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mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and 9. the glory of them; and saith unto him, "All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down 10. " and worship me." Then saith Jesus unto him, "Get thee hence, "Satan: for it is written, Thou "shalt worship the Lord thy "God, and him only shalt thou 11. " serve." Then the devil leaveth him, and, behold, angels came and ministered unto him.
Second Sunday in Lent.
ALMIGHTY God, who seest that we have no power of ourselves to help ourselves; Keep us both outwardly in our bodies, and inwardly in our souls, that we may be defended from all adversities which may happen to the body, and from all evil thoughts which may assault and hurt the soul, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
love of power. Our Saviour answered each by reference to Scripture, by means, therefore, which were within the reach of mere human nature; and he might perhaps intend to teach this lesson, that the scriptures, if properly resorted to, were sufficient to enable every one to overcome temptation. In Eph. vi. 17. St. Paul calls the word of God" (i. e. the holy scriptures) "the sword of the spirit," the arms Christians are to use. 9.6. (q) For " any matter," read, "the "matter" i. e. the matter I am treating of: "any" is not in the original, and the meaning is, that no man invade another's right, or transgress the proper bounds, by adultery, fornication, or any such vice. It is against these vices in particular St. Paul was speaking, not against fraud in general; and adultery with another's wife is in the strongest and most heinous way defrauding him.
The Epistle. 1 Thess. iv. 1. WE beseech you, brethren, and exhort you by the Lord Jesus, that as ye have received of us how ye ought to walk and to please God, so ye would abound more and more. For ye know 2. what commandments we gave you by the Lord Jesus. For this 3is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should abstain from fornication: that every 4. one of you should know how to possess his vessel in sanctification and honour; not in the lust of 5. concupiscence, even as the Gentiles which know not God: that 6. no man go beyond and defraud his brother in (q) any matter; because that the Lord is the avenger of all such, as we also have forewarned you and testified. For 7. God hath not called us unto uncleanness, but unto holiness. He 8 therefore that despiseth, despiseth not man, but God, who hath also given unto us his (r) holy. Spirit.
(r) "His holy spirit." So that his 8. spirit may be considered as inhabiting our bodies, and our bodies as the temple of the spirit. St. Paul uses the same argument more expressly, 1 Cor. iii. 16, 17. "Know ye not that ye are the "temple of God, and that the spirit of "God dwelleth in you: if any man de"file the temple of God, him shall God "destroy, for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are." 1 Cor. vi. 18, 19. "Flee fornication: he "that committeth fornication sinneth
against his own body. What! know
ye not that your body is the temple "of the Holy Ghost, which is in you, " which ye have of God." So that fornication, as polluting that temple, was in an especial manner treating God contemptuously. In 1 Cor. vi. 15. he endeavours to repress this sin, by the argument that our bodies are members of
The Gospel. Matt. xv. 21. JESUS went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon. 22. And, behold, a (s) woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, "Have mercy on me, O Lord, "thou son of David! my daugh"ter is grievously vexed with a 23. "devil." But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, "Send (t) her away; for she 24. crieth after us." But he answered and said, "I am not "sent (u) but unto the lost sheep 25. of the house of Israel." Then
came she and worshipped him, 26. saying, "Lord, help me!". But he answered and said, "It is not
Christ, and that fornication, therefore, has the aggravation of disgracing one of Christ's members. "Know ye not that "your bodies are the members of Christ? "Shall I then take the members of "Christ, and make them the members "of an harlot? God forbid."
(s) "A woman of Canaan." A Gentile, therefore, not a Jewess.
(t) "Send her away," not unkindly, but grant her request.
(u) "Not sent, but," &c. Not absolutely, but comparatively: not sent so soon, so immediately to any, as to the lost sheep, &c. It is not uncommon in the Bible, when nothing but a comparison is intended, to affirm absolutely of one thing, and deny absolutely of another, what is however true of both, but abounds, &c. more in the former than the latter. "I desired mercy, and not "sacrifice," Hosea vi. 6. did not mean that sacrifice was to be discontinued, but that mercy was to be preferred to ithad more merit, weight, &c. See also John xii. 44.-xvii. 9.
Acts v. 4.
1 Cor. i. 17. There are other passages which import that the benefits of our SaFour's coming were first to be offered to the Jews, and that the Jews were to reject them before they were to be offered to the Gentiles: the parable of the marriage feast, Matt. xxii. 2. implies it;
and Matt. x. 6. where our Saviour sends out the twelve Apostles, he tells them not to go into the way of the Gentiles, and into any of the cities of the Samaritans not to enter, but to go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. After his Resurrection, our Saviour says, Luke xxiv. 47. that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Je rufalem. And Acts xviii. 46. where the Jews publicly opposed Paul and Barnabas, they said, "it was necessary that "the word of God should first have "been spoken to you: but seeing ye "put it from you, and judge yourselves "unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we
turn to the Gentiles." Post 128. v.36.
