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The Quarterly Review. (BATHS AND BATHING-PLACES, ANCIENT AND MODERN. ART. VI.-I. De Balneis omnia quæ ex- Rome. That city and indeed all the Ro

tant apud Græcos, Latinos et Arabes, man colonies were well supplied with wa.

&c. Ôuc. Venetiis apud Juntas, 1553. ter, often brought from a distance at a vast 2. De Thermis, Lacubus, Fontibus, Bal- expense; and the remains of the public

neisque totius Orbis. Andreas Baccius. baths in Rome and in large provincial

Venetiis apud Valigrisium, 1571. cities, of those attached to private villas 3. Gallus oder Römische Scenen. Von in Rome and even in its more remote W. A. Becker. Leipzig, 1840.

settlements, are on a scale quite beyond 4. Sämmtliche Heilquellen Italiens, &c. anything attempted in modern times.

Von C. Harless. 1846–1848. Berlin. But that the Romans also thought like the . 5. Geschichte der Balneologie, &c. Von moderns on other points connected with

B. M. Lersch. Würzburg, 1863. questions of health is very clearly shown 6. The Baths and Wells of Europe, &c. by the following passage from the Epistles By John Macpherson, M.D. London, of Horace:

, 1869.

In many matters regarding material "Of Velia and Salernum tell me pray comforts and even public health, Rome was

The climate, and the natives, and the way;

For Baiæ now is lost on me, and I in advance of modern Europe. We do not

Once its stanch friend am now its enemy allude to mere self-indulging luxury, in

Through Musa's fault, who makes me undergo which the Romans probably far exceeded His cold bath treatment spite of frost and snow, us; but in some of the most important Good sooth the town is filled with spleen to see improvements of the present day—in the

Its steamy baths attract no company,

To find its sulphur wells, which found out pain supply of good drinking water and in the

From joint and sinew, treated with disdain construction of public baths—we are now By tender chests and heads, now grown so bold only going over the same ground as ancient They brave cold water in the depth of cold, NEW SERIES—YOL. XII., No. 4.


And finding down at Clusium what they want an intermitting fountain.* Delphi had not Or Gabii, say, make that their winter haunt."

only its fountain of Cassotis, but the Epist., i. 15, Conington's Transl.

Pythoness, when delivering her responses, Here we find our modern fashion portray- seems to have been placed on a tripod ed which makes a place popular for a few over a cleft in the rock, whence issued a seasons and then neglected.

Here we

gas that inspired her, and, in case of accifind in Horace's account of a cold bath in dent, three priestesses where always preswinter, which he evidently did not like, an ent.f There was something similar at the allusion to the cold-water cure which came oracle of Trophonius, in Bæotia, where into fashion under Musa, the physician Pausaniasę says, from personal experiof Augustus, as a revulsion from the ex- ence, that a gas was extricated which causcessive luxury of hot baths. Pliny* tells ed people to become insensible at first, us how he had seen aged gentlemen of con- and then to laugh as they gradually resular dignity making an ostentation of covered consciousness. Hard by were shivering in their cold baths, and we read the fabled waters of Mnemosyne and of how the advocates of the system agreed Lethe. In various parts of India escapes with the ancient Germans in immersing of inflammable gas (such as may be seen newly-born children in cold water

-a prac

now at La Porretta, near Pistoia) have tice alluded to by Virgil.f We learn also been used for preserving undying fires in from Horace how the Romans had their fa- the temples of the gods. vorite health resorts, whether in the moun- Similar instances might easily be multitains or along the coast. Martial and many plied ; but this subject we cannot pursue other writers give whole lists of such places; any further, as our main object at present but the limpid Baiæ was the great favorite is to give a few sketches of bath life in diffor many centuries. No Montpellier, or ferent ages, making the actors speak as Nice, or Pau, has enjoyed nearly as much as possible for themselves. long-lived a reputation, or has offered Baiæ and Puteolisuch attractions to visitors.

“ Baize the golden shore of pleased Venus, Horace, too, mentions the vapor and

Baize the charming gist of stately Nature" the sulphur baths of Baiæ, but no drink ing-wells. It was, in truth, hot bathing in

were in the times of the Roman emperors its various forms of heated air, hot vapor by far the most important bathing-places, and hot water, that the Romans were so though others along the coast were not fond of. They had borrowed its use from neglected. The enervating Sinnuessa, the Greeks, while they improved on their celebrated for the softness of its air and simpler arrangements, the Greeks them- the salubrity of its waters, is perhaps the selves having probably only followed the best known, owing to the emperor Claudiusage of Asia Minor and more Eastern us having sought to restore his broken nations, among whom bathing has always health_there, and to the miserable Tigelbeen regarded as a matter of primary im- linus, f in the midst of its warm baths, and portance.

