à man of the world; he was well ac- neighborhood of Scrooby who held very quainted with affairs, having served under pronounced opinions in favor of the re. Davison, who had acted as ambassador forined doctrines. Such, for example, to the Netherlands for Queen Elizabeth. were John Smith of Gainsborough, who To what wide uses he could ever put this subsequently removed with his congrega. knowledge of human nature it would be tion to Holland; Richard Bernard of difficult for us to conjecture, while en-Worksop, who was violently abused by gaged in the contracted duties associated Smith for not forsaking a national Church; with the Manor House of Scrooby. Richard Clifton of Babworth, a village

But the broad river of English history near Scrooby, who with his long white was sweeping on, and would ere long beard afterwards formed a picturesque bear him and his little ark on its current. element among the Puritans of Amster. Barrowe and Greenwood had been put dam; and, finally, Thomas Toller, who to death in 1593, and Penry had been wielded great spiritual influence in his sent to his last account for the crime of parish of Sheffield from 1597 to the year preaching the gospel in Wales; but the of his death in 1644.* These and others principles which these men advocated that might be named differed much in were not to be put down by persecution. their personal characteristics and in their Scraps of paper issued forth from the zeal, as well as in the views they took of dungeons of Southwark; and when Bar- the lawfulness of a State Church; but rowe and Greenwood had been executed, they all agreed in holding tenaciously and these writings of theirs were treasured preaching vigorously the principles of the by a numerous band of followers. Eliza. Reformation. For the most part they beth's policy had been a temporizing one. were men of scholarly attainments; and On the whole, however, she had succeed- they were all men of spiritual power. ed in repressing the new Puritan fervor When, therefore, they were exposed to in the large towns and cities. But free persecution on account of their principles, dom, as in many similar cases, betook a large number of the people who had itself to the broader because obscurer air received benefit from their ministrations of the rural districts. But the Brownists took umbrage; and with a tenacity and alone must have been considerable in courage akin to the spirit of martyrdom numbers; for Raleigh said in Parliament they rallied round the Puritan flag. that the queen would bave to deal with The question of the lawfulness of es. twenty thousand of them before she could tablishing religion by the power of the hope to make her Acts of Uniformity effi- State had not come into view. Speaking cacious.

broadly, the Puritans would hardly have There was a fermentation of religious known the meaning of modern watchlife in two directions. Within the Estab. words like those of disestablishment, lished Church a large and increasing disendowment, and religious equality, number of clergy existed who would by The questions underlying these pregnant no means conceal their Puritan proclivi- words were, however, being quietly can. ties at the bidding of government. And vassed in many a thoughtful brain, and in outside the pale of the Establishment their essence they were to be practically there was an increasing and vigorous host settled by the migrations of the Pilgrim both of laymen and clergy who were re. Fathers. During Elizabeth's reign the solved to carry out the principles of Prot- principles of Independency were advo. estantism to their logical issue. But the cated by Robert Browne, a somewhat two forces acted and reacted upon one violent and, as events proved, a fickle another, and though they were to become combatant. He did not lack the courage increasingly distinct as bistory unfolded of an enthusiast, for he was several times itself, they at first tended to work harmo- imprisoned; but he was without moral niously in the same direction. At the beginning of the seventeenth century * See Hunter's Founders of New Plymouth, pp. 49, several clergymen were laboring in the l 49.

backbone; for, notwithstanding his strong tan revolt, the love of political freedom, protests against Establishments, he ended due obedience to rightfully constituted bis days as a beneficed clergyman. The authority, the principles of Separatism, battle had to be fought by men of sterner and above all the simple godliness of stuff. A few of these understood the brave men and true-hearted women, found final points at issue. But for the most there a congenial home. In the characpart the controversy in England was to ters of those who composed that congre. assume a political aspect; and the ques- gation we see the lineaments which are tion of individual and constitutional lib. traced by history, with a firm hand, on the erty had to be fought out in succeeding minds of a great people. America was to years. The tramp of Cromwell's Iron- be indebted not to Greece and Rome for sides could already be heard toward the the models by which to build up her free end of the reign of Elizabeth, and during institutions, but rather to that phase of the first few months after James had as- life which consolidated itself for a time cended the throne.

