ancients, or the moderns : but if it was neces- y affect an imitation of those moderns whose more sary to run into an extreme of one side or the fertile genius has produced beauties peculiar to other, which is never done by a judicious and themselves, and which themselves only can diswell-directed mind, it would be better for a wit, play with grace: beauties of that peculiar kind. as for a painter, to enrich himself by what he ihać they are not fit to be imitated by others; can take from the ancients, than to grow poor though in those who first invented them chey by taking all from his own stock; or openly to I may be justly esteemed, and in them only.


3 VOLS. FOLIO. 1743.






DR. JAMES 3 MEDICINAL DICTIONARY. to whom can timidity so properly fly for shelter,

as to him who has been so long distinguished isr candour and humanity ? How can vanity be so

completely gratified as by the allowed patronze Sir,—That the Medicinal Dictionary is dedi- of him, whose judgment has so long given a cated to you, is to be imputed only to your repu- standard to the national taste? Or by what orber tation for superior skill in those sciences which means could I so powerfully suppress all oppoI have endeavoured to explain and facilitate; sition, but that of envy, as by declaring myseii, and you are, therefyre, to consider this address, my lord, your lordship’s obliged and most obe it it be

agreeable to you, as one of the rewards of dient servant, merit; and if otherwise, as one of the inconveniences of emirence.

However you shall receive it, my design cannot be disappointed; because this public appeal

SHAKSPEARE ILLUSTRATED; to your judgment will show that I do not found my hopes of approbation upon the ignorance of OR, THE NOVELS AND HISTORIES ON WHICH THE PLATS my readers, and that I fear his censure least, whuse knowledge is most extensive. I am, sir, your most obedient humble servant,

My LORD, I have no other pretence to the

honour of a patronage so illustrious as that of THE FEMALE QUIXOTE.

your lordship, than the merit of attempting what has by some unaccountable neglect been hitherto

omitted, though absolutely necessary to a pertect TU THE RIGHT HON. THE EARL OF MIDDLESEX.

knowledge of the abilities of Shakspeare. M, LORD,-Such is the power of interest over Among the powers that must conduce to conalmost every mind, that no one is long without stitute a poet, the first and most valuable is inargunents to prove any position which is ar- vention ; the highest seems to be that which is denily wished io be true, or to justify any mea- able to produce a series of events. It is eisy sures which are dictated by inclination.

when the thread of a story is once drawn, to diBy this subtle sophistry of desire, I have been versify it with variety of colours; and when a persuaded to hope that this book my, without train of action is presented to the mind, a little impropriety, be inscribed to your lordship; but acquaintance with life will supply circumstances am not certain that my reasons will have the and reflections, and a little knowledge of books same force upon other understandings.

furnish parallels and illustrations. To tell over The dread which a writer feels of the public again a story that has been told already, and 19 censure; the still greater dread of neglect; and tell it better than the first author, is no rare quathe eager wish for support and protection, which lification; but to strike out the first hints of a is impressed by the consciousness of imbecility, new fable: hence to introduce a set of characters are unknowu to those who have never adven- so diversified in their several passions and it.tetured into the world ; and I am afraid, my lord, rests, that from the clashing of this variety may equally unknown to those who have always result many necessary incidents: to make these found the world ready to applaud them. incidents surprising, and yet natural, so as to de

It is therefore not unlikely that the design of this light the imagination without shocking the juda address may be mistaken, and the effects of my ment of a reader; and finally to wind up ibe fear imputed to my vanity. They who see your whole in a pleasing catastrophe, produced by lordship's name prefixed to my performance, will those very means which seem most likely to oprather condemn my presumption, than compas- pose and prevent ii, is the utmost effort of the sionate my anxiety.

human mind. But whatever be supposed my motive, the To discover how few of those writers who praise of judgment cannot be denied me: for, I profess to recount imaginary adventures, have


been able to produce any thing by their own the hopes and fears, of his chief personages, are imagination, would require too much of that such as are common to other human beings, and line which your lordship employs in nobler not like those which later times have exhibited, studies. Of all the novels and romances that peculiar to phantoms that strut opon the stage. wit or idleness, vanity or indigence, have pushed It is not perhaps very necessary to inquire, into the wo ld, there are very few of which the whether the vehicle of so much delight and inend cannot be conjectured from the beginning; struction be a story probable or unlikely, native or where the authors have done more than to or foreign. Shakspeare's excellence is not the transpose the incidents of other tales, or strip fiction of a tale, but the representation of life: the circumstances from one event for the decora- and his reputation is therefore safe, till human tion of another.