luxuries and dissipations, having very unFrom the earliest ages, indeed, all pecu- willingly put an end there to his worthless liarities of smell, of taste, or of tempera- life. ture in the wells attracted the attention of

Besides its singularly beautiful scenery, mankind; and, like all things that were the country about Baiæ was connected unusual and incapable of ready explana- with the earliest associations of Roman tion, they were referred to the immediate history. Near it were the most ancient influence of the gods. The idea of a city of Cumæ, with its Sibyl—the lake of local deity dwelling in the spring is well Avernus, with its entrance to hell—the illustrated, by the fact of the word lympha Phlegræan fields and the Forum Vulcani-

water” being only a variety of nympha, the Elysian plains—the promontory of or water goddess.

Misenum, with its harbor—not to menMost oracles of importance were sit- tion the remarkable natural phenomena of uated close to sacred springs or to natural escapes of gas. The temple of

* Herodot. iv. 181. + Pausanias, x. 24, $ 7 Jupiter Ammon, in its Libyan oasis, had

Plutarch, Quæst. Græc. c. 9; De Orac. Def. C. 51: & ix. 39, § 5 seqq.

| Martial, xi. 80. | Æneid, ix, 603.

T Tacitus, Histor., i. 72.

* xxix. c. 5.


extinct volcanoes, craters, and lakes, with the songs of pleasure-parties of men and hot springs, and kot vapors, and mineral wa- women, who skimmed aboutin gayly paintters which were in themselves so striking. ed boats of every variety of shape and colThe great Roman nobles, too, began to or, decked out with crowns and chaplets build their villas here long before the days of roses. All ancient writers describe when, for want of space, the foundations those aquatic excursions as scenes of voof their new buildings had to be laid in the luptuous pleasure : there was also abun

The writers of the Augustan Age, dance of gambling; and on the whole and for a century afterwards, absolutely Seneca described Baiæ as a sort of vortex teem with notices of the delights of Baiæ, of luxury and a harbor of vice. and it must be confessed that at the same Baix and Puteoli retained their poputime they do not spare its vices. Immo- larity for a long period; but after a time ralities were practised openly at Baiæ, we lose sight of them, as of most healthwhich could only be indulged in at Rome resorts during the middle ages. When in private. Cicero, Propertius, Horace, bath-life began to revive in Europe, the Ovid, all write in the same strain ; and a

wells in this favorite corner were among little later Martial, who was certainly no the first to attract attention, but the constickler for morality, appears almost to be vulsions connected with the production shocked at the doings of the place. But, for of Monte Nuovo, and the unhealthiness our purpose, the account given by Seneca of the district, have prevented any great will answer best. He was, indeed, some- success in the attempts to restore their what of a laudator temporis acti, and re- former glory. Ischia, scarcely known for gretted the days when the Romans wash- such purposes to the ancients, although ed only their faces and hands daily, Pliny mentions its mineral waters, has, with and had a bath once in eight days: he its immense natural resources, taken their preferred the ruder and less luxurious place, and though the stufas or hot-vapor baths of Scipio at Linterum, who was not baths of San Germano and of the baths of very particular as to the quality of his Nero have always been employed, and the water, to the effeminate arrangements of baths at the temple of Serapis have been Baiæ and Puteoli.* Still, as he only con- restored and are in use, yet the ancient firms in detail what had been long before fame of Baiæ has never been equalled. said by Cicero, his evidence is not fairly A very spirited attempt is, however, beopen to exception.

ing made at present, to convert the villa Seneca,f when he paid his visit ta Baiæ, Cardito, close to Puteoli, the modern Pozlived above the great bath, and was great- zuoli, and its extensive grounds, into an ly annoyed by its noisiness. He heard, establishment fit to receive a large number early in the morning, the splashing of of visitors; old springs are being opened bathers in the water, for people bathed at up, an immense piscina, or reservoir of waall hours. He was disturbed by the ex- ter, is to be cleared out, and we even hear cited cries of those playing at ball

