaks of quartz, perhaps, not much inferior to Bantry starting up magnificently from lakes itself; and whether our American that want only the arbutus and holly friends are to form their first impres- of Killarney to rival even the ensions of our shores here, under the lee chantments of Muckruss. The Twelve of Valentia ; or at Bearhaven, abreast Pins occur near the vertex of the triof the ruins of Dunboy; or at Biter- angle. Bare, but glistening with the buy, in the shadow of the Twelve Pins aerial brilliancy peculiar to their forof Bennabola ; or at Black-Sod, off mation—their peaked summits rush the tremendous cliffs of Achill, we together in elevations of from two to may be satisfied that our reputation as
two thousand four hundred feet, a a country of scenic interest will suffer spiendid assemblage, to the clouds. But no diminution on the other side of the while their denuded peaks depend Atlantic. We have now exhausted mainly on their own quartoze formathe mountain groups occupying the tion for their effect in the landscape, southern angles of the island, and on the sides and bases of the Pins from crossing the Shannon, fall in once which the violence of Atlantic storins more with the great limestone field has not yet been sufficient to wash sweeping across the north of Clare, till away their vegetable covering, take it meets the sea at the Bay of Galway. tints still more brilliant and various North and west of Galway, the space from their innumerable varieties of between the receding central plain, and heaths and lichens. What the arthe sea begins again to be occupied butus is to Killarney, the heath is to with mountain masses. Between the Connamara, and in the absence of any Bay of Galway on the south, and Clew breadth or depth of foliage, the eye Bay on the north, lies a tract of coun- rests most gratefully on a substitute so try, very similar in many respects to pleasing : for its streaks of pale pink, the central district of Kerry, which we rich brown, or glowing purple, (and have just been describing. Like the what with its own varieties, and the baronies of Dunkerron and Iveragh, this varieties of the atmosphere through district is separated from the rest of which it is viewed, its effects are but Ireland by a double lake, backed by a inadequately expressed even by this barrier of mountain ; but the distance enumeration,) mixed with the tender between the heads of the bays is here green of mountain grasses, and occafull fifty miles; the lakes are of im- sionally alternating with the black mensely greater extent, but by no stripes of uplying bogs, give a commeans of equal beauty, and discharge bination of colours that, seen under their waters to the south ; and the coun- the clarifying influence of western try, stretching back from the frontier skies, is almost magical. Nor is all range of mountains, approaches more this brilliancy inconsistent with breadth. nearly to the form of a triangle, of Connamara-proper, although a mounwhich the double lake may be con- tainous, is not an upland country ; the sidered the base. These lakes are plain from which its greatest elevations Loch Mask and Loch Corrib—the rise, is little more on an average than mountain barrier is the range of Leam, 100 feet above the level of the Atlantic, Benlevagh, and Maam Trasna, and so that its masses lose not a tithe of the country back from this boundary their full altitude, but, lifting themselves to the sea, is that district generally to their full height at a stretch, look known as Connamara. Connamara over the plain with much greater maproper, however, does not occupy thc jesty than many other mountains higher whole of this space. If a line be drawn by a thousand feet. Lagnaquilla, for from Cong, which is about the centre instance, a thousand feet higher than of the base, to Sline-head, which may the average of the Pins, lost as it is on
its platform of surrounding masses, is, those who labour in a like predicaas compared with Lettery, a whale ment, and are yet anxions to make furning up his side in the run of a themselves as well acquainted with our heavy sea, to the same fish stranded. Irish fiord as the aids of art and science Lettery avd Derryelare stand foremost, can render any one at such a distance, an advanced guard, on the south; the we recommend a visit to the house of others are formed in solid square the Royal Dublin Society, where, unround Knockannahiggen-the captain der a table in the first apartment, on of the company, or rather, we should the right hand of the hall as you enter, say, the sergeant of the guard--for, in- there is to be found a model of the cluding himself, they are but twelve barony of Morisk, in the county of rank and file-strapping fellows, how- Mayo executed many years since by ever, you must allow; the grenadier Mr. Bald, whose splendid map of the company of the Connaught Rangers. whole country, engraved in Paris in In front, Aank, and rear open four prin- 1812, justly ranks first of all the cipal glens, each one with its torrent, county maps ever published in these and three of them with their proper islands. The model is on a scale of lakes; Glen Hoghan, with the lower either four or five inches to the Englake of Ballynalinch, looks southward lish mile, so that the barony at large on Roundstone and Briterbuy ; Glen occupies a space of five or six feet Ilia, cradling its black waters under the square, and the side of Müllrea, which tremendous precipice of Mauin, down forins the northern boundary of the which the stream that feels Loch Ina Killery, appears elevated between two goes twelve hundred feet plumb, opens and three inches--a scale sufficiently the gorge of its grand prison upon the large to give a most perfect idea of cast; Kylemore yawns westward and the whole character and conformation northward on Renvyle; and on the west of the original. We regret to say that and south the ravine whose torrent it may perhaps be necessary to blow waters Clifden, grins horribly on the away some dust from the depths of Atlantic. Renvyle, (pronounced Ren. Dhú Loch and Glen Laur, when the vyle) is a grand promontory of quartz, lid which conceals this really magfronting Müllrea, across the entrance nificent model, and which is ordinarily of the Killery ; and here on the bank used as a table by members totally unof this famous arm of the sea, we are suspicious of the ireasure beneath, shall in Joyce country—a table land very have been removed by the attendants. different froin Lower Connamara—for, Had the model of Morisk been prefrom Renvyle east, on both sides of sented to the Institute of France, the inlet, the whole formation of the it would be mounted at this moment country is changed ; and instead of on a marble pedestal, covered with plains of granite, and peaks of quartz, plate glass, and viewed with admiraire have lumping and extended plat- tion even by the most ingenious people forins of sandstone cut into ravincs, in the world. If such should still be rather than rising out of valleys, with its destination, the lover of science few or no plains till we descend their could hardly regret its removal. Müll. northern declivity into the bogs of rea, the highest ground in Connaught, Mayo. The deepest and the longest rises, says Mr. Bald, 2733 feet above ravine in Joyce country, is that occu.
