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of authority elsewhere. Obtaining not a mere permission to worship as they chose, but a right of proselyting all over the country, of conspiring and combining against the church of the law, it was evident that they had not only passed the limits of toleration, but were enjoying a license, which under a constitution of which a church formed part, was fatal to the tranquillity of society, and put in jeopardy the most cherished institutions of the nation. Yet this license, large and anomalous as it is, was no sooner granted, than it was beyond recal. It has at last brought the country into a condition which no political theory can excuse, and which is daily presenting new difficulties to the practical statesman. Within the same territory may be seen, on the one hand, an ecclesiastical establishment erected by rulers to control the religion of their subjects; on the other, a crowd of voluntary churches, maintained by citizens who spurn control, and assert their religious independence. Conflicting as are the principles of these institutions, their operations and effects are equally hostile. The former, aspiring to universal ascendancy, never ceases to urge the state to exact from all, at least a tacit acquiescence in its claims; while to the latter there is constantly presented, in what they think the errors of the legal church, and in its iniquitous elevation, stimulants to aggression against it, in carrying on which they enjoy, and perhaps abuse, an ample protection by the law.

This conflict in principle and in policy between the vast parties which now divide the empire, has been brought about, because, after having waived its claim to the obedience of its subjects in matters of religion, our constitution insists upon upholding the ecclesiastical institutions which had no other basis. Hence the confusion. It will not cease till we emerge from that transition-state between prosecution and freedom,-termed toleration. In the meantime, let us remark, as gratifying to dissenters, the contrast which it has produced between the independence of their churches, and the slavery of that of the law. Voluntary churches, viewed by themselves, are in the possession of almost perfect freedom. The abolition of the establishment would relieve dissenters, as individuals, from an enormous grievance, and their religious institutions from a legal stigma; but to the practical liberty of the latter it would bring but a small accession. Over them the State can at present exercise no peculiar authority: it dare not lay upon them so much as its little finger. Its power, which once ranged at will over the whole religious institutions in the country, now expends itself within the temples of the law. Into the churches called national it has, indeed, the right to enter, and there to work its pleasure; to set up or pull down bishops; to remove or to impose the tyranny of patronage, or to do any other deed of policy or sacrilege; but into the smallest, obscurest, weakest dissenting church, in the most defenceless district of the land, not the king or parliament, nor any prince or potentate of this world, may dare to set the foot of authority.' pp. 25-31.

The second Work on our list is of a lighter character; but, though our Author may seem to sport with his subject, it is not 'sport to the frogs.' We do not profess to be partial to religious

satire, and yet there are some men whom it is difficult to know how otherwise to deal with. Mr. Gathercoal is scarcely worth the powder of this firework, but his name has merely served as a peg for these Letters. We must confine ourselves to a specimen.

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C From the Reverend RABSHAKEH GATHERCOAL to L. S. E.

'Dear Brother,

The battle is raging in Tuddington; it begins to be very hot work, and I must expect my buffets and blows, according to the lot of war. My sermon, which Dr. Birch calls my golden sermon, and which he says entitles me to the honourable name of Chrysostom, or golden mouth," I sent to be printed in London-a large edition of 1500 copies, which I have distributed gratis-for that obstinate fellow Timson will have nothing to do with it. It is, however, to be purchased at the brandy vaults of my prime minister Stubbs, and the neighbouring clergy have sent for it by dozens.

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It is not to be supposed that I have remained silent after my first song; I assure you I have followed up the "golden sermon with repeated blows of the same sort, always preaching the Gospel from L. S. E., the best expositor of the truth I can anywhere find. Last Sunday I preached on the subject of Death on the Pale Horse, which I proved was the system of dissent "killing the fourth part of the earth with beasts." The beasts I showed were the various forms of schism and so having noticed various beasts, I came to foxes and other vermin, and declared how, in Canticles, "the little foxes that spoil our grapes were the Dissenters nibbling at our tithes. Then apostrophising the whole body of schismatics, I said, "You hate tithes I know, probably for the same reason for which the fox disliked the grapes; but you would be glad of the tenth of the tithe of such decisive evidence in support of your unscriptural system, as we can show for Episcopal authority. I have shown, beyond the power of contradiction, that no such system as that you advocate has any foundation in the word of God. You may, indeed, just as easily prove from the Holy Scriptures, that all the metamorphoses, or all the nonsensical fables of the Heathen Mythologies are true, as your new fancied system of Dissent." (L. S. E. pp. 174.)