, and by that arrangements are to be made, to enthe deep-drawn sighs of those who swung able patients to inhale the sulphur vapors heavy leaden weights. Here one person which rise in one corner of the adjoining was trying his voice at a song—there an- crater of the Solfatara. The experiment is a other was engaged in a loud dispute, or bold one, and its success is quite feasible if perhaps a cry was raised at the detection of the district were less feverish and malarious; a thief caught stealing the clothes of one and it is to be hoped that the feat of drainof the bathers—no unusual occurrence. ing Lake Agnano, now nearly accomplishThere were the shrill cries of the vendors of ed, may contribute towards its salubrity. various eatables, especially of the liba or But the public baths of Rome far exsweet cakes, which have been long popu- ceeded those of Baiæ in extent and imlar among bathers, and a remnant of which portance. The stupendous aqueducts is to be still found in some of the German replenished the baths which were conbaths. Seneca tells us also that it was structed in all parts of the city with imcommon to see tipsy people wandering perial magnificence. There were the along the seashore-and to hear the public baths of Agrippa, of Titus, and of shores of the Lucrine lake resounding with Nero, besides numerous private ones,

The baths of Caracalla, open at stated * Epist. 86. # Ib. 51 and 56.

hours for the indiscriminate use of the

senators and of the people, counted about the same building with them, were gymna1,600 seats of marble, and there were sia for wrestling, for various games at more than 3,000 seats in the baths of Dio- ball, theatres, and arenas for the fights of cletian. The walls of the lofty apart- gladiators and of wild beasts. It was this ments were covered with curious mosaics, character of baths, as places of amusement, that imitated the art of the painter, in that led to their being placed, in common their elegance of design and variety of with theatres, under the ban of the early colors. The Egyptian syenite was beau- Christians, who also steadily protested tifully encrusted with the precious green against the two sexes bathing together. .marbles of Numidia—the rooms were full In the earlier ages of Rome men and of statues, and of pillars supporting noth- women bathed separately, and even in ing, but placed merely for ornament.* A the times of the emperors, the more reperpetual stream of water was poured spectable matrons would not enter a cominto capacious basins, through many wide mon bath, although they seem sometimes

, mouths of lions of bright and polished to have frequented public ones, which had silver : water issued from silver and was probably separate rooms; but that the received on silver.t And finally, says practice of promiscuous bathing was freSeneca, I such a pitch of luxury have we quent, and that its evils were understood, reached, that we are dissatisfied if we do is abundantly evident from the many not tread on gems in our baths; and these edicts directed against it by the emperors luxuries—at least those of the public baths, Hadrian, Trajan, M. Aurelius, and Alexthe poorest might partake of for a small ander Severus. Heliogabalus again percopper coin in value less than a farthing Initted the practice, and the Emperor Their use was speedily followed by their Gallienus actually bathed along with abuse. The idle and the profligate spent women. many hours in the hot baths, and found it After the two first centuries our notices necessary to relieve by draughts of wine of bath life become very scanty, and the the exhaustion which they produced. denunciations by some of the early fathers

The Romans carried their fondness for of its vicious excesses are the more interbaths with them to distant countries, and esting to us. Clemens of Alexandria, wherever they found hot springs they built about the beginning of the third century, baths or thermæ. The following are some protested against* the luxury and indeof the countless places where their remains cency of the Alexandrian ladies in their have been found out of Italy :-at Aix in bathing; they used to eat and get drunk Savoy and Aix in Provence; at Dax, Bag- in their baths. They had swinging, or nères de Bigorres and Bagnères de Luchon pensile baths (which, though there has in the Pyrenees; Alhama and Caldas in been a good deal of difference of opinion Spain, where the Moors were only too glad on the subject, seem merely to have been to revive the Roman baths; at Baden in vapor baths suspended, i.e. built over flues), Switzerland; at Wiesbaden; and at our and used all kinds of gold and silver bathown Bath or Aquæ Solis ; not to mention utensils. Clemens declared that there Baden, near Vienna ; and the baths of were four causes for bathing--cleanliness, Hercules in Mehadia, in the Banat. The

The warmth, health, and pleasure. The last Roman aquæ still remains in the various was utterly to be forbidden ; women may forms of Acqui, Aigues, Aix, Ax, Dax. bathe for cleanliness or for health, men for

The ancients did not resort to their health only. To bathe for the sake of baths merely for the purposes of ablution warmth he considered to be a piece of suor health: they went also to meet their perfluity; besides, the frequent use of the friends in the porches or inner rooms of warm bath was weakening. But it seems the baths, to hear the last news, and to clear that the denunciations of Clemens did plan fresh amusements. And here, too, not put an end to the warm baths of Alexliterary people assembled and poets en- andria; and the baths which so many an deavored to find hearers for their latest eastward bound traveller has enjoyed on works. In close contiguity, and often in landing in that city are the direct succes

sors of those denounced by the Fathers.

That Clemens expressed the general ChrisSeneca, Epist. 86; Martial, vi. 42 ; ix. 76. 4 Statius, Silv. i. 5.

# Epist. 86. Horat., Sat, i. 4, 74.

* Pædagog., 1 iii. c. 5.

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