Not wandering poor, but trusting all his wealth Divided, till his rescued gain their shore:
With God, who call'd him, in a land unknown. Such wonderous power God to his saint will levd,
Canaan he now attains ; I see his tents [plain Though present in his angel; who shall go
Pitch'd abont Sechem, and the neighbouring Before them in a cloud, and pillar of fire ;
Of Moreh; there by promise he receives By day a cloud, by night a pillar of fire;
Gift to his progeny of all that land,

To guide them in their journey, and remove From Hamath northward to the desert south; Behind them, while the obdurate king pursues : (Things by their names I call, though yet un- All night he will pursue; but his approach nam'd ;)

Darkness defends between till morning watch; From Hermon east to the great western sea; Then through the fiery pillar, and the cloud, Mount Hermon, yonder sea; each place behold God looking forth will trouble all his host, In prospect, as I point them; on the shore And craze their chariot-wheels: when by comMount Carmel; here, the double-founted stream, Moses once more his potent rod extends (mand Jordan, true limit eastward ; but his sons Over the sea; the sea his rod obeys; Shall dwell to Senir, that long ridge of hills. On their embattled ranks the waves return, This ponder, that all nations of the Earth And overwhelm their war: the race elect Shall in his seed be blessed : by that seed Safe towards Canaan from the shore advance Is meant thy great Deliverer, who shall bruise Through the wild desert, not the readiest way; The serpent's head; whereof to thee anon Lest, entering on the Canaanite alarm'd, Plainlier shall be reveald. This patriarch blest, War terrify them inexpert, and fear Whom faithful Abraham due time shall call, Return them back to Egypt, choosing rather A son, and of his son a grand-child, leaves; Inglorious life with servitudes for life Like him in faith, in wisdom, and renown: To noble and ighoble is more sweet The grand-child, with twelve sons increas'd, Untraind in arms, where rashness leads not on. From Canaan, to a land hereafter callid (departs This also shall they gain by their delay Egypt, divided by the river Nile;

In the wide wilderness; there they shall found See where it flows, disgorging at seven mouths Their government, and their great senate choose Into the sea : to sojourn in that land

Through the twelve tribes, to rule by laws orHe comes, invited by a younger son

dain'd: In time of dearth; a son, whose worthy deeds God from the mount of Sinai, whose gray top Raise him to be the second in that realm

Shall tremble, he descending, will himself Of Pharaoh : there he dies, and leaves his race In thunder, lightning, and loud trumpets' sound, Growing into a nation; and, now grown, Ordain them laws; part, such as appertain Suspected to a sequent king, who seeks

To civil justice; part, religi rites To stop their overgrowth, as inmate guests Of sacrifice; informing them, by types Too numerous ; whence of guests he makes them and shadows, of that destin'd Seed to bruise slaves

The serpent, by what means he shall achieve Inhospitably, and kills their infant males: Mankind's deliverance. But the voice of God Till by two brethren (these two brethren call To mortal ear is dreadful: they beseech Moses and Aaron) sent from God to claim That Moses might report to them his will, His people from enthralment, they return And terrour cease; he grants what they. beWith glory, and spoil, back to their promis'd Instructed that to God is no access, (sought, But first, the lawless tyrant, who denies [land. Without mediator, wbose high office now To know their God, or message to regard, Moses in figure bears; to introduce Must be compellid by signs and judgments dire; One greater, of whose day he shall foretel, To blood unshed the rivers must be turn'd; And all the prophets in their age the times Frogs, lice, and fies, must all bis palace fill Of great Messiah shall sing. Thus, laws and With loath'd intrusion, and fill all the land; Establish'd, such delight hath God in men (rights His cattle must of rot and murren die ;

Obedient to his will, that he rouchsafes Botches and blains must all his flesh emboss, Among them to set up his tabernacle; And all his people; thunder mix'd with hail, The Holy One with mortal men to dwell : Hail mix'd with fire, must rend the Egyptian by his prescript a sanctuary is fram'd sky,

