the Church's strength is in her lowly Saviour, her fishermen Apostles, her humble-born but early consecrated, hardy, well-trained ministers. A palace would have been an incongruous birth-place for the pioneer M.Millan; a log cabin was his true and glorious home.

IV. John M.Millan was WELL EDUCATED. Three of the greatest ministers and teachers that ever lived were his instructors. The Rev. John Blair, the successor of his brother Samuel, was Principal of the celebrated classical school at Fagg's Manor, at the time young M‘Millan entered the institution. When Mr. Blair was called, in 1767, to the chair of Moral Philosophy and Theology in Princeton College, the young Academician went to the no less celebrated Academy of Dr. Robert Smith, of Pequea. In 1768, he entered the Sophomore class of Princeton College, which was then under the Presidency of the renowned Dr. John Witherspoon. In 1772, he was graduated in a class of twenty-two, of whom fifteen became Ministers. He then returned to Pequea, and pursued his theological studies under the supervision of Dr. Robert Smith, whose institution combined the advantages of a Theological Seminary with those of an Academy. A large number of able ministers here received their theological education, and among them Dr. Smith's two sons, Samuel S. and John Blair, both of whom were in Princeton College at the same time with John M‘Millan.

This thorough classical and theological education was an essential requisite for the young pioneer's usefulness. His parents being poor, it was a difficult work to send a son to an Academy and College. Mr. Leake mentions that “his sisters even engaged in the labours of the field to help forward their brother in obtaining his education.” No doubt that a man, whose parents dedicated him to

. the ministry before he was born, had sisters ready to do anything to carry out the great family purpose. Would that there were more such families in our Church? With nearly a quarter of a million of communicants, our Church numbers less than fifteen hundred students at Colleges. The number ought to be doubled ; it would be increased tenfold, if our families were like William and Margaret M.Millan's. Parents can confer no blessing upon their children that compares to a religious education. If more of the sons of farmers and mechanics were sent to classical Academies and Colleges, we should have, under God, more ministers. It was the honour of the log cabin at Fagg's Manor that its young John enjoyed the preparatory, collegiate, and theological instructions of Blair, Smith, and Witherspoon.


V. John M‘Millan was new-born during a REVIVAL OF RELIGION. This topic ought, chronologically, to have been incorporated with the preceding; but it has a distinct moral lesson. Young M Millan would never have returned to Pequea to pursue theological studies, if God had not previously renewed his heart, and brought him in season to behold Jesus Christ as his Saviour. Whether the young student met with a change of heart at the Pequea Academy before he went to College, or at the College, is a little doubtful. There was a powerful revival of religion both at the Academy and at the College; at the former in 1767, and at the latter in 1770. Mr. Leake seems to attribute his conversion to the Academical period; but we do not consider the evidences very clear. Dr. M‘Millan afterwards made the following brief allusions to the exercises of his mind at Pequea in 1767:

“ It was here that I received my first religious impressions ; though, as long as I can remember, I had at times some checks of conscience, and was frequently terrified by dreams and visions in the night, which made me cry to God for mercy. But these seasons were of short duration : like the morning cloud and the early dew, they soon passed away. I knew that I was a lost, undone sinner, exposed to the wrath of a justly-offended God. I could do nothing for my own relief. My convictions were not attended with much horror, though I felt that I deserved hell, and that in all probability it must be my portion; yet I could not feel that distress that I ought to feel, and which I thought that I must feel, before I could expect to obtain relief. I felt, also, much pride and legality mingled with all the duties I attempted to perform.” “In this situation,” he further adds, “I continued till I went to college."

The College revival, in 1770, is noticed at a subsequent period of his life, as follows:

“I had not," he states in his MS., “been long here until a revival of religion took place among the students. I believe, at one time, there were not more than two or three but what were under serious impressions. On a day which had been set apart by a number of students as a day of fasting and prayer, while the others were at dinner I retired into my study; and while trying to pray, I got some discoveries of divine things which I had never had before. I now saw that the divine law was not only holy, just, and spiritual, but also that it was good; and that conformity to it would make me happy. I felt no disposition to quarrel with the law, but with myself, because I was not conformed to it. I felt it now easy to submit to the Gospel plan of salvation; and felt a calm and a serenity of mind to which I had hitherto been a stranger. And this was followed by a delight in contemplating the divine glory in all his works; and in meditating on the divine perfections, I thought that I could see God in everything around me."

From his own account, it might be inferred that young M‘Millan first obtained peace of mind at College. But the time is of no importance.

It was in a revival that the pioneer evangelist was brought to the saving knowledge of the truth. He, who was destined to be an influential minister in the new settlements of the West, and to give a tone to the religious sentiments of the community, was a living witness to the power and genuineness of revivals of religion. God's providence associated his conversion with demonstrations of the Spirit and with power; and so prepared him to understand, appreciate, and wisely superintend the revivals which subsequently blessed his own ministry and that of other ministers in Western Pennsylvania.


VI. At the beginning of his ministry, John M‘Millan ENGAGED FOR A TIME IN MISSIONARY WORK. He ever reposed confidence in God to arrange his field of usefulness. About the time he was com

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mencing his theological studies at Pequea, he says, “I had great difficulties in my own mind about undertaking the work of the Gospel ministry. However, I at last came to the conclusion to leave the matter wholly with God. If he opened the way, I would go on; if he shut it, I should be satisfied. And I think if I ever knew what it was to have no will of my own, it was about this.” After studying theology with Dr. Smith for two years, he was licensed, at the age of 22, by the Presbytery of Newcastle, at East Nottingham, on the 26th of October, 1774. On the following Sabbath, he preached his first sermon at Fagg's Manor, his native place, and during the winter and spring, he itinerated in the bounds of the Presbyteries of Newcastle and Donegal.