in the remote and unknown village of But for the time being religion was the Scrooby. In 1602 the people at Scrooby, uppermost thought of the age, and the together with those at Gainsborough, earnest men of the day were marking out formed one“Church.” This arrangement the lines on which the future battle of was brought to an end two years after, English and American freedom was to be when the Gainsborough people, under the fought. And the point to which, in this leadership of their pastor, John Smith, bearticle, we wish to call especial attention took themselves to Holland. This sepa. is that in the Puritan party were to be ration proved in the end beneficial to the sound two distinct lines of thought, and, Scrooby Church, inasmuch as they were as a consequence, two distinct lines of relieved of sectarian elements which would action. The Independents are often, for have resulted in much disorder; and the sake of historical convenience, called moreover, being thrown now on their own by the general name of Puritans; but mental and spiritual resources, they obthey have always formed the left wing of tained a spirit of self-reliance which stood that party, and in all battles on behalf of them in good stead in their subsequent civil and religious liberty they have ever troubles. been in the vanguard. The Puritans as a The men who ruled in this community whole were all alike in their hatred of were no fanatics. They were worthy to Popery and ceremonialism. But while be the leaders of this new exodus; and most of them had no objection to a State by their solid mental attainments, by their Church so long as it acted on the lines of practical sagacity, by their moral integ. the Reformation, the Separatists had al-rity, and by their spiritual intensity, they ready declared, both in word and deed, gave an impetus to the movement which that they refused to submit conscience lends its beneficent influence to the conand modes of worship to State authority. tending elements of our own somewhat The Puritans were moving toward a Re-troubled times. William Brewster had formed Church in a free State ; the Sepa. not forgotten the lessons which he bad ratists toward a Free Church in a free learned in the Netherlands and in the State. They had many things in com- metropolis. He was a man of ready parts, mon; but there were important lines of able to conciliate guests who waited at the difference between them even during Manor House on their journey south ward Elizabeth's time. And it is only by a or north ward, dexterous as the postmaster hearty recognition of this fact that we can of the district – an office of no mean reintelligently answer the question as to sponsibility in those primitive times whether the Pilgrim Fathers were perse. able to attract many Puritan preachers to cutors.

his house, or, when these failed, proving Some of the chief elements of the seeth himself to be an able and profitable exing life of England were crystallized in positor of the Scriptures to the people, the little church at Scrooby. The Puri.! who were by no means loth to accept him as the teacher for the day. One of the John Robinson * was educated at Cam. preachers whom he was successful in bridge, where he entered Christ College in drawing to the Manor House was Richard 1592, and became a fellow in 1598. He Clifton, of Babworth, who, having been retained his fellowship till 1604. At the silenced and ejected from his living under close of his university course he settled Elizabeth, was not unwilling to take ad- as a preacher in the neighborhod of Nor. vantage of these surreptitious opportuni- wich. The exact locality is unknown; ties of proclaiming the gospel. While nor is it certain whether he was beneficed Clifton was still at Babworth he had for or not. The probabilities seem to be that one of his hearers a youth who after he was only licensed as a preacher. wards made an important figure among This license was withdrawn by his bishop the Pilgrims. This was William Brad. on account of his Puritanism. He there. ford. His religious life began under Mr. upon drew round him a large Puritan Clifton's ministry. Afterwards famous as congregation in the city of Norwich itself. the governor of Plymouth, he already dis- But here both he and his hearers were played the virtues of prudence, practical exposed to so much persecution that he common sense, and worldly wisdomn, which was compelled to leave the city. In the proved afterwards to be of such invalu- mean while he had been considering his able service to the much-suffering and oft. relations to the Established Church, and tried community. “If Brewster was the he had been most reluctantly forced to Aaron of the enterprise, Bradford was its the conclusion that he could no longer Moses."

remain in its membership. When, there. But gifted as were these two men with fore, he left Norwich it was as a Separat. rare virtues of grace, godliness, and cour. ist. The Church at Scrooby having lost age, there was a third who stood head and the Gainsborough contingent of their shoulders above them both. Possessor members, were now casting about for a of the common name of John Robinson, spiritual leader; and accordingly John he yet stands before us in history as the Robinson seems to have been directed to pioneer of principles which are now the them in the year 1604. axioms of the highest ecclesiastical and Nothing could appear more commoncivil philosophy of the times. The his. place than the “settlement” of a Separattorical research of our day has done ist pastor over a small and weak commusomething to rescue his name from its nity like that which assembled at Scroo. undeserved oblivion. He is to Indepen-by. And yet the future course of civil dency what George Fox is to the Society and religious liberty depended in a large of Friends; and his successors have al measure upon that event. Robinson was ready done much to recognize his claims about to mould the minds which in their as their founder. His works have been turn would shape the destinies of the New industriously collected and ably edited; World. It is of the first importance, the facts of his life have been sought out therefore, that we should endeavor to un. by Mr. Hunter with the earnestness of an derstand the nature of his convictions, antiquarian; and his place in the move- especially with regard to the relations of ments of the seventeenth century has been Church and State. This is rendered the conclusively pointed out by Dr. Wadding more necessary because our own historiton in bis laborious “ History of Congre. ans have, we fear, been content to obtain gationalism.” It now only remains for their knowledge for the most part at sec. Mr. Masson, and those who give us a ond hand. And, as a natural consequence, general view of those stirring and trou- both the tenets and the conduct of the bled times, to recognize the prominent settlers of New Plymouth have been mis. place which Robinson holds as a teacher understood and misrepresented. Mr. S. and a reformer. He is evidently one of R. Gardiner, notwithstanding his usual those men who might be easily overlooked, accuracy, tells us that Rhode Island for he was not a destroyer of old systems was the first Christian community which so much as a quiet constructor of new and was established on the basis of the open better ones. The elements of society be- and complete acknowledgment of religious came plastic in his hand, and with the liberty.”! Mr. J. R. Green slips with sagacity and foresight which are found

