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themselves, who told them that a little single human being of any sort, so no farther on there was a dangerous piece of wonder they looked upon the country as water which they had been unable to pass, "an untrodden, unknown wild.” for it was covered with ice just so thick The jolting and twisting were intolerathat the borses could not break it through, ble and exhausting, from the constant yet not thick enough to support the muscular exertion required to enable them weight of coaches and waggons, and the to keep their seats. current beneath was so rapid as to afford Frequently they were obliged to take to little chance of escape to those who once the road, or any such apology for a road fell in. Indeed, one large coach, drawn as presented itself; now they passed over by four horses, had become jammed in ice which bore their weight for a certain the ice, while attempting to pass, and was distance and then gave way, when all fell so deeply and firmly embedded, that the in together, with a general shout of “danhorses, the driver, and all the occupants, ger ahead,” and every effort was needed men, women, and children, were drowned. before they could extricate themselves;
When our party set out again, there. then they would get on the ice again, and fore, they thought it well to hire a guide in a few minutes the same scene was and take a circuitous route to avoid this repeated, much to the alarm of the fine. dangerous spot. The road recommended spirited horses. In one place they en
them was said to be good all the way countered a deep hollow, filled with water to Custerlot, but when they had passed and frozen hard, except in some parts Rheda, it was found to be completely where it had been broken; the carriages inundated, frozen over, and impassable. dropped in with alarming force, and the The road was narrow, the banks steep, poor struggling horses, up to the girths in and the horses were sunk above the girths water, could hardly be made to continue in water and ice, as with great difficulty their fearful work. Some of these pit. and no little danger they struggled up the falls were scarcely more than three or bank and into the meadows which bor- four feet long, and when the carriages got dered the road, dragging their respective jammed in them, which they did every velicles after them. The cook’s wagon few minutes, for they only emerged from had the narrowest possible escape from one deep, ice-filled hole to fall into an. being overturned into the water; but all other still deeper, the kicking and plung. at last were safely landed. The cold, ing of the horses was something fearful. meantime, continued so severe as almost To add to the difficulty of the journey, to disable those who were exposed to it. every here and there was a “gate," that " The captain always travelled with a is, a'long piece of wood, very large and large French poodle, which did duty as a bossy at one end, and very taper at the muff, and enabled him to keep his delicate other, being supported on a swivel. These white hands tolerably warm.'
gates or barriers not being set sufficienily On they went again, now over frozen wide open, required the utmost dexterity fallow ground, now breaking their way on the part of the drivers, to avoid either through fields of ice, now wading through dashing against the side-posts, or having water, now jolting along over ploughed the taper end of the log of wood driven fields, which racked both carriages and through the body of the vehicles. Even occupants almost to pieces, and now where the road was what miglit be called crossing an exieinporized bridge of planks, good, in comparison, it was still so bad which had been laid across some deep that no farmer's wagon would have atwater running with a strong current, and tempted it, and the only wonder was that was but just wide enough for the vehi. the carriages did not sustain more serious cles.
damage. The heavy baggage-wagon was the only one to be damaged, and that was left Travellers we found as rare as birds of behind at a farmhouse to be repaired, the paradise (writes Mr. Reinagle). Not one did driver being directed to follow his master
we ever meet either on foot, on horseback, or by the marks lest by the wheels on the being could find a safe footing anywhere in
in a wagon.
The fact was that no human frozen ground. On they went, zig.zagging these straits and ravines of ice, water and mud, in and out of plantations, through fields years old. No repairs ever take place in all and dristed beds of snow, so deep that it the north of Germany. was impossible to foresee what would happen for two minutes together. They It would indeed have been a matter of fell in with no other travellers, nor even a danger to meet even a man on horseback,
for in certain parts of the road it would
From The Spectator. have been impossible for him to pass,
SIR GEORGE JESSEL. After leaving Bielfeld the travellers proceeded as before, advancing barely one SIR GEORGE JESSEL, Master of the inile an hour, and still beset as they had Rolls, and head of the Court of Appeal, been for days and days by hard frost, ice, died early on Wednesday morning, March and snow.
