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13. And forgettest the LORD thy maker, "that hath stretched forth the heavens, and
laid the foundations of the earth? and "hast feared continually every day, because "of the fury of the oppressor, as if he were "ready to destroy? and where is (d) the "fury of the oppressor? 14. The cap"<tive exile hasteneth that he may be loosed, "and that he should not die in the pit, nor "that his bread should fail. 15. But I "am (c) the LORD thy God, that divided "the sea (f), whose waves roared: the "LORD of hosts is his name. 16. And I "have put my word (g) in thy mouth, and "have covered thee (b) in the shadow of "mine hand, that I may (i) plant the "heavens and lay the foundations of the "earth, and say unto Zion, "Thou art my "people." 17. Awake, awake (k), stand "up, O Jerusalem, which hast drunk at "the hand of the LORD the cup of his "fury; thou hast drunken the dregs of
(d) v. 13. "And where is, &c." An intima
tion that it should be of but short continuance.
(e) v. 15. "But I am, &c." "Let him there"fore turn to me. Whenever you wish for de"liverance from captivity or any other trouble, "it is from me, who have done so much for "you, you ought to seek it."
(f) v. 15. "The sea," i. e. " the Red Sea ;" again alluding to that signal instance of his power and protection.
(g) v. 16. "Put my word, &c." i. e. "gave thee my law;" another instance of peculiar avour. "What nation was there so great, that had statutes and judgments so righteous, as the law God set before his people?" Deut. iv. The superiority of the Mosaic law, the wisom of its regulations, and their peculiar fitness or the then state of the Israelites, is admirably lustrated in Dr. Greaves's excellent lectures pon the Pentateuch.
(b) v. 16. " Covered thee, &c." i. e. "In thy march to Canaan," a strong mode of xpressing God's protection: so Is. xlix. 2. In the shadow of his hand hath he hid me." (i) v. 16. "May," rather "might." The llusion seems to be the original establishment f the people of Israel after their deliverance rom Egypt. " Planting the heavens," and laying the foundation of the earth," are figuative expressions for establishing a government. Mede 448, 449. 616.
(k) v.17. "Awake, awake, &c." After suggesting the true way of obtaining deliverance, an nimated appeal to rouse them to resort to it.
"the cup (1) of trembling, and wrung them 18. There is none to guide her among all the sons (m) whom she hath "brought forth: neither is there any that "taketh her by the hand, of all the sons " that she hath brought up. 19. These "two things are come unto thee: who "shall be sorry for thee? desolation (n), and "destruction, and (n) the famine, and the "sword: by whom (0) shall I comfort thee? 20. Thy sons have fainted, they lie at "the head of all the streets, as a wild bull "in a net: they are full of the fury of "the LORD, the rebuke of thy God. 66 21. Therefore hear now this, thou "afflicted, and drunken, but not with. "wine (p); 22. Thus saith thy Lord, the "LORD, and thy God that pleadeth the
cause of his people, "Behold, I have "taken (q) out of thine hand the cup of "trembling, even the dregs of the cup of my fury, thou shalt no more drink it
"Does the captive exile hasten that he may be "loosed, &c. let him then awake, and turn to "him who already has, and alone can, give "deliverance."
(1) v. 17. "The cup, &c." Bp. Lowth obferves, "The bold image of the cup of "God's wrath is no where handled with
greater force than in this passage, 17-23. "Jerusalem is represented in person as stag
gering under the effects of it, destitute of "that assistance she might expect from her "children: not one of them able to support
or lead her: They, abject and amazed, lie at "the head of every street, overwhelmed with "the greatness of their distress: like the oryx "intangled in a net, in vain struggling to rend "it, and escape. This is poetry of the first "order, sublimity of the highest proof." (m) v. 18. "None to guide her amongst all the sons, &c." It is from God alone therefore she can have deliverance.
(n) v. 19. "Desolation, &c." i. e. "deso"lation by famine," and "destruction by the "sword," "and famine," or rather " even "famine."