nature shall be changed. Nor can he, who has In the examination of a poet's character, it is so many just claims to praise, suffer by losing therefore first to be inquired what degree of in- that which ignorant admiration has unreasonvention has been exerted by him. With this ably given him. Tocalumniate the dead is baseview I have very diligently read the works of ness, and to flatter them is surely folly. Shakspeare, and now presume to lay the result From Aattery, my lord, either of the dead or of my searches before your lordship, before that the living, I wish to be clear, and have therefore judge whom Pliny himself would have wished solicited the countenance of a patron, whom, for his assessor to hear a literary cause. if I knew how to praise him, I could praise with

How much the translation of the following truth, and have the world on my side ; whose novels will add to the reputation of Shakspeare, candour and humanity are universally acknowor take away from it, you, my lord, and men ledged, and whose judgment perhaps was then learned and candid like you, if any such can be first to be doubted, when he condescended to found, must now determine. Some danger, I admit this address from, my lord, your lordam informed, there is, lest his admirers should ship's most obliged and most obedient humble think him injured by this attempt, and clamour servant, as at the dininution of the honour of that

THE AUTHOR. nation which boasts itself the parent of so great a poet.

That no such enemies may arise against me, (though I am unwilling to believe it,) I am far PAYNE'S INTRODUCTION TO THE GAME OF from being too confident, for who can fix bounds

DRAUGHTS. 1756. to bigotry and folly? My ser, my age, have not given me many opportunities of mingling in the

ROCHFORD, &c. world: there may be in it many a species of absurdity which I have never seen, and among My LORD,– When I take the liberty of adthem such vanity as pleases itself with false dressing to your lordship “A Treatise on the praise bestowed on another, and such supersti- Game of Draughts,” I easily foresee that I shall tion as worships idols, without supposing them be in danger of suffering ridicule on one part, to be god s.

wbile I am gaining honour on the other, and that But the truth is, that a very small part of the many who may envy me the distinction of apreputation of this mighty genius depends upon proaching you, will deride the present I presume the naked plot or story of his plays. He lived to offer. in an age when the books of chivalry were yet Had I considered this little volume as having popular, and when therefore the minds of his no purpose beyond that of teaching a game, auditors were not accustomed to balance proba- should indeed have left it to take its fate without bilities, or to examine nicely the proportion be-a patron. Triflers may find or make any thing tween causes and effects. It was sufficient to a trifle; but since it is the great characteristic of recommend a story, that it was far removed from a wise man to see events in their causes, to obcommon life, that its changes were frequent, and viate consequences, and ascertain contingencies, its close pathetic.

your lordship will think nothing a trifle by which This disposition of the age concurred so hap- the mind is inured to caution, foresight, and cirpily with the imagination of Shakspeare, that cumspection. The same skill

, and often the he had no desire to reform it; and indeed to this same degree of skill, is exerted in great and he was indebted for the licentious variety, by little things, and your lordship may sometimes which he made his plays more entertaining than exercise, on a harınless game, those abilities those of any other author.

which have been so happily employed in the serHe had looked with great attention on the vice of your country. I am, my lord, your lord scenes of nature: but his chief skill was in hu- ship’s most obliged, most obedient, and most man actions, passions, and habits: he was humble servant, therefore delighted with such tales as afforded numerous incidents, and exbibited many characters in many changes of situation. These characters are so copiously diversified, and some of them so justly pursued, that his works may be EVANGELICAL HISTORY OF JESUS CHRIST considered as a map of life, a faithful miniature of huunin ta&7ctions; and he that has read

2 vols. Svo. 1758. Siakspeare with attention, will perhaps find little new in the crowded world.

TO THE LORDS SPIRITUAL AND TEMPORAL, AND Among his other excellences it ought to be remarked, because it has hitherto been unnoticed, That we are fallen upon an age in which that his heroes are men, that the love and hatred, corruption is barely not universal, is universally




confessed. Venality skulks no longer in the beyond their powers, it will always be easy to dark, but snatches the bribe in public; and prosti- discern the strait path, to find the words of etero tution issues forth without shame, glittering with lasting life. But such is the condition of our the ornaments of successful wickedness. Ra- nature, that we are always attempting what it pine preys on the public without opposition, and is difficult to perform: he who reads the Scripperjury betrays it without inquiry. Irreligion is ture to gain goodness, is desirous likew se to not only avowed, but boasted; and the pestilence gain knowledge, and by his impatience of 1930that used to walk in darkness, is now destroying rance, falls into error. at noonday.