As the day advanced, rain 21, after a dangerous illness of some fell in torrents and was succeeded by a weeks, during only the last two days of heavy fall of snow.
which did he consent to remit any of his The travellers now began to think and usual work. Sir George was by common hope that they must be drawing near Pyro consent the ablest judge on the bench, mont, though'no signs of it appeared, and and the ablest probably in the annals of the road became rather worse than better. English bistory, if, at least, the rapid deThe chariot fell into a large hole, where spatch of business be taken into account, it was in great danger of being entirely as well as the soundness of the judgments swamped; then all the carriages got and the breadth of the legal principles jammed in as fast as if they had taken embodied in them. Less brilliant than root, and it took two hours' hard work to many other judges of his time in mere extricate them.
form, he far surpassed most, if not all, of They had entered the principality of them in the rapidity and efficiency of his Waldeck a day or two previously, but had judicial work. " As á barrister, he had few travelled so constantly through forests, to equals, and we have heard, on what we avoid the so-called roads, where it was believe to be good authority, that during possible, that for hours together they saw the last twelve months of his solicitorno human habitation, and they could not generalship, — a year of strain which no accurately tell whereabouts they might be. doubt permanently affected his constituNot a road in Waldeck ever got mended, tion, - his fees amounted to the enormous according to our writer, and great lumps total of £23,000. Moreover, Sir George of rock constantly threatened to overturn Jessel's work was never superficially done, the vehicles. The cook’s wagon did get and during the latter years of his judicial upset at last, but this was the final ca- work he undertook the duties of vicetastrophe of the kind, for shortly after chancellor of his own university, the Unismoke was seen rising above the trees in versity of London, which he discharged the distance, and in another half-hour the with extraordinary fidelity and ability. weary travellers drove up to the Bath He died at the age of fifty nine. The late Hotel, Pyrmont, where they were met and judge was absolutely faithful to his heredjoyously greeted by the friends who had itary Jewish creed, and was buried yesterarrived before them, and were filled with day in the Jewish 'cemetery at Willesden, as much surprise at the sight of the large among his own people. rooms, good-looking furniture, tables and One of the greatest administrative chairs, as if they had never seen the like forces in England has disappeared with before.
Sir George Jessel. A more extraordinary Though it was now the month of March, intellectual engine than his brain has not the cold was still so severe that M. De been seen at work in our generation. vaux was wearing a “huge fine sable-skin Great as he was as a pure lawyer, he was muff.” The frost did not finally break up still greater in the despatch of business; until the middle of April, having then for the speed, and the marvellous accuracy lasted four months, during which time on the whole with which he worked at so the numbers of lives lost and the misery great a speed, were certainly neither endured are probably almost without a rivalled nor approached by any contemparallel
porary of his own. People called him a The papers from which the above par- very strong man, and so he was, but in ticulars and extracts are taken were com. his own line his swiftness was more marpiled by Mr. Reinagle from his diaries in vellous than his strength, and, indeed, the year 1853, and he thus winds up the sometimes misled him, though it would narration :
hardly be just to say that the State would Were I or any of us to live a thousand years, speed, for his mistakes were rare and
have gained by any subtraction from that we could not forget the thousands of miracu. lous escapes for our lives we had encountered. trivial in proportion to the efficiency of I, the author of these memoranda, have reached the industry which his great velocity of my eightieth year minus one month.
thought enabled him to achieve. He was BARON VON REINAGLE, RA, 1853. what Carlyle would have called “ a great
captain of industry," only the industry in imperious, if it rides rough-shod over which he was 2 captain was a learned weaker and slower intellects, and to this industry of a very high order of delicacy extent Sir George Jessel was imperious. and skill, which it took a man of very But it was, strictly speaking, the imperi. singular attainments to superintend, and ousness of high faculty measuring itself hasten, and arrest, and appreciate, with against what usually proved to be weaker Sir George Jessel's rareness of discrimi- faculty, not the imperiousness of prestige, nation. He had usually mastered the audacity, or caprice. Indeed, of caprice drift of an argument before it was half there was not a trace in the master of the out of the counsel's niouth, and had taken rolls, and of the sense of his own prestige, in the exact drift of a deed before any and of audacity, only so much as must acother man would have got at its general company more or less the consciousness scope and tendency. The immense self- of singularly high powers. confidence with which he was obviously Of course, these powers were limited in endowed was in his case not, as it so number, though they were, speaking comoften is, the result of a misleading san- paratively, almost unlimited in degree. guineness and eagerness of temperament, Sir George Jessel had not, like the great which makes a man leap before he looks, Jewish contemporary who achieved a still but simply the self-confidence of a mind higher fame in politics, any unique insight which bad found its anticipations fully into other men. He was not skilful in verified ten times or oftener for every the use of social weapons. He had no case of failure. And the evidence of this great stores of banter or wit at his comwas that Sir George Jessel never even mand. His speeches in Parliament were wished to persevere in maintaining a false not of the first order, even for the speeches position, when once he had discovered it. of a solicitor-general. He was not as perHe was always anxious to acknowledge suasive as Sir Henry James, nor anything and correct a mistake, for error was vex- like as lucid in the exposition of political atious to him not because it was he who issues as Sir Farrer Herschell. Marvel. had been wrong, but simply because it lous as his powers were, they were prob