(rolls; Of cedar, overlaid with gold; therein And wheel on the Earth, devouring where it An ark, and in the ark his testimony, What it devours not, herb, or fruit, or grain, The records of his corenant; over these A darksome cloud of locusts swarming down A mercy-seat of gold, between the wings Must eat, and on the ground leave nothing green; Of two bright cherubím; before him bura Darkness must overshadow all his bounds, Seven lamps as in a zodiac representing Palpable darkness, and blot out three days; The heavenly fires; over the tent a cloud Last, with one midnight-stroke, all the first-born Shall rest by day, a fiery gleam by night; Of Egypt must lie dead. Thus with ten wounds Save when they journey, and at length they The river-dragon tam'd at length submits Conducted by his angel, to the land (come, To let his sojourners depart, and oft

Promis'd to Abraham and his seed :-the rest Humbles his stubborn heart; but still, as ice Were long to tell; how many battles fought;, More harden'd after thaw ; till, in his rage How many kings destroy'd; and kingdoms won; Pursuing whom he late dismiss'd, the sea Or how the Sun shall in mid Heaven stand still Swallows him with his host ; but them lets pass, A day entire, and night's due course adjourn, As on dry land, between two crystal walls; Man's voice commanding,

* Sun, in Gibeoa Aw'd by the rod of Moses so to stand


And thou, Moon, in the vale of Aialon,
Till İsrael overcome!' so call the third
From Abraham, son of Isaac; and from him
His whole descent, who thus shall Canaan win."
Here Adam interpos'd. "O sent from Heaven,
Enlightener of my darkness, gracious things
Thou hast reveal'd; those chiefly, which con-


Just Abraham and his seed: now first I find Mine eyes true-opening, and my heart much eas'd;


Erewhile perplex'd with thoughts, what would
Of me and all mankind: but now I see
His day, in whom all nations shall be blest;
Favour unmerited by me, who sought
Forbidden knowledge by forbidden means.
This yet I apprehend not, why to those
Among whom God will deign to dwell on Earth
So many and so various laws are given;
So many laws argue so many sins
Among them; how can God with such reside?"

To whom thus Michael. "Doubt not but that
Will reign among them, as of thee begot; [sin
And therefore was law given them, to evince
Their natural pravity, by stirring up
Sin against law to fight: that when they see
Law can discover sin, but not remove,
Save by those shadowy expiations weak,
The blood of bulls and goats, they may conclude
Some blood more precious must be paid for


Just for unjust; that in such righteousness
To them by faith imputed, they may find
Justification towards God, and peace
Of conscience; which the law by ceremonies
Cannot appease: nor man the moral part
Perform; and, not performing, cannot live.
So law appears imperfect; and but given
With purpose to resign them, in full time,
Up to a better covenant; disciplin'd [rit;
From shadowy types to truth; from flesh to spi-
From imposition of strict laws to free
Acceptance of large grace; from servile fear
To filial; works of law to works of faith.
And therefore shall not Moses, though of God
Highly belov'd, being but the minister
Of law, his people into Canaan lead;
But Joshua, whom the Gentiles Jesus call,
His name and office bearing, who shall quell
The adversary-serpent, and bring back
Through the world's wilderness long-wander'd
Safe to eternal Paradise of rest.
Mean while they, in their earthly Canaan plac'd,
Long time shall dwell and prosper, but when sins
National interrupt their public peace,
Provoking God to raise them enemies ;
From whom as oft he saves them penitent
By judges first, then under kings; of whom
The second, both for piety renown'd
And puissant deeds, a promise shall receive
Irrevocable, that his regal throne
For ever shall endure; the like shall sing
All prophecy, that of the royal stock
Of David (so I name this king) shall rise
A son, the woman's seed to thee foretold,
Foretold to Abraham, as in whom shall trust
All nations; and to kings foretold, of kings
The last; for of his reign shall be no end.
But first, a long succession must ensue ;

