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§ 2. Account of Greek Manuscripts containing the Old and New Testaments.
I. The Alexandrian manuscript. — II. The Vatican manuscript.
§3. Account of Manuscripts (entire or in part) containing the Septuagint or Greek
Version of the Old Testament
I. The Codex Cottonianus. II. The Codex Sarravianus. - III. The Codex
Colbertinus. — IV. The Codex Cæsareus, Argenteus, or Argenteo-Purpureus.
- V. The Codex Ambrosianus. VI. The Codex Coislinianus. VII. The
Codex Basilio-Vaticanus. - VIII. The Codex Turicensis.
§ 4. Account of the principal Manuscripts containing the New Testament entire or
I. The Codex Cottonianus (Titus C. XV.)-II. The Codex Bezæ, or Cantabri-
giensis. III. The Codex Ephremi. IV. The Codex Claromontanus. - V.
The Codex Argenteus. VI. The Codex Rescriptus of St. Matthew's Gospel
in Trinity College, Dublin. - VII. The Codex Laudianus 3.-VIII. The Co-
dex Boernerianus. IX. The Codex Cyprius.-X. The Codex Basileensis E.
- XI. The Codex San-Germanensis. XII. The Codex Augiensis. - XIII.
The Codex Harleianus, 5598. -XIV. The Codex Regius or Stephani 7.-
XV. The Codex Uffenbachianus. - XVI. The Codices Manners Suttoniani.
XVII. The Codices Mosquenses. - XVIII. The Codex Brixiensis. - XIX.
Other MSS. written in small characters and deserving of especial notice, viz.
1. The Codex Basileensis, 1.-2. The Codex Corsendoncensis. - 3. The Co-
dex Montfortianus. - 4. The Codex Regius, 50.-5. The Codex Leicestrensis.
6. The Codex Vindobonensis. - 7. The Codex Ebnerianus. - XX. Notice
of the Collations of the Barberini and Velesian manuscripts.
CHAPTER III. On the Editions of the Old and New Testament.
SECTION I. A Critical Notice of the principal Editions of the Hebrew
SECTION II. A Critical Notice of the principal Editions of the Greek
CHAPTER IV. On the Divisions and Marks of Distinction occurring
in Manuscripts and Printed Editions of the Scriptures.
SECTION I. On the Divisions and Marks of Distinction occurring in
the Old Testament.
I. Different Appellations given to the Scriptures.-II. General Divisions of the
Canonical Books. - III. Particularly of the Old Testament. - 1. The Law.
2. The Prophets.-3. The Cetubim or Hagiographa. — IV. Account of the
Masora. V. Modern Divisions of the Books of the Old Testament. - Chap-
ters and Verses.
SECTION II. On the Divisions and Marks of Distinction occurring in
the New Testament.
I. Antient divisions of Τίτλοι and Κεφαλαια. Ammonian, Eusebian, and Eutha-
lian sections. Modern divisions of chapters. - II. Account of the antient and
modern punctuation of the New Testament. Antient Erixo and modern
III. Of the titles to each book. —IV. Subscriptions to the different
CHAPTER V. On the antient Versions of the Scriptures.
SECTION I. Antient Versions of the Old Testament.
1. Of the Targums, or Chaldee Paraphrases.
I. Targum of Onkelos; II. Of the Pseudo-Jonathan;-III. The Jerusalem
Targum;-IV. The Targum of Jonathan Ben Uzziel; - V. The Targum on
the Hagiographa ; - VI. The Targum on the Megilloth; - VII. VIII. IX.
Three Targums on the Book of Esther; X. Real value of the different Tar-
§ 2. On the Antient Greek Versions of the Old Testament.
I. History of the Septuagint; - II. Critical Account of its Execution; - III.
What Manuscripts were used by its Authors; -IV. Account of the Biblical
Labours of Origen; - V. Notice of the Recensions or Editions of Eusebius
and Pamphilus, of Lucian, and of Hesychius; - VI. Peculiar Importance of
the Septuagint Version in the Criticism and Interpretation of the New Testa-
ment; VII. Bibliographical Notice of the principal Printed Editions of the
Septuagint Version;-VIII. Account of other Greek Versions of the Old
Testament; -1. Version of AqQUILA; -2. Of THEODOTION; 3. Of SYMMA-
CHUS; 4, 5, 6. Anonymous Versions; - IX. References in Antient Manu-
scripts to other Versions.