He had one of those vigorous ably never shown to less advantage than minds which delight in orderly arrange: during his short Parliamentary career. ment, and are alınost more scandalized For in the forms of things he was not a to find a fact classified wrongly, if it is master. He was deficient in tact, in the their own mistake, than they are if it be art of literary and popular exposition; the mistake of another. Imperious as he and appeals to feelings he either despised was in guiding the deliberations or argu- or could not understand. Even as a lawments of others, it was the imperiousness yer, he had not that command of caustic of a true genius for despatch of business, and ironic dialectic which gave to some not the imperiousness of self-will. We of his earlier contemporaries, like Lord should like to have seen him tried as Westbury and ViceChancellor Knight speaker of the House of Commons, Bruce, so unique a fame. Sir George though opinion is as yet hardly ripe for Jessel's intellect went straight to the subso strong a curb-rein as his over the un-ject-matter of legal issues, and never bridled loquacity of some members of the wasted time with the apparel in which House of Commons. Still, those who they were dressed up. He was a Titan could force him to consider any point in his way, but part of his force consisted which he had really overlooked, were al in his inability to deal with the mere ways rewarded by finding that he did superficial forms of argument, and the not make light of its bearing simply be necessity he felt himself under of going cause he had happened to overlook it. straight to tie true issue. That is why His impatience was the impatience of a we ventured to call him a captain of inkeen, swift mind, scandalized by any |dustry; for he always sought to econoneedless waste of labor, not of an excita. mize industry to the utmost, and probably ble mind, irritated by opposition. Indeed, it would be difficult to find any two of his no opposition that was firm and lucid ever contemporaries, however eminent, who, ruffled him in the least. In this respect, taken together, got through so much he had the true judicial temper. He sound work in the same time as he did, would always insist on recognizing the without ever knowing apparently what strong points of the view he rejected, as overwork meant. His appetite for work distinctly as he recognized the strong was something vast. Nothing pleased points of the view be adopted. We may, him better, when he came to the end of perhaps, rightly call a mind of this kind one heavy task, than at once to undertake
another which he might easily have de- j achievements, so strong, and yet so acclined. The spectacle of his last strug- curate, as the judicial power of Sir George gle with a mortal disease was something Jessel. more than impressive. For many weeks he discharged every duty, not only in his court, but in relation to volunteer offices for omitting which he could well have pleaded illness, and this when he was so
From The Spectator. dangerously ill that to take a step up
SOCIALISM AND ANARCHISM AT GENEVA. stairs without assistance was impossible, THOUGH among the thirty thousand and when at times it was an effort to him foreigners who' have chosen Geneva as to speak at all. When urged by his doc- their temporary dwelling place there is a
to keep quiet, he pleaded that he considerable proportion of Russian Nibil. was more equal to work than he was to ists, French Anarchists, and German So. idleness, and that he should be better if cial Democrats, the authorities are never he shrank from none of his usual duties. in fear of dynamite, and the slender poAnd for a time, - though he recovered lice force keeps order without difficulty. much of his old energy towards the end, This arises from the fact that, except for
he went through all his judicial and religious enthusiasts, the Genevan govadministrative and academical duties, ernment is one of the most tolerant in he was Vice-Chancellor of his own uni. Europe. Revolutionary refugees enjoy versity, the University of London, — with privileges there which they can command punctual precision, though looking like nowhere else on the Continent, and they the ghost of himself, laboring under the are careful not to risk expulsion by prooppression of more than one organic dis.ceedings of a nature to imperil the public ease, and threatened by that failure of the peace or embroil the Confederation with heart of which in the end he died. To foreign powers. Sometimes, as in the see that wonderful engine in his brain case of Prince Krapotkine (who was exworking at half, or less than half, its pelled for publishing, under bis signature, usual pressure of steam, as the life in him a too violent protestation against the exeflickered low during the struggle of his cution of Sophia Petrowska, and parading powerful frame with the last enemy, was the town at the head of an Anarchist proa strange, a painful, but in some sense an cession), they overstep the line which diinspiring sight for commoner and weaker vides liberty from license; but as a rule, mortals. There was something of the they take their measures so well, that the Hercules in Sir George Jessel.