And his next son, for wealth and wisdom fam'd,
The clouded ark of God, till then in tents
Wandering, shall in a glorious temple enshrine.
Such follow him, as shall be register'd
Part good, part bad; of bad the longer scroll;
Whose foul idolatries, and other faults
Heap'd to the popular sum, will so incense
God, as to leave them, and expose their land,
Their city, his temple, and his holy ark,
With all his sacred things, a scorn and prey
To that proud city, whose high walls thou saw'st
Left in confusion; Babylon thence call'd.
There in captivity he lets them dwell [back,
The space of seventy years; then brings them
Remembering mercy, and his covenant sworn
To David, stablish'd as the days of Heaven.
Return'd from Babylon by leave of kings [God
Their lords, whom God dispos'd, the house of
They first re-edify; and for a while
In mean estate live moderate; till grown
In wealth and multitude, factious they grow:
But first among the priests dissention springs,
Men who attend the altar, and should most
Endeavour peace: their strife pollution brings
Upon the temple itself: at last they seize
The sceptre, and regard not David's sons;
Then lose it to a stranger, that the true
Anointed king Messiah might be born
Barr'd of his right; yet at his birth a star,
Unseen before in Heaven, proclaims him come;
And guides the eastern sages, who inquire
His place, to offer incense, myrrh, and gold:
His place of birth a solemn angel tells
To simple shepherds, keeping watch by night;
They gladly thither haste, and by a quire
Of squadron'd angels hear his carol sung.
A virgin is his mother, but his sire

The power of the Most High: he shall ascend
The throne hereditary, and bound his reign
With Earth's wide bounds, his glory with the

He ceas'd, discerning Adam with such joy Surcharg'd, as had like grief been dew'd in tears, Without the vent of words; which these he breath'd.

"O prophet of glad tidings, finisher
Of utmost hope! now clear I understand [vain;
What oft my steadiest thoughts have searched in
Why our great Expectation should be call'd
The seed of woman: virgin mother, hail,
High in the love of Heaven; yet from my loins
Thou shalt proceed, and from thy womb the


Of God Most High; so God with man unites.
Needs must the serpent now his capital bruise
Expect with mortal pain: say where and when
Their fight, what stroke shall bruise the victor's

To whom thus Michael. "Dream not of their
As of a duel, or the local wounds
Of head or heel: not therefore joins the Son
Manhood to godhead, with more strength to
Thy enemy; nor so is overcome
Satan, whose fall from Heaven, a deadlier


Disabled, not to give thee thy death's wound:
Which he, who comes thy Saviour, shall recure,
Not by destroying Satan, but his works

n thee, and in thy seed: nor can this be


But by fulfilling that which thou didst want,
Obedience to the law of God, impos'd
On penalty of death, and suffering death;
The penalty to thy transgression due,
And due to theirs which out of thine will grow :
So only can high Justice rest appaid.
The law of God exact he shall fulfil
Both by obedience and by love, though love
Alone fulfil the law; thy punishment
He shall endure, by coming in the flesh
To a reproachful life, and cursed death;
Proclaiming life to all who shall believe
In his redemption; and that his obedience,
Imputed, becomes theirs by faith; his merits
To save them, not their own, though legal,

For this he shall live hated, be blasphem'd, Seiz'd on by force, judg'd, and to death condemn'd

A shameful and accurs'd, nail'd to the cross
By his own nation; slain for bringing life:
But to the cross he nails thy enemies,
The law that is against thee, and the sins
Of all mankind with him there crucified,
Never to hurt them more who rightly trust
In this his satisfaction: so he dies,
But soon revives; Death over him no power
Shall long usurp; ere the third dawning light
Return, the stars of morn shall see him rise
Out of his grave, fresh as the dawning light,
Thy ransom paid, which man from death re-

His death for man, as many as offer'd life
Neglect not, and the benefit embrace
By faith not void of works: this God-like act
Annuls thy doom, the death thou should'st have
In sin for ever lost from life, this act [died,
Shall bruise the head of Satan, crush his

Defeating Sin and Death, his two main arms;
And fix far deeper in his head their stings
Than temporal death shall bruise the victor's

Or theirs whom he redeems; a death, like sleep,
A gentle wafting to immortal life.
Nor after resurrection shall he stay
Longer on Earth, than certain times to appear
To his disciples, men who in his life
Still follow'd him; to them shall leave in charge
To teach all nations what of him they learn'd
And his salvation; them who shall believe
Baptizing in the profluent stream, the sign
Of washing them from guilt of sin to life
Pure, and in mind prepar'd, if so befall,
For death, like that which the Redeemer died.
All nations they shall teach; for, from that day,
Not only to the sons of Abraham's loins
Salvation shall be preach'd, but to the sons
Of Abraham's faith wherever through the
So in his seed all nations shall be blest. [world;
Then to the Heaven of Heavens he shall ascend
With victory triumphing through the air
Over his foes and thine; there shall surprise
The serpent, prince of air, and drag in chains
Through all his realm, and there confounded
Then enter into glory, and resume [leave;
His seat at God's right hand, exalted high
Above all names in Heaven and thence shall


When this world's dissolution shall be ripe, With glory and power to judge both quick and dead;

To judge the unfaithful dead, but to reward
His faithful, and receive them into bliss,
Whether in Heaven or Earth; for then the Earth
Shall all be Paradise, far happier place
Than this of Eden, and far happier days."