This danger has appeared to the doctors of Shall this be the state of the English nation, the Romish church, so much to be feared, and and shall her lawgivers behold it without regard ? so difficult to be escaped, that they have start Must the torrent continue to roll on till it shalled the Bible out of the hands of the people sweep us in the gulf of perdition? Surely there and confined the liberty of perusing it to the will come a time when the careless shall be fright- whom literature has previously qualified By ed, and the sluggish shall be roused; when every this expedient they have formed a kind of m. passion shall be put upon the guard by the dread formity, I am afraid, too much like that of of general depravily; when he who laughs at lours in the dark : but they hare certa el wickedness in his companion, shall start from it usurped a power which God has never sin in his child: when the man who fears not for his them, and precluded great numbers from the soul, shall tremble for his possessions: when it highest spiritual consolation. shall be discovered that religion only can secure I know not whether this prohibition has mit the rich from robbery, and the poor from oppres- brought upon them an evil which they this sion, can defend the state from treachery, and selves have not discovered. It is granted. I the throne from assassination.

believe, by the Romanists themselves, tha: . If this time be ever to come, let it come quick- best commentaries on the Bible have been the ly: a few years longer, and perhaps all endea- works of Protestants. I know not, indeed vours will be vain. We may be swallowed by an whether, since the celebrated paraphrase mi earthquake, we may be delivered to our enemies, Erasmus, any scholar has appeared amns or abandoned to that discord, which must inevi- them, whose works are much valued, even in bo tably prevail among men that have lost all sense own communion. Why have those who excci of divine superintendence, and have no higher in every other kind of knowledge, to *100 motive of action or forbearance, than present the world owes much of the iocrease of liga opinion of present interest.

which has shone upon these latter ages, taries It is the duty of private men to supplicate and and failed only when they have attempted si propose; it is yours to hear and to do right. explain the scriptures of God? Wor, bei Let religion be once more restored, and the nation because they are in the church less read a. shall once more be great and happy. This con- less examined ; because they have anor: sequence is not far distant : that nation must al- rule of deciding controversies, and in-utu: :: ways be powerful where every man performs laws. his duty: and every man will perform his duty Of the Bible some of the books are proches that considers himself as a being whose condi- tical, some doctrinal and hi-torical, as the zen tion is to be settled to all eternity by the laws of pels, of which we have in the subsequent paces hrist.

attempted an illustration. The books et le The only doctrine by which man can be evangelists contain an account of the veo made wise unto salvation, is the will of God our blessed Saviour, more particularıy of loan revealed in the books of the Old and the New years of his ministry, interspersed with inspire Testament.

cepts, doctrines, and predictions. Each of the To study the Scriptures, therefore, according histories contains facts and dictates related to to his abilities and attainments, is every man's wise in the rest, that the truth might be estu. duty; and to facilitate that study to those whomblished by concurrence of testimony; and caci nature hath made weak, or education has left ig- has likewise facts and dictates which the rest norant, or indispensable cares detain from regu- omit, to prove that they were wrote with vui lar processes of inquiry, is the business of those communication. who have been blessed with abilities and learn These writers, not affecting the exactges of ing, and are appointed the instructers of the low- chronologers, and relating various events of the er classes of men, by that common Father, who same life, or the same events with various (11distributes to all created beings their qualifica- cumstances, have some difficulties to him, who tions and employments; who has allotted some without the help of many books, desires to con to the labour of the hand, and some to the exer-lect a series of the acts and precepts of Jesus cise of the mind; has commanded some to teach, Christ; fully to know his life, whose esame and others to learn ; has prescribed to some the was given for our imitation; fully to understand patience of instruction, and to others the meek- his precepts, which it is sure destruction to as ness of obedience.

obey. In this work, therefore, an attempt tas By what methods the unenlightened and igno- been made, by the help of harmonists and es rant may be made proper readers of the word of positors, to reduce the four gospels in'o me God, has been long and diligently considered. series of narration, to form a complete bine Commentaries of all kinds have indeed been co out of the different parratives of the erano piously produced: but there still remain multi- lists, by inserting every event in the ones de tudes to whom the labours of the learned are of time, and connecting every precept of lre and little use, for whom expositions require an expo- doctrine, with the occasion on which it was sitor. To those, indeed, who read the divine delivered ; showing, as far as history of the books without vain curiosity, or a desire to be wisel knowledge of ancient customs can inforin s, is


reason and propriety of every action; and ex- (ment of human passions and practices which plaining, or endeavouring to explain, every pre- have raised you to your present height of station cept and declaration in its true meaning. and dignity of employment, have long shown