The schismatics, of course, are furious, and have bestirred themselves to let me know that wasps can sting. The first annoyance I have experienced is in the diminution of the congregations; last Sunday, Stubbs counted only 200, which looked a small company in our large church. I am, however, going to preach a sermon against the sin of not coming to church, and I intend to make no small stir on this head. They have, however, vexed me far more by sending for bales of Beverley's pamphlets, not one of which had ever yet been read in my parish. I have, however, seen them in many of the cottages within the last few days, and much mischief, I fear, will be done in consequence. They tell me that a rich Dissenter of London has sent 500 of each of these pamphlets to the Baptist teacher, who sells them for 2d., and that the greater part are sold already! Will no one crush

this noxious writer? He it was that began the mischief, but who shall say where it is to stop? We live in evil days, dear Brother.

The teachers of schism have further agreed, according te what I hear, to deliver each a course of lectures in their chapels in defence of schism. The first lecture will be delivered at the conventi cle of the Independent Sectarians next Wednesday evening; and when Mervyn has finished his lectures, which are to be four in number, the Baptist teacher is to glean any remnants of iniquity let fall from the bosom of his dear Brother," so that nothing may be lost to the Devil's

harvest.

'Dear Mr. Screw tells me that his notices of taking all tithe, to the last farthing, of the gardeners, and of all others in the parish, have put the town in a still greater ferment. Here, however, I am sure of victory, and the more yells the beasts set up the better. I will sell every bed and table in Tuddington sooner than give up a sixpennyworth of my rights. I owe this to my "and to the Apostolical church of which I am an unworthy priest. "Muzzle not the ox that treadeth out the corn."

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successors,

As for more private concerns, the thorn in the flesh is not removed, nor likely to be; Jane continues as obstinate as ever. She has told me point blank, that she finds my sermons so little profitable to her soul, and the Church service so tedious and objectionable, that she cannot go to church any more. She says, however, that she has no inclination to frequent any of the chapels in Tuddington, for she dreads hearing controversial sermons, in which it is very probable I may be mentioned with no great respect; and besides, she wishes, as long as possible, to keep up appearances in the eyes of the parish. I have put into her hands all the sound books I can think of-first, the Letters of L. S. E., then Southey's Book of the Church, Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, and the warmest tracts of the Christian Knowledge Society, besides various others recommended by friends-but she seems to me a more rigorous Dissenter after reading works written in defence of our Scriptural church than she was before; indeed, she begs me to torment her no more with the Church controversy, for she assures me she knows all the Episcopalian arguments perfectly, and that all the libraries in the world never can persuade her that the Church of England is the Church of Christians seen in the Acts of the Apostles, or in any part of the New Testament. To do her justice, I do not believe she has ever read any of the Dissenters' books on Church Government; the Bible is her library in this controversy, and whenever we argue on these subjects, she quotes the Scriptures and nothing else. I never can get her to listen to the evidence of the Fathers and tradition; she turns a deaf ear to all my rhetoric when I read to her passages from Ignatius and Ambrose.

'Here, however, is the weak part of my fortress. When I see Jane looking cold or melancholy in the midst of my zeal, it makes me furious, and I say and do things in my wrath which I am sorry for afterwards; particularly when I see she has been weeping in private, for she never sheds a tear before me, and is silent and submissive in the midst of our disagreements. I am fearful that sooner or latter she will join the Baptists, and be baptized in their way. I have told her

that if she ever should take this step I will shut my doors against her, and send her and her child back to her parents. She gives me no answer, and by this silence I dread the worst. So you see, my dear brother, I have much to perplex me.