(o) v. 19. "By whom, &c." or rather "who shall comfort thee?" who but God: who accordingly gives them comfort, verse
refer to times not yet arrived: when the Jews shall have adopted the means referred to in verse 15. of turning with their whole hearts unto God. See Isaiah xi. II.
(r) A prophetic account of the backwardness of man to believe that Christ was the Messiah, of the simplicity of his appearance, his rejection, treatment, and passion, of the cause and object of his sufferings, to make an atonement for the sins of man, and to procure man's redemption, of his burial, and future exaltation. The account is so plain and circumstantial that it looks almost like a history of what had happened, rather than a prophecy of what would happen, and yet is there no doubt of its existence long before our Saviour's appearance. Dr. Hales has given a translation of it with Notes, 2 Hales 440. and many parts of it are commented upon explained and illustrated in Dr. Magee's valuable work upon Atonement and Sacrifice.
(s) v. 1. "Who hath believed ;" an intimation that there would be a disinclination, not a readiness, to believe. This passage is referred to by St. John, John xii. 37. 38. "Though "he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him, that the saying "of Isaiah the prophet might be fulfilled," (or so that the saying was fulfilled) "which he "spake, "Lord, who hath believed our report, "and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been "revealed;" and by St. Paul, Rom. x. 16.
But they have not all obeyed the gospel, for "Esaias saith, "Lord, who hath believed our "report."
(t) v. 1. "Our report." i. e. the "report "mentioned, Isaiah lii. 7.." of him that bring"eth good tidings, that publisheth peace, that
bringeth good tidings of good, that pub"lisheth salvation, that saith unto Zion, thy "God reigneth." See Rom. x. 15.
(u) v. I. "The arm of the Lord." "The " means God should use to bring salvation unto "man." It alludes to a passage in the preceding chapter, Isaiah lii. 10. announcing the deliverance by the Messiah, "The Lord hath made
"arm of the LORD (u) revealed? 2. For(x) "he (y) shall grow up (z) before him as a "tender plant (a), and as a root(a) out ofa "dryground: he hath no form(a) nor come "liness: and when we shall see him, there " is no beauty (a) that we should desire him.
3. He is despised (b) and rejected of "men, a man of sorrows, and acquainted "with grief and we hid (c) as it were our faces from him; he was despised,
"(or makes) bare his holy arm in the eyed "all the nations, and all the ends of the world "shall see the salvation of our God." Th meaning therefore is, who will believe at ha coming that in Jesus Christ is fulfilled the report "thy God reigneth ;" and who will u derstand, or to whom will it be known, that in him hath the Lord made bare his holy am, to display his salvation to the ends of the earth
(x) v. 2. "For, &c." The reasons why belief is not readily given; because he has no grandeur, pomp, or outward marks of great ness, nothing the worldly-minded think at
(y) v. 2. "He," i. e. "the Messah," re ferred to in the preceding chapter, 3. "Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, e "shall be exalted, and extolled, and be very "high."
(z) v. 2. Grow up, &c." Referring per haps to (as it was undoubtedly verified in) the humility of his birth, parentage, and early life. The reputed son of a carpenter, Matt. XTM 56.-Mark vi. 3; laid in a manger upa his birth, because there was no room in the s Lu. ii. 7; and afterwards living with Joseph the carpenter, and Mary, and subject unto them Luke ii. 51.
(a) v. 2. "As a tender plant;" "a 100t "out of a dry ground;" "no form or come "liness; "no beauty, &c." All figuratie expressions to denote the want of external sher and attraction.
(b) v. 3." Despised." This is not only prophecy which foretells the scan the Messiah should experience; he is referred to Is. xlix. 7. as “ him whom man despiseth, m "whom the nations abhorreth;" and in the prophetic Psalm (Ps. xxii. 6.) he is represent as saying of himself" I am a worm and no a very scorn of men, and the outcast of the "people, &c."