So spake the arch-angel Michaël; then paus'd, As at the world's great period; and our sire, Replete with joy and wonder, thus replied.

"O Goodness infinite, Goodness immense! That all this good of evil shall produce, And evil turn to good; more wonderful Than that which by creation first brought forth Light out of darkness! Full of doubt I stand, Whether I should repent me now of sin By me done, and occasion'd; or rejoice [spring; Much more, that much more good thereof shall To God more glory, more good-will to men


God, and over wrath grace shall abound. But say, if our Deliverer up to Heaven Must re-ascend, what will betide the few His faithful, left among the unfaithful herd, The enemies of truth? Who then shall guide His people, who defend? Will they not deal Worse with his followers than with him they dealt?"

"Be sure they will," said the angel; “but from Heaven

He to his own a Comforter will send,
The promise of the Father, who shall dwell
His Spirit within them; and the law of faith,
Working through love, upon their hearts shall
To guide them in all truth; and also arm[write,
With spiritual armour, able to resist
Satan's assaults, and quench his fiery darts;
What man can do against them, not afraid,
Though to the death; against such cruelties
With inward consolations recompens❜d,
And oft supported so as shall amaze
Their proudest persecutors; for the Spirit,
Pour'd first on his Apostles, whom he sends
To evangelize the nations, then on all
Baptiz'd, shall them with wonderons gifts endue
To speak all tongues, and do all iniracies,
As did their Lord before them. Thus they win
Great numbers of each nation to receive
With joy the tidings brought from Heaven: at

'Their ministry perform'd, and race well run, Their doctrine and their story written left, They die; but in their room, as they forewarn, Wolves shall succeed for teachers, grievous wolves,

Who all the sacred mysteries of Heaven
To their own vile advantages shall turn
Of lucre and ambition; and the truth
With superstitions and traditions taint,
Left only in those written records pure,
Though not but by the Spirit understood.
Then shall they seek to avail themselves of


Places, and titles, and with these to join
Secular power; though feigning still to act
By spiritual, to themselves appropriating
The Spirit of God, promis'd alike, and given
To all believers; and, from that pretence,
Spiritual laws by carnal power shall force


On every conscience; laws which none shall find
Left them inroll'd, or what the spirit within
Shall on the heart engrave. What will they then
But force the Spirit of grace itself, and bind
His consort Liberty? what, but unbuild
His living temples, built by faith to stand,
Their own faith, not another's? for, Earth,
Who against faith and conscience can be heard
Infallible? yet many will presume:
Whence heavy persecution shall arise
On all, who in the worship persevere
Of spirit and truth; the rest, far greater part,
Will deem in outward rites and specious forms
Religion satisfied; Truth shall retire
Bestuck with slanderous darts, and works of faith
Rarely be found: so shall the world go on,
To good malignant, to bad men benign;
Under her own weight groaning; till the day
Appear of respiration to the just,
And vengeance to the wicked, at return
Of him so lately promis'd to thy aid,

The woman's Seed; obscurely then foretold,
Now amplier known thy Saviour and thy Lord;
Last, in the clouds, from Heaven to be reveal'd
In glory of the Father, to dissolve
Satan with his perverted world; then raise
From the conflagrant mass, purg'd and refin'd,
New Heavens, new Earth, ages of endless date,
Founded in righteousness, and peace, and love;
To bring forth fruits, joy and eternal bliss."