Let it not be hastily concluded, that we intend you that dedicatory addresses are written for the to substitute this book for the gospels, or obtrude sake of the author more frequently than of the our own expositions as the oracles of God. We patron: and though they profess only reverence recommend to the unlearned reader to consult and zeal, are commonly dictated by interest or us when he finds any difficulty, as men who have vanity. laboured not to deceive ourselves, and who are I shall therefore not endeavour to conceal my without any temptation to deceive him: but as motives, but confess that the Italian Dictionary men, however, that, while they mean best, may is dedicated to your excellency, that I might grabe mistaken. Let him be careful, therefore, to tify my vanity, by making it known, that in a distinguish what we cite from the gospels, from country where I am a stranger, I have been able, what we offer as our own: he will find many without any external recommendation, to obtain difficulties removed; and if some yet remain, let the notice and countenance of a nobleman so him remember that “God is in heaven, and we eminent for knowledge and ability, that in his upon earth,” that “our thoughts are not God's twenty-third year he was sent as plenipotentiary thoughts,” and that the great cure of doubt is an to superintend, at Aix-la-Chapelle, the interests humble mind.

of a nation remarkable above all others for gra

vity and prudence: and who, at an age when ANGELL'S STENOGRAPHY, OR SHORTHAND very few are admitted to public trust, transacts

the most important affairs between two of the

greatest monarchs of the world. MOND, LENNOX, AUBIGNY, &c.

If I could attribute to my own merits the faMAY IT PLEASE YOUR GRACE, -The improve

vours which your excellency every day confers ment of arts and sciences has always been es- be inflamed; but when I observe the extensive

upon me, I know not how much my pride might teemed laudable; and in proportion to their benevolence and boundless liberality by which utility and advantage to mankind, they have all who have the honour to approach you, are generally gained the patronage of persons the dismissed more happy than they come, I am most distinguished for birth, learning, and repu. afraid of raising my own value, since I dare not tation in the world. This is an art undoubtedly ascribe it so much to my power of pleasing as of public utility, and which has been cultivated by persons of distinguished abilities, as will ap

your willingness to be pleased, pear from its history. But as most of their I am desirous to hope that I am not admitted to

Yet as every man is inclined to flatter himself, systems have been defective, clogged with a greater intimacy than others without some quali, multiplicity of rules, and perplexed by arbitrary, fications for so advantageous a distinction, and intricate, and impracticable schemes, I have en shall think it my duty to justify, by constant redeavoured to rectify their defects, to adapt it to spect and sincerity, the favours which you have all capacities, and render it of general, lasting, been pleased to show me. I am, my lord, your and extensive benefit

. How this is effected, the excellency's most humble and 'most obedient following plates will sufficiently explain, to which

servant, I have prefixed a suitable introduction, and a concise and impartial history of the origin and

London, Jan. 12, 1760. progressive improvements of this art. And as I have submitted the whole to the inspection of accurate judges, whose approbation I am ho- A COMPLETE SYSTEM OF ASTRONOMICAL noured with, I most humbly crave leave to pub CHRONOLOGY, UNFOLDING lish it to the world under your grace's patronage; TURES. BY JOHN KENNEDY, RECTOR OF not merely on account of your great dignity and BRADLEY, IN DERBYSHIRE. 4to. 1762. high rank in life, though these receive a lustre from your grace's humanity; but also from a knowledge of your graces disposition to encou

SIRE,-Having by long labour and diligent rage every useful art, and favour all true pro- the chronology of the Bible, I hope to be par

inquiry, endeavoured to illustrate and establish moters of science. That your grace may long doned the ambition of inscribing my work to live the friend of learning, the guardian of liberty, and the patron of virtue, and then transmit your majesty. your name with the highest honour and esteem the tumult and anxiety of military preparations

An age of war is not often an age of learning: to latest posterity, is the ardent wish of your seldom leave attention vacant to ihe silent prograce's most humble, &c.

gress of study, and the placid conquests of in

vestigation; yet, surely, a vindication of the BARETTI'S DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH inspired writers can never be unseasonably of:

fered to the Defender of the Faith, nor can it ever be improper to promote that religion with

out which all other blessings are snares of dem HIS EXCELLENCY DON FELIX, MARQUIS OF Struction, without whịch armies cannot make us ABREU AND BERTODANO, AMBASSADOR EXTRA safe, nor victories make us happy.