3. On the Antient Oriental Versions of the Old Testament.
I. Syriac Versions. — Notice of the Syriac Manuscripts brought from India by
the late Rev. Dr. Buchanan; - Editions of the Syriac Version; - II. Arabic
Versions, and Editions; - III. Other Oriental Versions; -1. Persian Ver-
sions; -2. Egyptian Versions.-3. Ethiopic or Abyssinian Version. - 4. Ar-
menian Version.-5. Sclavonic or Old Russian Version.
§4. On the Antient Latin Versions of the Scriptures.
I. Of the Old Italic, or Ante-Hieronymian Version; — II. Account of the Biblical
Labours and Latin Version of Jerome ;-III. Of the Vulgate Version, and its
Editions; IV. Critical value of the Latin Vulgate Version.
SECTION II. On the Antient Versions of the New Testament.
I. ORIENTAL VERSIONS.-1. Peschito or Antient Syriac Version.-2. The Phi-
loxenian Syriac Version.-3. The Syriac translation of Jerusalem.-4. Egyp
tian Versions.-5. Arabic Versions. - 6. Ethiopic Version.-7. Armenian
Version.-8. Persian Version. — II. WESTERN TRANSLATIONS.-1. The Go-
thic Version.-2. The Sclavonic Version. - 3. The Anglo-Saxon Version. 202
SECTION III. On the Use and Application of Antient Versions.
Observations on the respective merits of the several antient versions: --- rules
for consulting them to the best advantage. 212
CHAPTER VI. On the Modern Versions of the Scriptures.
SECTION I. General Observations on the Circulation of the Scriptures.
I. Scarcity and high prices of the Scriptures. II. Rude attempts to convey an
idea of their contents to the poor and illiterate. - Account of the BIBLIA PAU-
PERUM. - - III. Number and classification of the translations of the Bible into
SECTION II. On the modern Latin Versions of the Old and New Testa-
I. Modern Latin Versions of the entire Bible, executed by persons in communion
with the church of Rome. - 1. Of Pagninus. - 2. Of Montanus. - 3. Of Mal-
venda and Cardinal Cajetan. -4. Of Houbigant. - II. Modern Latin Versions
of the whole Bible executed by Protestants.-1. Of Munster. - 2. Of Leo
Juda. 3. Of Castalio.-4. Of Junius and Tremellius. - 5. Of Schmidt. --
6. Of Dathe. 7. Of Schott and Winzer. III. Modern revisions and cor-
rections of the Vulgate Latin Version, by Catholics and Protestants. — IV.
Modern Latin Versions of the New Testament. - 1. Of Erasmus. - 2. Of Beza.
- 3. Of Sebastiani. Other modern Latin Versions of less note.
SECTION III. Versions in the modern Languages of Europe.
I. GERMAN VERSION of Luther. Notice of ten versions derived from it. - No-
tice of other German Versions by Protestants, and by Roman Catholics.
Jewish German Versions. II. VERSIONS IN THE LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN THE
BRITISH ISLES.1. English Versions, particularly Wickliffe's Bible. - Tin-
dal's Bible. Coverdale's Bible. Matthewe's Bible. - - Cranmer's or the
Great Bible. - Geneva Bible. English Versions by Roman Catholics at
Rheims and Douay.- King James's Bible, or the authorised version now in
use. History of it. Notice of its best editions. - Its excellency vindicated
against recent objectors. ― Testimonies of eminent critics to its fidelity and
excellency.-2. Welsh Version.-3. Irish Version.-4. Gaelic Version.-5.
Manks Version.-III. FRENCH VERSIONS.-IV. DUTCH VERSION. — V. ITA-
LIAN VERSION. VI. SPANISH VERSIONS.- VII. RUSSIAN VERSION.. VIII.
CROAT VERSION.-IX. BASQUE VERSION.-X. HUNGARIAN VERSION.-XI. Po-
LISH VERSIONS. XII. BOHEMIAN VERSION. - XIII. ROMAIC or modern GREEK
VERSIONS. - XIV. XV. BULGARIAN and WALLACHIAN VERSIONS.. XVI. Ro-
MANESE VERSIONS. XVII. TURKISH VERSIONS. XVIII. PORTUGUESE VER-
SION. XIX. ALBANIAN VERSION. - XX. MALTESE VERSION.