(x) “The children's meat," &c. As . it is not right to give to the dogs the food provided for the children, so it would be wrong to give to a Gentile
what was intended for Jews.
(y)" Yet," &c. The woman adopts v. our Saviour's similitude, but extends it so as to prevent its barring her claim: the curing her daughter would be but as a crumb falling from the table, would be nothing in comparison to what he might do for the Jews, and should not therefore be denied.
(z) "Faith," i. e. confidence in my v. power.
jesty to be our defence against all our enemies, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
The Epistle. Ephes. v. I. BE ye therefore followers of God, 2. as (a) dear children; and walk in love, as (b) Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for (c) a sweet-smelling savour. But fornication, and all uncleanness, or (d) covetousness, let it not be once named among you, 4. as becometh saints; neither filthiness, nor (e) foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient; but rather giving of thanks. 5. For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous (f) man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God. 6. Let no man deceive you with vain
(a) “As dear children." As children who are conscious of having been treated as dear by their parents imitate their actions, and endeavour to follow their example, so do you imitate God's actions, &c.
(b)" As Christ," &c. As great as that of Christ, in giving himself for us. The great duty of Christian benevolence, so strongly recommended in the New Testament, is noticed, ante 24.
(c) "For a sweet-smelling savour," i. e. to conciliate God towards us. When Noah made his sacrifice to God, Gen. viii. 21. God is said to have " smelled a sweet
savour," and immediately to have promised that he would "not again curse "the ground any more for man's sake;" and the Israelites were directed to offer burnt-offerings for a sweet savour unto the Lord. Numb. xxviii. 27. 29. So Philipp. iv. 18. St. Paul calls their gift" an odour "of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable,
and well-pleasing to God." It is needless to add that this is a figurative expression as a sweet smell is acceptable to man, and procures his complacency, &c. so was this sacrifice intended to procure God's favour.
words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience. Be 7. not ye, therefore, partakers with them for ye were sometimes 8. darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as children of light; (for the fruit of the Spirit 9. is in all goodness and righteousness and truth;) proving what is 10. acceptable unto the Lord. And 11. have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them. For it is a 12. shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret. But all things that are 13. reproved are made manifest by the light for whatsoever doth make manifest is light. Where- 14. fore he saith, "Awake, thou "that sleepest, and arise from "the dead, and Christ shall give "thee light."
(d) "Covetousness." Probably the v.3. coveting another's wife is here more particularly intended.
(e) "Foolish talking." Christianity v.4. lays the restraint, as it ought, not upon actions only, but upon words, and even thoughts. Our Saviour assures us, Matt. xii. 36. " that every idle word that men "shall speak, they shall give account "thereof in the day of judgment; for "by thy words thou shalt be justified, "and by thy words thou shalt be con"demned." And he had given as the reason, Matt. xii. 34. "for out of the "abundance of the heart the mouth
speaketh." And St. James says, James iii. 2. 6. "if any man offend not in word, "the same is a perfect man, and able "also to bridle the whole body: the "tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and "setteth on fire the whole course of na"ture; and it is set on fire of hell." Post Eph. iv. 29. 19th Sunday after Trinity.
(ƒ) "Covetous man, who is an idola- v.5. "ter." This probably means an adulterer with another's wife.
The Gospel. Luke xi. 14. JESUS ESUS was casting out a devil, and it was dumb. And it came to pass, when the devil was gone
out, the dumb spake; and the 15. people wondered. But some of them said, "He casteth out de"vils through Beelzebub the 16. " chief of the devils." And
others, tempting him, sought of 17. him a sign from heaven. But
he, knowing their thoughts, said unto them, "Every (g) kingdom "divided against itself is brought "to desolation; and a house di"vided against a house, falleth. 18. If Satan also be divided against "himself, how shall his kingdom "stand? because ye say that I "cast out devils through Beel19. "zebub. And if I by Beelze
"bub cast out devils, by whom "do your sons cast them out? "therefore shall they be your judges. But if I with the finger
(b) "When," &c. So if Satan were not overcome, his ministers would remain where he had sent them; but it is because I have the mastery over him, that they are cast out. The parallel passage in Matt. xii. 29. puts this very clearly: "How can one enter into a strong man's "house, and spoil his goods, except he "first bind the strong man: and then " he will spoil his house."
(i)" He that is not with me," &c. This was probably a Jewish proverb: and the inference is, if the not being with, the not assisting, is equal to being against, how much more am I against Satan, when I cast out his ministers.
(k)" He," i.e. the unclean spirit. ()" My house," i. e. the man I left.