(c) v. 3. "Wehid, &c." i. e. "he was treat as one of whom men are ashamed, from who they turn their face." The marginal readi in the Bible, which Bp. Lowth and Dr. Ha follow is, "He hid as it were his face f
i. e." he was as one who was ashamed shew his face."
) v. 4. " Borne," i. e. " taken upon himIf, had upon his shoulders." Dr. Magee Dr. Hales think the reading should be, moved our diseases," which would make reference to it in Matt. viii. 17. much
natural. "He healed all that were sick, hat it might be fulfilled which was spoken y Esaias the prophet," "himself took our firmities, and bare our sicknesses." I Magee, to 436.
) v. 4.
"Smitten of God, and afflicted," smitten and afflicted of God," Dr. Hales. Chat it was God's visitation; that he had Meserved by his own sins all he suffered." +ƒ) v.5. "But, &c." rather "but it was or our transgressions he was wounded, it evas for our iniquities, &c." St. Paul speaks Christ as him," who was delivered for our ffences, Rom. iv. 25." "Who gave himself
or our sins, Gal. i. 4. who died for our ins, I Cor. xv. 3. ;" and St. Peter says of 2, that he "bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we being dead to sin, should ive unto righteousness; by whose stripes ye were healed: for ye were as sheep going astray. Pet. ii. 24."
(g) v. 5. "Of our peace," i. e. " by which our peace, our reconciliation to God, was to be obtained."
(b) v. 5. "With," rather " by," means of."
(i) v. 6. "We," i. e. " mankind," whole human race."
"astray we have turned every one to "his own way; and the LORD hath laid "on him (k) the iniquity of us all. 7. He "was oppressed, and he was afflicted (1) "yet he opened (m) not his mouth: he is "brought as a lamb to the flaughter (»); "and as a sheep before her shearers is "dumb, so he openeth not his mouth.
8. He was taken from prison (0) and "from judgment (p) and who shall de
"quity of us all) was exacted, and he was "made answerable, or made to answer.' 29 In the Hebrew the pronoun he is not expressed before the first verb, it is before the second : and the word rendered "He" in some passages stands for God, and is the very word which is rendered It in the famous prophecy, Gen. iii. 15. "It shall bruise thy head." See ante, 617. note on Is. xli. 4.
(m) v. 7. "Opened not his mouth." Though it was not to be expected that this was to be fulfilled to the letter, yet how nearly was it so in our Saviour's instance? When the high priest said unto Jesus, " Answerest thou "nothing, he held his peace ;" and though he gave an answer when adjured by the high priest in that solemn form, "I adjure thee by the living God," the reason probably was, because to a question so put, no Jew could innocently refuse an answer. See Matt. xxvi. 62 to 64. Though he admitted to Pilate that he was the king of the Jews, when he was accused before him by the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing, insomuch that "Pilate marvelled greatly. Matt. xxvii. 11 to
14. and Mark v. 2 to 5." St. Peter says of him," when he was reviled, he reviled not "again; when he suffered, he threatened not.
1 Pet. ii. 23." and instead of calling for vengeance whilst he was in the agonies of the cross his language was, "Father forgive them, for they know not what they do. Luke xxiii. 34." (n) v. 0.7. "He is brought &c." the passage the Eunuch was reading, when Philip joined him, and converted him. Acts viii. 26 to 38.