SECTION IV. Modern Versions in the Languages of Asia.
I. Hebrew. II. Chaldee.-III. Versions in the Oriental Languages, either
translated by the Baptist Missionaries at Serampore, or printed at the Mission
Press. 1. ARABIC, and the languages derived from or bearing affinity to it.
- 2. SANSCRIT, and the languages derived from or bearing affinity to it. - 3.
CHINESE, and the languages derived from or bearing affinity to it. IV. Other
Asiatic Versions.-I. Formosan.-2. Tartar.-3. Georgian.-4. Tahi-
SECTION V. Modern Versions in the Languages of Africa and America.
I. AFRICAN VERSIONS.—1. Amharic and Tigré. —2. Bullom.-3. Susoo. — II.
NORTH AMERICAN VERSIONS.-1. Virginian.-2. Delaware.-3. Indian Mas-
sachusetts. 4. Mohawk.-5. Mohegan.-6. Esquimeaux, -7. Greenland-
ish. 8. Creolese. III. SOUTH AMERICAN VERSIONS.
CHAPTER VII. On the Critical Use of the Jewish and Rabbinical
Writings, and the Works of profane Authors.
I. The Apocryphal books of the Old Testament. II. The Talmud. - 1. The
Misna.-2. The Gemara. Jerusalem and Babylonish Talmuds.-3. The
Writings of Philo-Judæus and Josephus. - Account of them. The genuine-
ness of Josephus's testimony to the character of Jesus Christ proved. - IV.
On the use of the writings of profane authors for the elucidation of the Scrip-
CHAPTER VIII. On the Various Readings occurring in the Old and
I. The Christian faith not affected by Various Readings. II. Nature of Vari-
ous Readings. Difference between them and mere errata. III. Causes of
Various Readings:- 1. The negligence or mistakes of transcribers; -2.
Errors or imperfections in the manuscript copied ; — 3. Critical conjecture;
-4. Wilful corruptions of a manuscript from party motives. IV. Sources
whence a true reading is to be determined: 1. Manuscripts; -2. Antient
Editions;-3. Antient Versions; -4. Parallel Passages;-5. Quotations in
the Writings of the Fathers; 6. Critical Conjecture.-V. General rules for
judging of various readings.. VI. Notice of Writers who have treated on
CHAPTER IX. Of the Quotations from the Old Testament in the
New. Quotations in the New Testament from the Apocryphal
Writers and from profane Authors.
SECTION I. On the External Form of the Quotations from the Old
Testament in the New.
QUOTATIONS FROM THE HEBREW SCRIPTURES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.-I.
Quotations exactly agreeing with the Hebrew. - II. Quotations nearly agree-
ing with the Hebrew. III. Quotations agreeing with the Hebrew in sense,
but not in words. IV. Quotations that give the general sense, but abridge or
add to it.-V. Quotations taken from several passages of Scripture. - VI.
Quotations differing from the Hebrew, but agreeing with the Septuagint. -
VII. Quotations in which there is reason to suspect a different reading in the
Hebrew. VIII. Passages in which the Hebrew seems to be corrupted. - IX.
Passages which are mere references or allusions.
SECTION II. On the Quotations from the Septuagint Version in the
I. Quotations agreeing verbatim with the Septuagint, or only changing the per-
son, number, &c. II. Quotations taken from the Septuagint, but with some
variation. III. Quotations agreeing with the Septuagint in sense, but not in
words.—IV. Quotations differing from the Septuagint, but agreeing exactly
or nearly with the Hebrew. V. Quotations that differ from both the Septua-
gint and the Hebrew. VI. Considerations on the probable causes of the
seeming discrepancies in the quotations from the Old Testament in the
New. Page 386
SECTION III. On the Internal Form of Quotations, or the Mode in which
Citations from the Old Testament are applied in the New.
General observations on the Rabbinical and other modes of quoting the Old Tes-
tament. Classification of the Quotations in the New Testament; - I. Quo-
tations from the Old Testament in the New, in which the predictions are lite-
rally accomplished; - II. Quotations, in which that is said to have been done,
of which the Scriptures have not spoken in a literal, but in a spiritual sense;
— III. Quotations that are accommodated by the sacred writers to particular
events or facts; - IV. Quotations and other Passages from the Old Testament
which are alluded to in the New. 433
SECTION IV. Of Apocryphal Passages, supposed to be quoted in the
New Testament Quotations from profane Authors. 443
CHAPTER X. On the Poetry of the Hebrews.