"of God cast out devils, no "doubt the kingdom of God is
come upon you. When (b) a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace: "but when a stronger than he "shall come upon him, and "overcome him, he taketh from "him all his armour wherein he "trusted, and divideth his spoils. "He (i) that is not with me is "against me: and he that ga "thereth not with me, scatter"eth. When the unclean spi- 2 "rit is gone out of a man, (k) he "walketh through dry places, 66 seeking rest; and finding none, "he saith, "I will return unto my (1) house whence I came out.' "And (m) when he 2 "cometh, he findeth it swept " and garnished. Then goeth 2 "he, and taketh to him seven "other spirits more wicked than "himself; and they enter in,
(m) The meaning is, if the person whom the unclean spirit has left, instead of endeavouring to prevent his return, prepares for it, and is willing to receive him back, the spirit will return with others worse, and the man's last state will be worse than his first. So if the Jews, when deliverance from the power of Satan is offered them, think proper to reject it, and impute to Satan those works of God which are intended to rouse them into a belief in Jesus Christ, &c. they will be worse off than before these mighty works were done. St. Matthew draws the inference, in the parallel passage, Matt. xii. 45. even so shall it be also unto "this wicked generation." So Matt. xi. 20 to 24. he intimates to the cities in which his mighty works had been done, that it would be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon, and for Sodom, at the day of judgment, than for them; for if the mighty works that had been done in them had been done in Tyre, Sidon, and Sodom, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.
" and dwell there: and the last "state of that man is worse than 27. "the first." And it came to
pass, as he spake these things, a certain woman of the company lifted up her voice, and said unto him, "Blessed is the womb that "bare thee, and the paps which 28. thou hast sucked." But he said, "Yea, rather, blessed are "they that hear the Word of "God, and keep it."
Fourth Sunday in Lent.
GRANT, we beseech thee, Almighty God, that we, who for our evil deeds do worthily deserve to be punished, by the comfort of thy grace may mercifully
(n) The apostle's object, in this Epistle, is to satisfy the Galatian converts of the sufficiency of the gospel, without observing the Mosaic institutions: and he here compares the Mosaic law, the law delivered to Moses at Mount Sinai, to the son of Hagar, the bondwoman, and the gospel to the son of Sarah, the free-woman: and as Hagar's son was cast out, that he might not be heir with Sarah's son, so he concludes the law is to be cast out, and will have no part of the inheritance under the gospel.
()" Under the law," i. e. the Mosaic institutions. "Hear the law," i. e. Moses's writings.
(Þ) "The one," i. e. Ishmael. "The other,” i. e. Isaac.
(q) "Bond-maid,"i.e. Hagar. Gen. xvi. Free-woman," i. e. Sarah. Gen. xxi.
1 to 3.
0.23. (r) "After the flesh," i. e. according to the common course of nature. "By promise," i. e. out of the common course, when Sarah was far beyond the ordinary age of child-bearing, by virtue of God's promise. See Gen. xvii. 16, 17. Gen. xviii. 9 to 14.
0.24. so meant
An allegory." Probably not but I will use them so.
be relieved, through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.
The Epistle. Gal. iv. 21. (n) TELL me, ye that desire to be under (0) the law, do ye not hear the law? For it is written, That 22. Abraham had two sons; the one (p) by a (q) bond-maid, the other by a free woman. But he 23. who was of the bond-woman was born after (r) the flesh; but he of the free woman was by promise. Which things are an (s) al- 24. legory for (t) these are the two (u) covenants; the (x) one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth (y) to bondage, (z) which is Agar. For this (a) Agar is 25. mount (b) Sinai in Arabia, and answereth (c) to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with
Ayr, "to be allegorized," admit of being allegorized. The learned Mr. Pierce (Pierce's Dissertation on Gal. iv.) understands the meaning to be, "have been allegorized," viz. by Isaiah, in the passage cited in verse 27. That passage follows immediately after the famous prophetic chapter, Isaiah liii. and probably referred to the future success of Christ's kingdom: and the prophet might have in his view Sarah and Hagar; but it does not follow that the whole of this allegory entered into his mind; and it probably was altogether St. Paul's.
(*) "These," i. e. the women. (u)"The two covenants," i. e. the v. 24. Mosaic law, and the Gospel.
(x)" The one," i. e. the Mosaic law, v.24. delivered to Moses at Mount Sinai.
(y) Gendereth to bondage," i. e. v. 24. brings forth slaves.
(z) "Which is Agar," i. e. which in v. 24. the allegory is called Hagar.
(a) This Agar is," i. e. represents. v. 24. The name stands for it in Arabic, thither Hagar fled, and there her posterity dwelt. Whitby in loco.
(b) "Mount Sinai," &c. i.e. where the v. 25. law was delivered to Moses.
(c) "Answereth," i. e. in the allegory. v. 25