(o) v. 8. "Prison," or "custody." Dr. Hales. (p) v. 8. "From prison and from judge"ment," so that it was to be a judicial act, on which the rulers would have time to deliberate; it was not to proceed from accident or sudden passion. The chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people assembled together, and consulted that they might take Jesus, and kill him. Matt. xxvi. 3. 4. they took him, they led him away, first to Annas, and he sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest. John xviii. 13. 24. At Caiaphas's the scribes and elders were assembled, and
"clare (q) his generation? for he was cut "off out of the land of the living: for (r) "the transgression of my people (s) was he
stricken. 9. And he made his grave (t) "with the wicked (t), and with the rich (u) "in his death, because (x) he had done no "violence, neither was any deceit in his "mouth. 10. Yet it pleased the LORD "to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: "when thou shalt make (y) his soul an "offering for sin, he shall see his seed (z), "he shall prolong his days, and the plea"sure of the LORD shall in his prosper
"hand. 11. He shall see (a) of the travail "of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by "his knowledge (6) shall my righteous ser"vant justify (c) many (d); for he shall "bear their iniquities. 12. Therefore
will I (e) divide him (f) a portion with "the great, and he shall divide the spoil "with the strong because he hath "poured (g) out his soul unto death: and " he was numbered (b) with the transgres 66 sors, and he bare the sin of many, and "made intercession (i) for the transg 66 sors."
many witnesses were examined: from thence he was led bound unto the hall of judgment, where Pilate sat: Pilate shewed great unwillingness to sentence him to death, but was repeatedly pressed to it by the chief priests and Jews: he went out twice from the judgment hall to them to intimate that he found no cause of death in him; he sent him to Herod, that he also might examine him and he was three times in the judgment hall, and at last in the judgment seat, in a place called the pavement, before he yielded to their importunities. John xviii. 28. 33.-John xix. 4. 9. 13.-Lu. xxiii. 4 to 16. His crucifixion therefore was at the pressing instance of the rulers of the people, the result of consultation and plan, after he had been many hours in custody; their consideration was awakened by Pilate's opposition, and it was under a judicial sentence; so that it was by judgment that he was taken off his crucifixion too followed immediately upon the judgment, there was no interval: so that in that respect also it is true of him, that he was taken "from judgment."
(q) v. 8. "Declare, &c." i. e. " describe the wickedness of the men of that genera"tion." 2 Lightfoot 680. 1112.-Dr. Hales.Dr. Lowth.-and see Parkhurst's Hebr. Dict.
(r) v. 8. "For," or rather "by ;"" it was to be their sinful act ;" the object of his suffering for the sins of men was sufficiently expressed before.
(s) v. 8. "My people," i. e. " the Jews." (t) v.9. "Made his grave," i. e. " died " "with the wicked" and what is the history as to Jesus Christ? "Then were there two "thieves crucified with him, one on the right "hand, and another on the left. Matt. xxvii. 38.
(u) v. 9. "And with the rich, &c." or rather" but with the rich was his tomb. Schindler 171. Dr. and Bp. Lowth and Dr. Hales. And when our Saviour was crucified,
Joseph of Arimathea, a rich man, begged the body of Jesus, and wrapped it in a clean line cloth, and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock. Matt. xxvii. 57 to 60.
(x) v. 9. For "because" Dr. and Bp. Lowth and Dr. Hales read "although," and com nect this with the following verse," although he "had done no violence, neither was there any "deceit in his mouth; yet it pleased the Lord "to bruise him, he put him to grief.”
(y) v. 10. "Shalt make" or " shah have "made," 1 Magee 227 to 230.
(*) v. 10. "His seed, &c." or rather "a "seed, that shall prolong their days." (a) v. 11. "See," i. e. see the fruits of, "the good effects."
(b) v. 11. "His knowledge" i. e. "the knowledge of him.”
(c) v. 11. "Justify" i. e. " put in the situ "ation of just men: of men who have no s "for which to answer."
(d) v. II. " Many" not all mankind. (e) v. 12. "I," i.e. "God."
(ƒ) v. 12. "Divide him, &c." or "allot "him multitudes for his portion, and he shall "have the mighty for his spoil," i. e. he shall have followers and worshippers without number.
(g) v. 12. Read "Because he poured, "and was numbered, &c." "and bare, &c." 2 Hales 441. assigning the reason why God was to divide him a portion with the great, &c.
(b) v. 12. "Numbered, &c." this page our Saviour distinctly applies to himself, Luke xxii. 37. "This that is written must yet be "accomplished in me," " and he was reckoned "among the transgressors."