* Hunter's Founders of New Plymouth, p. 92, et only in the highest statesmanship he built

passim. up a form of government which harmo. † History of Congregationalism in Norfolk and Sufnized the difficulties of his own day and folk, p. 63.By John Browne, B.A. Jarrold and Son. also those of future generations.

I S. R. Gardiner's “The Personal Government of

his flowing and fascinating rhetoric from some weariness to the flesh. But if we the Pilgrims to the Puritans as though wish to ascertain his views this weariness they formed the same company and held ought perlaps to be encountered. Mr. the same principles. After a brief sketch Masson, however, in quoting a most imof the Pilgrim Fathers and their landing portant passage from Robinson's work, on the New England shores, he adds, is content to do so at second hand.* “From the moment of their establishment And, as a result, he quotes words corthe eyes of the English Puritans were rectly enough ; but fails to catch the drift fixed on the little Puritan settlement in of Robinson's argument. What that drift North America." * Words here are im- is it would be tedious to explain. It is portant. It is evident that the distinc. evident that Robinson believed that Chris. tion between Puritan and Pilgrim princi. tianity could be promulgated only by per: ples has not been seen, and it has there. suasion. One of his sections is headed fore not been presented. And, as a con- " Moral means only allowed by Christ;”+ sequence, the whole colony is lumped and the whole.tenor of his work is to show together, and we are informed that " with that the kingdom of heaven is spiritual in the strength and manliness of Puritanism its nature. He had, however, to deal with its bigotry and narrowness had crossed those who drew most of their arguments the Atlantic too.”+ It is evident that from the Old Testament.

And conse Mr. Green includes the Pilgrims with quently there is much abstruse writing those who were guilty of persecuting about the doings of the kings of Judah, Roger Williams and of driving him from whose example seems to have had greater the colony; or at least he makes no at. weight than it would have at the present tempt to vindicate their character. These time. Amongst other things Robinson misconceptions are very natural, but they tries to show that Hebrew reformations are not worthy of English historians. generally took place with the consent of They arise from the fact that the cue has the people at large; and under similar never been given by any noteworthy writ- circumstances he seems to think that er on this side of the Atlantic; and hence godly magistrates may put down public we search the brilliant pages of our best and notable idolatry. A part of this authors for a distinction which, when sentence is quoted by Mr. Masson, who once seized, could never be lost. For obtained it from Fletcher's “ History of were any one of our painstaking historians Independency;" and the other part of to be convinced that the Pilgrims were as the sentence, where Robinson denies that distinct from Puritans as modern Con. any king is to "draw all the people of his gregationalists are from the Evangelical nation into covenant with the Lord,” is party in the Established Church, his inadvertently omitted. We grant that, story of that tragic struggle for liberty even were the whole sentence quoted, under Elizabeth and the Stuarts would the view which Mr. Masson takes of its receive a new and a warmer coloring. meaning would receive some apparent

We must, however, return to Robinson, corroboration. But the sentence must be in wbose teachings and writings are to be looked at in connection with the somefound, if we mistake not, the germs of all what antique argument of which it forms that is now meant by the newly-coined and a part. And above ali the strong, clear, pregnant phrase," religious equality." and forcible statements in favor of the ab. The errors and inaccuracies of which we solute spirituality of the Christian Church, complain begin at this point. We con. together with the impressive protests fess that John Robinson's exposition of against the employment of force in reliChurch principles cannot be read without gious matters, must, we think, be accepted

as finally determining his standpoint in Charles I.,” vol. ii., p. 279; See also“ Prince Charles," reference to the Church and State ques. vol. ii., pp. 34-62, where Mr. Gardiner closes an other. tion. wise fair and full account of the Separatists by saying

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But Mr. Masson, having convinced that Robinson's views were accompanied by much parrowness of mind and intolerance of spirit.'

himself on the slender quotation to which “ A Short History of the English People" p. 493. we have referred that Robinson, “the By J. R. Green, M.A. Also "History of the English liberal Robinson," held that the magis. People," vol. iii., p. 168.