I. A large portion of the Old Testament proved to be poetical; - Cultivation of
poetry by the Hebrews. - II. The sententious parallelism, the grand character-
istic of Hebrew Poetry. Its origin and varieties. — 1. Parallel lines grada-
tional; -2. Parallel lines antithetic; -3. Parallel lines constructive; - 4.
Parallel lines introverted. III. The poetical dialect not confined to the Old
Testament. Reasons for expecting to find it in the New Testament. - Proofs
of the existence of the poetical dialect there; -1. From simple and direct
quotations of single passages from the poetical parts of the Old Testament;
2. From quotations of different passages, combined into one connected whole;
3. And from quotations mingled with original matter. IV. Original pa
rallelisms occurring in the New Testament:1. Parallel Couplets; -2. Pa-
rallel Triplets;-3. Quatrains; —4, 5. Stanzas of five and six lines; -6.
Stanzas of more than six parallel lines.-V. Other examples of the poetical
parallelism in the New Testament; -1. Parallel lines gradational; -2. The
Epanodos. VI. Different kinds of Hebrew Poetry.-1. Prophetic poetry;-
2. Elegiac poetry; - 3. Didactic poetry;-4. Lyric poetry; — 5. The Idyl;
-6. Dramatic poetry; -7. Acrostic or alphabetical poetry. VII. General
observations for better understanding the compositions of the sacred poets. 446
CHAPTER XI. On Harmonies of Scripture.
I. Occasion and design of Harmonies of the Scriptures.-II. Works reconciling
alleged or seeming contradictions in the Sacred Writings. III. Harmonies
of the Old Testament. IV. Harmonies of the Four Gospels. - V. 1. Har-
monies of particular parts of the Gospels.-2. Harmonies of the Acts of the
Apostles and of the Apostolical Epistles. — VI. Observations on the different
schemes of harmonisers, and on the duration of the public ministry of Jesus
ON THE INTERPRETATION OF SCRIPTURE.
CHAPTER I. On the Sense of Scripture.
I. Of the Literal Sense. II. Allegorical Sense. -III. Typical or Spiritual
Sense. IV. Parabolic Sense. - V. Examination and vindication of the Spi-
ritual Sense. VI. General rules for investigating the Sense of Scrip-
CHAPTER II. On the Signification of Words and Phrases.
I. General rules for investigating the meaning of words. -II. On emphatic
words. III. Rules for the investigation of emphases.
CHAPTER III. On the subsidiary Means for ascertaining the Sense of
SECTION I. On the Cognate Languages.
SECTION II. On the Analogy of Scripture, or Parallel Passages.
I. Nature of Parallel Passages. II. Verbal Parallelisms. - III. Real Parallel-
isms. IV. Parallelisms of members, or poetical parallelisms. — V. Rules for
investigating parallel passages. - Helps for the investigation of parallel pas-
SECTION III. Scholiasts and Glossographers.
I. Nature of Scholia. - II. And of Glossaries. III. Rules for consulting them
to advantage in the interpretation of the Scriptures.
SECTION IV. Of the Subject Matter.
SECTION V. Of the Context.
I. The Context defined and illustrated. II. Rules for investigating the Con-
SECTION VI. On Historical Circumstances.
Historical Circumstances defined. - I. Order. - II. Title. - III. Author.-IV.
Date of the several books of Scripture. V. The Place where written. - VI.
Chronology.-VII. Occasion on which they were written.-VIII. Scope or
design. IX. Analysis of each book.-X. Biblical Antiquities, including 1.
The political, ecclesiastical, and civil state; -2. Sacred and profane History;
-3. Geography; -4. Genealogies; 5. Natural History;- and 6. Philo-
sophical sects and learning of the Jews and other nations mentioned in the
- Importance of investigating the scope of a book or pas-
II. Rules for investigating it.
SECTION VIII. Of the Analogy of Faith.
I. The Analogy of faith defined and illustrated.-II. Its importance in studying
the Sacred Writings. - III. Rules for investigating the analogy of faith. 557