“In the summer of 1775," says Mr. Leake," he took a tour through the settlements of Virginia, between the North and South Mountains, in Augusta and Rockbridge Counties. In July, he crossed the mountains between Staunton and the head of Tygart's Valley, preaching in the various settlements through which he passed, until he came to Chartiers. In this journey he experienced great privations and difficulties. In the country through which he passed, there were no roads but paths and Indian trails, crossed by others—the population very sparse—the people living in huts—and those often twenty miles apart.”

On the fourth Sabbath, he preached at Chartiers ; on the first Sabbath of September, at a meeting-house on the banks of the Monongahela, and on the second Sabbath of September at Fort Pitt. He reached home in October, and attended the meeting of his Presbytery.

Being again appointed to visit “Augusta and Westmoreland Counties," he set out on his second journey to Virginia in November, 1775, passing through Winchester and Staunton. On his return, he crossed the Alleghanies in the depth of winter, and after much exposure, which the hardy log cabin boy knew how to bear, he reached Pigeon Creek and Chartiers, preaching at the latter place on the first Sabbath of February, 1776. He returned home in March.

These itinerating tours were of immense advantage to the young minister. They are of use to every minister. In the first place, such tours give an acquaintance with human nature, rarely acquired in the same time in any other way. They also throw a minister on his own extemporaneous powers of speaking, and they compel him to adapt himself to circumstances, to break up his habits of scholastic separation from the common people, to cultivate his dependence upon God in his attempts to do good from place to place; and they tend to make him willing to labour anywhere, be the field secluded, small, or uninviting, if God but give the call to enter it. John M.Millan made a great intinerant, and his itinerancy helped. in turn to make him great.


VII. John M.Millan chose for the scene of his ministerial life, NEW AND SELF-DENYING FIELD OF LABOUR IN THE MISSIONARY FRONTIER SETTLEMENTS. The people on Pigeon Creek and Chartiers gave him a call in April, 1776; but the revolutionary war breaking out, he was unable to move his family until 1778. He, however, “ visited them as often as he could, ordained elders, baptized their children, and took as much care of nem as circumstances would permit. He had been ordained by the Presbytery of Donegal, to which Presbytery he was dismissed on account of its being the Western Presbytery, on the 20th of June, 1776. When he moved to the West, he endured a great many hardships, but he had been “thereunto appointed.” His ministerial labours were abundant. It was his common habit to write out his sermons, and then commit them to memory. The Lord greatly blessed his ministry. The church enjoyed at least five seasons of precious reviving during his pastorate. The first was in 1781, when at the next Communion Sabbath, 45 persons were added to the Church. This season of refreshing continued with few interruptions for about thirteen years, numbers being brought in at every sacramental occasion. The second revival occurred in 1795, and the third in 1799. These were of short duration, and not very extensive; yet in each about 50 persons professed conversion. The fourth was in 1802, which brought into the Church between 50 and 60, a number of whom were students in the College. The fifth occurred in 1823, but was the least extensive of all. Mr. Leake, in summing up the results of Dr. M‘Millan's ministry, says, “It is supposed that hundreds, and even thousands, were through his instrumentality converted and trained up for heaven.” Dr. Elliott calls him “the Apostle of the West," and the “first settled pastor west of the Alleghanies.”

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VIII. John M‘Millan WISELY GAVE A PART OF HIS TIME TO THE EDUCATION OF YOUTH. He saw and felt the wants of a new country, and early laid plans for the training of young men.

His Classical Academy was opened in the log cabin at Chartiers, perhaps as early as 1785.* In 1791 he was appointed by the Synod of Virginia to manage the new institution, which the Presbytery of Redstone located at Canonsburg. This institution was subsequently chartered as JEFFERSON COLLEGE ; but Dr. M‘Millan had no connection with it, as President. Dr. Matthew Brown, of blessed memory, in speaking of Dr. M.Millan, as a theological instructor, says, “ Perhaps about one hundred ministers were trained, more or less, in his school of the prophets; many of whom were eminently useful. The mode of instruction was by written lectures, containing a complete system of theology. The system the students transcribed, and were expected to recite literally. The system itself was excellent, containing a concise discussion of all the principal doctrines, with copious notes

* It is not easy to harmonize all of Dr. Smith's statements about early education in Western Pennsylvania. We expect in Dr. Smith’s forthcoming work on The History of Jefferson College to have the whole subject opened to view, with the latest and fullest information.

and quotations from Scripture. It was concise, condensed, multum

, in

parvo, lucid, and forcible.”

We have thus endeavoured to point out the principal incidents in the life of the first Presbyterian pastor west of the mountains. M‘Millan had his infirmities. But he has none now. He died at

Canonsburg on the 16th of November, 1833, entering into the rest | reserved for the saints in Jesus Christ.



Ye who think the truth ye sow,
Lost beneath the winter snow;
Doubt not, Time's unerring law
Yet shall bring the genial thaw.

God in Nature ye can trust;
Is the God of mind less just ?

Reap we not the mighty thought
Once by ancient sages taught !
Though it withered in the blight
Of the mediæval night.

Now the harvest we behold,
Seel it bears a thousand-fold.

Workers on the barren soil,
Yours may seem a thankless toil;
Sick at heart with hope deferred,
Listen to the cheering word;

Now the faithful sower grieves,
Soon he'll bind his golden sheaves.

If Great Wisdom have decreed
Man may labour, yet the seed
Never in this life shall grow,
Shall the sower cease to sow?

The fairest fruit may yet be borne
On the resurrection morn.

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