(i) v. 12. "Made intercession, &c." the first instance occurred whilst Christ was yet upon the cross, "Father forgive them, for they know "not what they do," Luke xxiii. 34. T whole of this account, so singular and so cumstantial, so utterly impossible to be
CHAP. LV. (k)
O every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters (/), and he (m) that hath no money; come ye buy and eat, yea, come, buy wine and milk without money, and without price. 2. Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread (n)? and your labour for that which satisfieth (n) not? hearken diligently unto me, and eat ye that which is good (0), and let your soul delight itself in fatness(). 3. Incline your ear and come unto me: hear, and your soul (p) shall live, and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the sure mercies of David (q). 4. Behold, I have given him (r) for a witness to the people (r), a leader and commander to the people (r). 5. Behold,
ffect of guess or conjecture, was accurately nd to the letter fulfilled in Jesus Christ, and as it ever been fulfilled in any other? and yet his is but one of the many prophecies which stablish the proof that he was the true Messiah. How then can it have happened that the Jews have resisted this evidence? St. Paul in the spirit of prophecy, gives the answer: because "blindness in part is happened to Israel, until "the fulness of the gentiles be come in. Rom.
xi. 25." When they shall search the scripures, when they shall turn to God, and eriously and with humility endeavour to find ut the truth, we have the sure word of scripure that they shall look upon him whom they have pierced, Zech. xii. 10. and Rev. i. 7." nd all Israel shall be saved, Rom. xi. 26.”
(E) An invitation to all mankind, gentiles as rell as Jews, to faith and repentance; and asurances of pardon and blessings to all believers. (1) v. 1. "Waters," i. e. " of life; spiritual meat and drink; what will support and invigo rate the soul." Our Saviour enlarges upon this lea, John vi. 27-33-35- "Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life. The bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. 1am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger, and he that believeth on me · shall never thirst ;" and see John vi. 53 to 9. and John vii. 37 to 39. So John iv. 14. - Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst." (m) v. 1. "And he," or
not necessary for this purchase.
(n) v. 2. "Not bread," and "satisfieth not,"
"thou (s) shalt call a nation that thou "knowest not, and nations that knew not "thee (s), shall run unto thee, because of "the LORD thy God, and for the holy One "of Israel; for he hath glorified (t) thee. "6. Seek ye the LORD while he may be "found (u), call ye upon him while he is 7. Let the wicked forsake his "way, and the unrighteous man his "thoughts: and let him return unto the "LORD, and he will have mercy upon him; "and to our God, for he will abundantly "pardon. 8. For my thoughts are not "your thoughts (x), neither are your ways 66 my ways, saith the LORD. 9. For as the "heavens are higher than the earth, so are "my ways higher (y) than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts. "10. For as the rain cometh down, and
(g) v.3. "The sure mercies of David," i. e. "the gospel dispensation," the blessings to be procured for man by the Messiah, which were promised to David, who was a type of Christ. (r) v. 4. "Him," i. e. the Messiah," "the "people," i. e. " the nations," "the gentiles,” "all mankind."
(s) v. 5. "Thou," and "thee," i. e. "the "Messiah." The meaning is, that the nations who have not practised or known the true worship of God, shall be converted to christianity, and embrace the true religion. See ante, Is. ii. 2. and Is. ii. 10.
() v.5. "Hath glorified," i. e. " shall glo"rify," the perfect for the future; it being as certain as though it had already happened.
(u) v.6. "While he may be found," and "whilst he is near," to intimate, that if the opportunity is not seized, when it occurs, it may never be again offered. The same intimation is given, Prov. i. 24. ante, and in the parable of the ten virgins, Matt. xxv. I to 12.
(x) v.8. "My thoughts are not as your "thoughts," i. e. (probably)" upon the sub. "jects of mercy and pardon God greatly differs "from man: man cannot easily grant a full and "free forgiveness to him who hath offended "him: God can."
(y) v. 9. "Higher," i. e. "more excellent, 66 more exalted, kinder, more benevolent, 66 more merciful."