police have rarely to interfere. For inSir George Jessel was a curiously ac- stance, if the Révolte, which preaches the complished man, at college both a first- gospel of dynamite and the duty of murrate mathematician and a good classic, der with a ferocity that is positively that he was a considerable Hebrew scholar appalling, were openly conducted by forwas, perhaps, not remarkable, considering eigners, they would certainly be expelled his race and faith, — otherwise also a good and the paper suppressed, a fate that a linguist, and at one time he had a good few years ago befell the Anarchist Avant and scientific knowledge of botany, as Garde, of Chaux de Fonds; but the nomwell, we believe, as of others of the classi. inal editor and publisher being Swiss, ficatory sciences. Indeed, part of his they cannot be touched, albeit, as is wellgrasp of law was due not only to the im. known, the contributors are Russian mense keenness and swiftness of his gen-refugees and French Socialists. eral intellect, but to his marked capacity The avowed Anarchists at Geneva are for sound classification. His ability was, probably under a hundred. Even on so however, all in the region of what is called important an occasion as the recent mani. positive knowledge. He had little taste festation in memory of the Paris Comand little special capacity for philosophy mune, they could not muster more than or literature, though he was so strong a one hundred and fifty, of whom at least man that there was no subject on which one-half were outsiders. Social Demo. he had informed himself at all on which crats who seek to reorganize society his judgment was without value. How- rather by a revolution of the State than ever, it was for his swift and accurate dis- its utter destruction are more numercharge of the highest judicial work that ous, and include in their ranks a score or he will be best and most justly remem- two of Genevan artisans and a few workbered. In our time, there las been no men from German Switzerland. On Sun. administrative engine so marvellous in its | day last they, too, celebrated by a meeting
the anniversary of the Commune. The It is the conception of this truth that meeting was held in the Tonhalle, the as. has constrained men like Krapotkine and sembly-room of a café brassier, and ex- Reclus to the adoption of Anarchism; and cept that the chairman was armed with a between Anarchists and State Socialists bell, which he frequently used, and the there reigns a feud as bitter as ever audience smoked hugely and consumed reigned between orthodox Mahomme. much beer, the proceedings did not differ dans and their Shiite brethren. At Gematerially from those of an English meet- neva, they could not so far sink their ing. Touching oratorical effect, how differences as to celebrate in common the ever, the speeches were decidedly superior anniversary of the "epoch-making” Comto the speeches generally delivered at mune. political gatherings in England. Dul. The words faim, misère, prolétaire, ness the audience would by no were often in the mouths of the speakers tolerate. If an orator became a little at this meeting, yet it was abundantly tedious, he was warned by cries of “A evident that none of them was either Peau!” and “Plus haut !” either to poor or hungry, and it may be doubted if speak better and louder, or sit down. The they had any right whatever to represent former of these expressions did not, as the prolétariat whose cause they profess may be supposed, signify that he was in to plead. Workmen some of them may danger of being thrown into the lake, but have been, at any rate they said so; but that recourse to the decanter of water that almost all were of the well.fed sort, stood before him might, perchance, en. dressed in broadcloth, and in no respect liven his waning eloquence. On the save by their red badges distinguishable other hand, the speeches were marked by from the bourgeoisie whom they are an entire absence of argument. The style never tired of reviling. Shortly before of these was that of Rollo's address to the termination of the proceedings, a the Peruvians, dear to our childhood, remarkable incident occurred. While an and of Bruce's address to his soldiers be- impassioned and elegantly attired Socialfore the Battle of Bannockburn. They ist was denouncing traders and employers abounded in such phrases as “ Down with in the accepted fashion, a sturdy, brownthe aristocrats!” 6. Crush the bour-faced fellow, one of the very few genugeoisie !" “Restore to the disinherited ine, hard-fisted sons of toil in the room, the fruits of their labor;” and wealth and asked the speaker to “show his bands." tyranny, poverty and virtue, were treated This demand was warmly supported and as convertible terms. The government of as warmly opposed, whereupon a disSwitzerland received no better measure turbance ensued, and the manifestation than that of neighboring, monarchies. ended in a free fight and a general ske. One speaker, who described himself as a daddle. Swiss workman, adduced as proof of the This incident goes to prove, what inefficiency of the present republican in- those who have studied the question alstitutions that in Geneva — relatively to ready know, that the prolétariat bas not its size one of the richest of European yet become Socialist, and that real pov. cities – there are people who lack bread, erty is least among the causes of Socialand that multitudes of Swiss citizens are ism. Its causes are rather to be sought every year compelled to seek abroad the in the spread of knowledge, and the decay work they cannot find at home. The of faith. Education is sharpening men's panacea for these evils is, of course, the faculties, giving them new desires, makestablishment of the social republic; in ing them more apprehensive as to the other words, of Socialism organized by future and more envious of the rich, at the State. How this is to improve mat- the very time that the increase of scepti. ters, or how any conceivable scheme can cism, by depriving them of the hope of protect men from the consequences of immortality and destroying the idea of their own folly, idleness, and improvi- duty, renders them more resolute to en. dence, nobody condescended to explain. joy the present. There are observers The new republic, moreover, as ciescribed who think that the Communistic move. by some of its advocates, would, if it could ment is only in its infancy, and in this be established, be one of the most grind- opinion the present writer is reluctantly ing tyrannies the world has ever seen. I constrained to concur.