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From The Fortnightly Review. demands on the part of the peasants for THE CONDITION OF RUSSIA. further rights, yet brought no danger to
Alexander II. The danger was in stopIn spite of the fears of statesmen and ping short in the path of reform after havthe selfish opposition of officialism, the ing raised the hopes of the nation by condition and experience of the Russian taking such a splendid step. But it is people seem to make them specially fit for difficult for an absolute ruler - unless a political freedom. They are reared in the man of exceptional power and ability – to practice of local self-government, which see the wisdom of the policy of concesis the best of all schools for the exercise sion or voluntarily to adopt it. The emof political rights. Everywhere the peas. peror is surrounded by a vast bureauantry, the great bulk of the nation, are cracy which looks with distrust and hatred accustomed to meet, to vote, and manage on the idea of political self-government, their social and local affairs; to elect the and which feels that its own existence is managers of their commune, and to im. incompatible with popular power and free plicitly obey those whom they have institutions. With no press, platform, or elected. They have to provide, not indi. Parliament through which he can hear vidually, but each commune collectively, the direct voice of the people, or see, for the excessive taxation imposed by things as they are, the czar relies on the central government, and in addition officialism. He sees with its eyes, hears to bear the irritating and constant inter with its ears, and trusts to it for the adference of a central officialism. The ex- ministration of his will. Accordingly tension of their experience and action there is no response to any popular de. from local and social to political and na sire. In retirement and in virtual defeat tional affairs seems a safe and natural the czar still clings to the reactionary step. There are, in fact, unusual guaran- policy. It is true there is a mild form of tees in Russia for the right exercise of liberalism which is permitted in Russia, political power by the people. They have and found even among the official classes few difficulties of caste, their present as. and in society. When referred to in semblies being representative and demo newspapers it is apt to mislead the for. cratic. There is the conservative ele- eign reader by indicating the existence in ment of a common ownership in land, each Russia of a recognized and progressive man being, as a rule, in his corporate ca. Liberal party. It is, however, merely a pacity a proprietor of the soil and re- fashionable profession of a liberalism by. sponsible to the commune for his individ- persons who enlarge on the advantages ual contribution to the common welfare. of constitutional government as a princiConsequently they have not had that most ple for countries to which it is applicaserious of all problems in their political ble, and who are anxious to give freedom future which other European nations have to the people when they are fit for it, and yet to solve – the existence of a vast so forth. With grave signs of agrarian propertyless class in the midst of an ever- troubles in several parts of the empire, increasing national wealth. In this crisis with an ever-increasing army of officials, the one means of safety for the emperor with oppressive taxation, with annual would be for him to throw off the fatal deficits and new loans, with national load of absolute power; to call the people credit strained almost to its limit, with a to his aid by conceding to them political large and increasing revolutionary party rights and representative institutions; which lays hold of the intellect of the coun. and through the action of a constitutional try, and which cannot be kept down even government to destroy, or rather to use by the severest methods of repression, it and guide, the revolutionary forces which must be admitted that the outlook in Rus. experience shows it cannot control. The sian politics is a dark one. As to the policy of concession, though difficult, is issue of the perilous conflict between czar safe, if when once entered on it is con- and people, it requires but little political tinued. The emancipation of the serfs, insight to predict that the present system though imperfectly carried out and lead. in Russia cannot last. It would not be ing as it is doing 'to angry and ominous | rash to add that it cannot last long.
CONTENTS. I. BISHOP THIRLWALL,
Church Quarterly Review, 11. The WIZARD'S SON. Part VI.,
Macmillan's Magazine, III. ROBERT HERRICK, .
Temple Bar, IV. The LADIES LINDORES.' Part XXVI.,
Blackwood's Magazine, V. THE TEMPLES OF GIRGENTI,
Month, . VI. FROM A GARRET,
Cornhill Magazine, VII. ENGLISH LONGEVITY,
Spectator, VIII. THE FRENCH REPUBLIC,
451 469 485 491 503 505 509 510
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PUTTING IN THE SHADE.