the sea. pied by the waters of Killery harbour,
Deep are his feet in Joyce's floods-an elbow of the Atlantic, which some consider not inferior to any similar
we are sorry we cannot add, that
His sides are clothed in waving woods; scene in Europe ; though a late traveller, who ought to understand such but they certainly are of magnificent subjects, maintains that it is but a little precipitousness, from the water's edge finger compared with some of the to the crown of the ridge ; and the watery arms which the north sea has northern declivities of the whole range, rudely thrust into the bowels of Nor- extending from Müllrea to the heights way. We whose misfortune it is not above Castlebar, are full of the most to have scen either Killery or Katte- romantic hollows, and every hollow gatt, reluctantly profess ourselves un- has its own loch and river. These able to determine the dispute ; but to mountain glens are similar to the great
"that to the sea,
excavations termed “prisons” by the rise from the base to the very summit, people of the county Wicklow; and a declivity of at least 3000 feet, is on the step of Minillrea and Furna- huge, smooth sheets, at a very high more, where the glens open on the low angle, perfectly bare, and of a dark country towards the Reek and Clew iron brown colour, not chequered even Bay, there are some of them, Dhu Loch, by the growth of a single lichen, or by Glenlaur and Glenawough in particular, one forcign tint to enliven the uniform confined by sheer precipices, of up- gloom of the surface. This rock seems wards of 1200 feet. This district is absolutely inimical to vegetation, nor still untrodden ground, and will furnish does it appear to undergo the slightest some future tourist with material for a decomposition, or to admit of the forgood part of a volume.
mation of soil—the detached fragments Beyond Clew Bay is Erris, the coun- showing as little tendency to waste as try of the “ Wild Sports of the West,” the mountain itself. Had the ylobe of and off the southern extremity of Erris, the earth been entirely formed of this forming the northern boundary of Clew rock, it would still have been lifeless Bay, which it separates on this side and void.”—(M-Culloch on the Minerfrom Blacksod harbour, lies Achill— ology of Sky.) The traveller of the an enormous mass of mica-slate, and melancholy temperament, that would quartz,
enjoy such a scene, will look for it in
vain in Ireland : even Holds its blind visage up eternally,"
“By that lake, whose gloomy shore in cliffs of from 200 to 2200 feet. The
Skylark nerer hovers o'er" latter precipices front Blacksod, and every crevice of the rock is choked contrast strongly with the low sandy with vegetation ; and Achill, although peninsula of the Mullet or Bingham's perhaps the most barren of our islands, country, that bounds that noble harbour is surely a garden compared with the to the west. A sea cliff of two and southern districts of Sky. But it is twenty hundred feet (and the summit time for us to make our way out of the of Keem, which some convulsion of kingdom of Connaught, for the sea is nature has cut sheer down to the again approaching the limits of our water's edge, is fully that height) is a limestone field, and the granite range spectacle worth_travelling to Achill to of the Ox mountains, stretching in a contemplate. Bray-head is accounted, direction parallel to our northern and justly so, an object of considerable boundary, from the quartz peak of grandeur, yet three masses, each of the Nephin to the terraced mass of Bensize of Bray-head, piled on one another, bulben, in Sligo, conducts us to the would scarcely equal the bulk of Keem, limits of Ulster, which province occuwhile, perhaps, no single part of the pies the whole of our northern triangle. bluff Wicklow promontory is so pre
Before we enter the gap of Barnscipitous as is the whole sheer face of more, we must accompany the Loch this noble sea-cliff. We know of no Allen coal district, which is a slightly precipices of equal height on any of elevated tract of table land occupied ihe shores of Britain, except those of by sandstone and limestone formations, the south-western coast of Sky, where associated with occasional beds of coals, the Cuchullin mountains slope, in one and diversified on its western extremass of black barren rock, from their mity by some considerable elevations, summits 3000 feet down to the water's out of Leitrim, where it commences, edge. But this slope can scarcely be across the south of Ulster, through termed a precipice, except on the shore Fermanagh, Cavan, and Tyrone, to of the inland Lake of Coruisk; and the borders of Loch Neagh. This dishere certainly is a scene to which trict contains a great scope of pleasing nothing in Ireland can be assimilated. pastoral scenery, and is traversed by a The spectator, entering from the sea, series of lakes, which, commencing on “ finds himself in a lone valley, sur- the northern borders of Leinster, and rounded by a wall of dark and naked gathering their waters westward,become rock, of which the summits are lost in collected in the beautiful hasin of Loch the clouds, intercepting the light of day, Erne, from which they discharge themand casting a twilight gloom over this selves into the sea over the salmon scat of ctcrnal reposc. . . . The rocks Icap at Ballyshannon. Sylvan beauty