I'am far from imagining that my testimony can add any thing to the honours of your ma

jesty, to the splendour of a reign crowned with My Lord,—That acuteness of penetration into triumphs, to the beauty of a life dignified by characters and designs,

and that nice discern- | virtue. i can only wish, that your reign may






2 VOLS. 46o. 1760.






long continue such as it has begun, and that the THE ENGLISH WORKS OF ROGER ASCHAM, effulgence of your example may spread its light

410. 1767, through distant ages, till it shall be the highest praise of any future monarch, that he exhibits TO THE RIGHT HON. ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER,

EARL OF SHAFT ESBURY, BARON ASHLEY, LORD ne resemblance of George the Third. I am, Sire, your majesty's, &c.


My LORD, -Having endeavourcd, by an ele. gant and useful edition, to recover the esteem of

the public to an author undeservedly neglected, HOOLE'S TRANSLATION OF

the only care which I now owe to his memory, is TASSO'S JERUSALEM DELIVERED. 1763,

that of inscribing his works to a patron whose acTO THE QUEEN,

knowledged eminence of character may awaken

attention and attract regard. Madam,—To approach the high and the illus I have not suffered the zeal of an editor so far trious has been in all ages the privilege of poets; to take possession of my mind, as that I should and though translators cannot justly claim the obtrude upon your lordship any productions same honour, yet they naturally follo v their au- unsuitable to the dignity of your rank or of your thors as attendants: and I hope that in return sentiments. Ascham was not only the chief for having enabled Tasso to diffuse his fame ornament of a celebrated college, but visited fothrough the British dominions, I may be intro- reign countries, frequented courts, and lived in duced by him to the presence of your majesty. familiarity with statesmen and princes; not only

Tasso has a peculiar claim to your majesty's instructed scholars in literature, but formed favour, as follower and panegyrist of the house Elizabeth to empire. of Este, which has one common ancestor with To propagate the works of such a writer will the house of Hanover; and in reviewing his life not be unworthy of your lordship's patriotism; it is not easy to forbear a wish that he had lived for I know not what greater benefits you can in a happier time, when he might among the confer on your country, than that of preserving descendants of that illustrious family have found worthy names from oblivion, by joining them a more liberat and potent patronage.

with your own. I am, my lord, your lordship's I cannot but observe, madam, how unequally most obliged, most obedient, and most humble reward is proportioned to merit, when I reflect servant, that the happiness which was withheld from Tasso is reserved for me; and that the poem which once hardly procured to its author the countenance of the Princess of Ferrara, has at ADAMS'S TREATISE ON THE GLOBES. 1767. tracted to its translator the favourable notice of a British queen.

Had this been the fate of Tasso, he would have been able to have celebrated the condescen- to be afraid of diminution by condescending to

SIRE,- It is the privilege of real greatness not sion of your majesty in nobler language, but the notice of little things: and I therefore can could not have felt it with more ardent grati- boldly solicit the patronage of your majesty to tude, than, madam, your majesty's most faithful the humble labours by which I have endeavoured and devi!ed servant.

to improve the instruments of science, and make the globes on which the earth and sky are delineated less defective in their construotion, and

less difficult in their use. LONDON AND WESTMINSTER IMPROVED. Geography is in a peculiar manner the science

of princes. When a private student revolves the ILLUSTRATED BY PLANS. 4to, 1766.

terraqueous globe, he beholds a succession of countries in which he has no more interest than

in the imaginary regions of Jupiter and Saturn. SIRE,—The patronage of works which have But your majesty must contemplate the scientific a tendency towards advancing the happiness of picture with other sentiments, and consider, as mankind, naturally belongs to great princes; oceans and continents are rolling before you, and public good, in which public elegance is how large a part of mankind is now waiting on comprised, has ever been the object of your your determinations, and may receive benefits majesty's regard.

or suffer evils, as your influence is extended or In the following pages your majesty, I flatter withdrawn. myself, will find, that I have endeavoured at The provinces which your majesty's arms extensive and general usefulness. Knowing, have added to your dominions, make no incontherefore, your majesty's early attention to the siderable part of the orb allotted to human be polite arts, and more particular affection for the ings. Your power is acknowledged by nations study of architecture, I was encouraged to hope whose names we know not yet how to write, that the work which I now presume to lay be- and whose boundaries we cannot yet describe. fore your majesty, might be thought not un- But your majesty's lenity and beneficence gire worthy your royal favour: and that the protec- us reason to expect the time when science shall tion which your majesty always affords to those be advanced by the diffusion of happiness : when who mean well, may be extended to, sire, your the deserts of America shall become pervious majesty's most dutiful subject, and most obe- and safe: when those who are now restrained dient and most humble servant,

by fear shall be attacted by reverence: and multitudes who now range the woods for prey,




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