And the wagtail flirts his plumage pied 'Twas his little daughter's portrait
In snatches of flight by the waterside ; Child as a lily fair;
Garden voices that late were dumb Clear as some crystal stream her eye,
Whistle and warble, - a time will come Sunlit her golden hair,
For shade of leaves and pillage of sheaves He blent his colors tenderly;
And swallows a-twitter in last year's eaves. Love was in every hue That decked the canvas pale, whereon
Lo! she comes, in the old sweet ways His darling's face he drew.
The happy April of other days,
Maiden April, merry of mien, “What dost thou, darling father, now?" Trips afield in the meadow green; The little maid would say;
Sick or sound, or sorry or glad, “And why that darkness on the brow
Utter it, echo it, lass and lad, I saw not yesterday?
Lad and lass in the youth of the year Such sombre hues are not for me —
Echo it, utter it, - April's here, I love the light," she said.
Then comes May, pleasure and play, My little daughter,” answered he,
Holiday-dance and roundelay. “I'm putting in the shade.
Α. Τ. Κ.
From The Church Quarterly Review. know what he was must make a concepBISHOP THIRLWALL. *
tion of him for theinselves out of his The friends of Bishop Thirlwall have works, for they will derive but little help done scant justice to his memory. The from his biographers and editors, if we list of works which we have placed at the except the brief but deeply interesting head of our article shows that three per preface written by Dean Perowne. Mr. sons have been employed either in editing Stokes, the author of the very meagre such of his wo
was thought proper thread of narrative which connects to. to republish, or in recounting some few gether the letters published in 1881, had particulars of a life which ought, we think, not the advantage of knowing Bishop to have been related with greater detail Thirlwall personally, and does not appear and a more lucid arrangement of mate to have possessed the qualities essential rials. We are told by Dean Perowne that to a biographer. Important events of the “the bishop's life was not an eventsul bishop's life are 'either left altogether unlife.” It certainly was not, in the ordi- noticed, or treated so scantily that they pary sense of the word, eventful. A bi- might as well have been omitted. It has ography which relates the ever-changing been stated that Bishop Thirlwall's own incidents of a bustling career, spiced with dislike of even alluding to past controgood stories and more or less indiscreet versies operated as a reason for omitting revelations of matters bitherto kept secret, certain subjects, as, for instance, the Rev. is doubtless a very entertaining, and in a Rowland Williams's letter to him and his certain sense valuable, production. We reply; but surely such sentimental conthink, however, that the narrative of such siderations ought not to bave been allowed a life as Bishop Thirlwall's might, in good to interfere with the completeness of an hands, have been made more valuable bistoric picture. Dean Perowne tells us and quite as entertaining. It is true that in his preface that the materials for the he rarely quitted his peaceful retreat at biography are “scanty and imperfect.” Abergwili; but, paradoxical as it sounds, This good-natured effort to save the charhe was no recluse. He took part in spirit, acter of his colleague only serves to bring if not in bodily presence, in all the impor- out more clearly the unfitness of the latter tant events, political, religious, and lit- for the task which he undertook. The erary, of his time ; and when he chose to scantiness of the materials rendered it all break silence in speech or pamphlet no the more necessary that the editor should one could command a more undivided bave made the most of those submitted attention or exercises a more powerful in to him — should have used every care in fluence. Those, however, who wish to illustrating them, and should have supple.
mented them with all the information at. 1. Remains, Literary and Theological, of Connop Thirlwall, late Lord Bishop of S. David's. Ed- tainable in the way of dates, references, ited by J. J. STEWART Perowne, D.D. Vol. 1: and the like. This view of his duties Charges delivered between the years 1842 and 1860. does not seem to have presented itself to Vol. 2: Charges delivered between the years 1863 and
Mr. Stokes. Again, we may ask, why 1972. 8vo. London, 1877.
2. Essays, Speeches, and Sermons. By Connop did not Dean Stanley, at whose suggesThirlwall, D.D., late Lord Bishop of S. David's. tion Mr. Stokes was employed, collaborate Edited by J. J. STEWART Perowne, D.D. 8vo.
with him? We can conceive no reason don, 1880.