'I have received a flattering letter from the Bishop of Lthanking me for my "golden" sermon; he styles me "a pillar of the Church;" this letter is going the round of the neighbouring clergy, and its contents are so well known, that the schismatics here have printed handbills, pretending to give a correct copy of the letter, but changing the word pillar into caterpillar. Thus you see the malice of these rascals!

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In my next I hope to give you some account of Mervyn's Lecture on Dissent. Screw has promised me an exact transcript of all the fellow will say, by sending to the chapel oue of his clerks, who can take the whole lecture down in short hand-writing.

Your affectionate Brother,

RAB.'

Report, sanctioned by internal evidence, ascribes this jeu d'esprit to Mr. Beverley. It is rather too heavy for jest, or too jocose for earnest.

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Thomas Johnson's "Reasons" were originally published many years ago, and rapidly passed through several editions. Having been long out of print, and often asked for, the Author has republished them with an additional dialogue on the Voluntary Principle.' It ought to be known that the second and third dialogues are a reply to three Tracts, by the late Rev. T. Sikes, circulated by the Christian Knowledge Society; and the arguments combated are given nearly in the very words of the reverend Vicar of Guilsborough.

"The Church, a Dialogue," is ascribed to the pen of a Lady brought up in the bosom of the Establishment, but who has, for reasons which this tract sets forth in familiar language, con, scientiously withdrawn from it. In the reasons for Nonconformity, there can be expected nothing new, and yet to thousands they have the face of novelty when fairly brought home to them.

ART. VIII.

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

In a few days will be published, The Book of the Denominations; or, the Churches and Sects of Christendom in the Nineteenth Century. In foolscap, 8vo.

The Life of Admiral Lord Exmouth, drawn up from official and other authentic documents, furnished by his family and friends, is now preparing for publication, by Edward Osler, Esq., and will appear early in August.

The large Ale and Porter Brewers will next week be presented with a Work on the subject of Brewing, upon which they may with confidence rely; as the whole process of Fermentation, Mashing, Temperature, and other important points in Brewing are treated both practically and scientifically, by one of their own body, Mr. William Black, who has been a practical Brewer for the last forty years.

In the Press, and shortly will be published, in one vol. 12mo, a Memoir of the late Mrs. Ellis, wife of the Rev. William Ellis, formerly Missionary in the Society and Sandwich Islands, and Foreign Secretary of the London Missionary Society.

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The Philosophy of Manufactures. By Andrew Ure, M.D., F.R.S., M.G S., M.A.S., London; M. Acad. N.S. Philadelphia, &c. 1 vol. post 8vo, illustrated with numerous Engravings, 10s. cloth.

A Review of the Principal Dissenting Colleges in England during the last Century; being a Second and enlarged Edition of the Author's Work on the Admission of Persons, without regard to their Religious Opinions, to certain Degrees in the Universities of England. By Thomas Turton, D.D., Regius Professor of Divinity, Cambridge, and Dean of Peterborough. 8vo, 4s.

Mephistophiles in England; or the Confessions of a Prime Minister. 3 vols. post 8vo, 17. 11s. 6d.

POETRY.

Rosebuds Rescued, and presented to my Children. By the Rev. Samuel Charles Wilks, M.A. 4s. 6d.

THEOLOGY.

Ministerial Solicitude and Fidelity, a Farewell Sermon addressed to the Congregation of Holland Chapel, North Brixton, June 21st, 1835. With a Brief History of the Author's connexion with that Place of Worship. By John Styles, D.D. 8vo, ls. 6d.

Archbishop Usher's Answer to a Jesuit; with other Tracts on Popery. 8vo,

13s. 6d.

A Discourse of Natural Theology. By Henry Lord Brougham, F.R.S., and Mem ber of the National Institute of France. Being the first Volume of Paley Illustrated. Post 8vo, 8s.

TRAVELS.

Travels in Ethiopia, above the Second Cataract of the Nile. By G. A. Hoskins, Esq. 4to, with a Map and 90 Illustrations, 31. 13s. 6d.

Records of a Route through France and Italy, with Sketches of Catholicism. By William Rae Wilson, F.S.A., S.A.R., Author of Travels in the Holy Land, &c., &c. 8vo, with Plates, 17s.

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