He has discovo trate was bound to interfere on behalf of ered that the Independents were driven to Amsterdam; the orthodoxy of the churches and the reli. and not to Rotterdam; but he still asserts that this exile took place in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, where. as the Scrooby people did not leave England till 1607. * The Life of Milton in connection with the History He is evidently thinking of the migration under John- of his Time, vol. ii., p. 570. By David Masson. son and Ainsworth in 1597.

+ Works of Robinson, vol. ii., p. 307.

Edited by t Ibid. p. 498.

makes one or two verbal alterations.

Robert Ashton.

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gious good of his subjects - finds it easy | reigns of Elizabeth and of James I. But, to affirin that this Robinsonian Indepen on the whole, events were fermenting in dency was carried over to New England. the direction of individual liberty. The Another link in the chain is given when repressive policy of Elizabeth had driven it is stated that "both in Massachusetts the thought of England into literary diand in New Haven church membership rections. The Reformation had been acwas a condition of the franchise." * Mr. companied by a Renaissance in culture as Masson makes the significant admission well as in art and architecture. The mind that there was no express rule to this of man had been bursting its swaddling effect in the constitutions of New Ply- clothes from the time of Michael Angelo mouth and Connecticut; but he adds, and Savonarola to that of Erasmus aod “There seems to have been tantamount Martin Luther. Florence, the birthplace custom.” + No authority whatever is of the new classical reform, was linking quoted, and no arguments are adduced itself to Geneva, the birthplace of the for the existence of this “custom.” What new religious reform. But in England if the "custom" never existed? But the artistic and the religious movements from these second-hand quotations and seemed to go hand in hand. And it was these apparent" customs " it is again an because Elizabeth kept down the fires of easy step to include both Pilgrims and religious zeal with such tremendous force, Puritans under one sweeping designation, that the flame of literary beauty and culand to give particulars of the persecutions ture burned so much the more conspicuin which they were all engaged. The ously. In a seething age like the ElizaNew Englanders "resorted to actual per- bethan, tlre energies of men must have secution.” I The Individualism of Roger some outlet. If the devotional and theo. Williams, Anabaptism, and Antinomian. logical side of human nature was reism; these three isms came under the pressed, the artistic side would be all the lash of the Puritans, and of course the more exuberant, and tend, in its very Pilgrims were parties to these shameful riches, to a voluptuous luxuriance. While acts. But were they? We shall see. the stern struggles, of which the Pilgrim

Historians on the other side of the exodus was the issue, were proceeding, Atlantic are more just to the Pilgrims. England was not without its pageants, its They have had opportunities of watching lighter moods, and its daring intellectual the growth of the mixed and varied ele- enterprise. These may seem at first sight ments which have made modern Ainerica; like the fiddling of Nero while Rome was and they have not failed to see that the burning. They were, however, forces Pilgrims brought to New Plymouth be which were working in favor of the elasliefs peculiar to themselves. Bancroft in ticity, and consequently of the freedom, particular, besides giving a graphic ac. of the human mind. Shakespeare's dracount of their hardships and of the vicis. mas opened out continents of beauty as situdes through which they passed, does important in their own sphere as the disfull justice to the principles which they coveries of Columbus in the previous held so dear. He says that “their resi- generation had been in the physical world. dence in Holland had made them ac- They presented history in a very vivid quainted with various forms of Christian- form, and, often enabling the people to ity, a wide experience had emancipated grasp through dramatic presentation the them from bigotry, and they were never facts of the past, they suggested very betrayed into the excesses of religious per: wholesome lessons for their own day. secution, though they sometimes permitted The time of action is the time of prose. a disproportion between punishment and When men smelt the battle from afar, crime." S

they found no inclination for flights of This verdict is not only corroborated by imagination. Poetry declined during a close examination of Robinson's writ- Shakespeare's own life, though in his own ings, but also by a comparison of the soul it ever burned a brighter and brighter struggles of this part of the Puritan army light till his death in 1616. Hooker and with the general movements of the time. Bacon were now to be the great names in No distinct theory of the functions of the the intellectual world. And apart from State had crystallized itself during the them England had to be satisfied with

published sermons, small treatises, and Life of Milton, vol. ii., p. 570.

controversial tracts, which, like puffs of + Ibid. p. 572.

smoke, served to show the positions in 1 Ibid. p. 573. § G. Bancroit, History of the United States, vol. i., which the deadly fray was to be carried

p. 242.


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