3. Letters to a Friend. By Connop THIRLWALL, for publishing the “ Letters to a Friend” late Lord Bishop of S. David's. Edited by the Very in a separate volume, and many for insertRev. ARTHUR PENRHYN STANLEY, D.D. Svo. London, 1831.
ing them in their proper place in the other 4. Letters, Literary and Theological, of Connop series. They deal with no distinct class Thirlwall, late Lord Bishop of S. David's.
of subject; but, on the contrary, elucidate by the Very Rev. J. J. STEWART Perowne, D.D., Dean of Peterborough, and the Rev. Louis Stokes, many points left obscure in the volume B. A., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. With An- published in the following year, and which notations and Preliminary Memoirs by the Rev. Louis seems to have been intended as the final STOKES. 8vo. London, 1891.
New Edition. London,
** Life and Letters” of the bishop. 5. Letters to a friend.
His life, as we understand the word, has yet
to be written; and we fear death has re without the most remote idea he could write moved most of those who could perform an intelligible sentence, when in a short time the task in a manner worthy of the sub- he composed that which is first printed, “On ject. For ourselves, all that we propose the Uncertainty of Life.” From that time he to do is to try to set forth his talents and was encouraged to cultivate a talent of which his character, by the help of the materials he gave so flattering a promise, and generally
on a Sunday chose a subject from Scripture. before us, and of such personal recollections as we have been able to gather lucubrations.
The following essays are selected from those together. Connop Thirlwall was born February
We will quote a passage from one of
these childish sermons, written when he II, 1797. His father, the Rev. Thomas Thirlwall, minister of Tavistock Chapel,
was eight years old. The text selected Broad Court, Long Acre, lecturer of s. is, “ Behold, I will add unto thy days fifDunstan, Stepney, and chaplain to the
(Isaiah xiii. 6); and, after celebrated Thomas Percy, Lord Bishop
some commonplaces on the condition of of Dromore, resided at Mile End. We Hezekiah, the author takes occasion from can give no information about him except the day, January 1, 1806, to make the folthe above list of his preferments; and of lowing reflections: Connop's mother we only know that her I shall now consider what resolutions we husband describes her as pious and ought to form at the beginning of a new year. virtuous,” and anxious to “promote the The intention of God in giving us life was that temporal and eternal welfare of her child we might live a life of righteousness. The dren. She had the satisfaction of living we ought, then, to live in righteousness and
same ever is His intention in preserving it. long enough to see her son a bishop.* Connop must have been a fearfully preco. perceive that another year is come, that time
obey the commandments of God. Do we not cious child. In 1809 the fond father pub. is passing away quickly, and eternity is aplished a small duodecimo volume entitled proaching? and shall we be all this while in a “ Primitiæ; or, Essays and Poems on state of sin, without any recollection that the Various Subjects, Religious, Moral, and kingdom of heaven is nearer at hand? But Entertaining. By Connop Thirlwall, we ought, in the beginning of a new year, to eleven years of age.” The first of these form a resolution to be more mindful of the essays is dated “ June 30, 1804. Seven great account we must give at the last day, and years old ;” and in the preface the father live accordingly: we ought to form a resolutells us:
tion to reform our lives, and walk in the ways
of God's righteousness; to abhor all the lusts In the short sketch which I shall take of the of the flesh, and to live in temperance; and young author, and his performance, I mean resolve no more to offend and provoke God not to amuse the reader with anecdotes of ex- with our sins, but repent of them. In the be. traordinary precocity of genius ; it is, however, ginning of a new year we should reflect a little : but justice to him to state, that at a very early although we are kept alive, yet many died in period he read English so well that he was the course of last year; and this ought to make taught Latin at three years of age, and at four us watchful. read Greek with an ease and Auency which There is not much originality of thought astonished all who heard him. From that time in this; indeed, it is impossible to avoid he has continued to improve himself in the the suspicion that the paternal sermons, knowledge of the Greek, Latin, French, and
to which the author doubtless listened English languages. His talent for composition appeared at the age of seven, from an
every Sunday, suggested the form, and accidental circumstance. His mother, in my
possibly the matter, of these essays. absence, desired his elder brother to write his What meaning could a child of eight attach thoughts upon a subject for his improvement, to such expressions as “the lusts of the when the young author took it into his head to fesh,” or “repentance,” or “eternity”? ask her permission to take the pen in hand Still, notwithstanding this evident imitaHis request was of course complied with, tion of others in the matter, the style lias
a remarkable individuality. Indeed, just • Letters, etc., p. 177.
as the portrait of the child which is pre.