He ended; and thus Adam last replied. "How soon hath thy prediction, seer blest, Measur'd this transient world, the race of time, Till time stand fix'd? Beyond is all abyss, Eternity, whose end no eye can reach. Greatly instructed I shall hence depart; Greatly in peace of thought; and have my fill Of knowledge what this vessel can contain ; Beyond which was my folly to aspire. Henceforth I learn, that to obey is best, And love with fear the only God; to walk As in his presence; ever to observe His providence; and on him sole depend, Merciful over all his works, with good Still overcoming evil, and by small [weak Accomplishing great things, by things deem'd Subverting worldly strong, and worldly wise By simply meek: that suffering for truth's sake Is fortitude to highest victory,

And, to the faithful, death, the gate of life; Taught this by his example, whom I now Acknowledge my Redeemer ever blest."

To whom thus also the angel last replied. "This having learn'd, thou hast attain'd the


| Let us descend now therefore from this top
Of speculation; for the hour precise
Exacts our parting hence; and see! the guards,
By me encamp'd on yonder hill, expect
Their motion; at whose front a flaming sword,
In signal of remove, waves fiercely round:
We may no longer stay: go, waken Eve;
Her also I with gentle dreams have calm'd
Portending good, and all her spirits compos'd
To meek submission: thou, at season fit,
Let her with thee partake what thou hast heard;
Chiefly, what may concern her faith to know,
The great deliverance by her seed to come
(For by the woman's seed) on all mankind :
That ye may live, which will be many days,
Both in one faith unanimous, though sad,
With cause for evils past; yet much more

Of wisdom; hope no higher, though all the stars Thou knew'st by name, and all the ethereal powers,

All secrets of the deep, all Nature's works,
Or works of God in Heaven, air, earth, or sea,
And all the riches of this world enjoy'dst,
And all the rule, one empire; only add
Deeds to thy knowledge answerable; add faith,
Add virtue, patience, temperance; add love,
By name to come call'd charity, the soul
Of all the rest: then wilt thou not be loth
To leave this Paradise, but shalt possess
A paradise within thee, happier far.—


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Is to stay here; without thee here to stay,
Is to go hence unwilling; thou to me
Art all things under Heaven, all places thou,
Who for my wilful crime art banish'd hence.
This further consolation yet secure

I carry hence; though all by me is lost,
Such favour I unworthy am vouchsaf'd,
By me the promis'd Seed shall all restore."

So spake our mother Eve; and Adam heard Well pleas'd, but answer'd not: for now, too



The arch-angel stood; and from the other hill
To their fix'd station, all in bright array
The cherubim descended; on the ground
Gliding meteorous, as evening-mist
Ris'n from a river o'er the marish glides,
And gathers ground fast at the labourer's heel
Homeward returning. High in front advanc'd,
The brandish'd sword of God before them blaz'd,
Fierce as a comet; which with torrid heat,
And vapour as the Libyan air adust,
Began to parch that temperate clime; whereat,
In either hand the hastening angel caught
Our lingering parents, and to the eastern gate
Led them direct, and down the cliff as fast
To the subjected plain; then disappear'd.
They, looking back, all the eastern side beheld
Of Paradise, so late their happy seat,
Wav'd over by that flaming brand; the gate
With dreadful faces throng'd, and fiery arms:
Some natural tears they dropt, but wip'd them

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slow, Through Eden took their solitary way.


The world was all before them, where to choose Their place of rest, and Providence their guide: They, hand in hand, with wandering steps and





In the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, is a thin folio manuscript, marked, in the year 1799, when I was obligingly permitted by the master and fellows of that society to examine it, Miscell. R. iii. 4. It is handsomely bound; and to the inside of one of the covers is pasted a paper with this inscription: Membra hæc eruditissimi et pænè divine Poetæ olim miserè disjecta et passim sparsa, postea verò fortuitò inventa, et in unum denuo collecta à CAROLO MASON ejusdem Collegii Socio, et inter Miscellanea reposita, deinceps eâ quâ decuit religione servari voluit THOMAS CLARKE', nuperrimmè hujusce Collegii, nunc verò Medii Templi Londini, Socius, 1736. These papers were found by Dr. Mason, abovementioned, who was also Woodwardian professor at Cambridge, among other old and neglected manuscripts belonging to sir Henry Newton Puckering, a considerable benefactor to the library. They contain two draughts of a letter to a friend, who had importuned Milton to take orders; the following plans of Paradise Lost in the form of a tragedy, or mystery; the plans or subjects of several other intended tragedies, all in the poet's own hand; and entire copies of many of his smaller poems, in the same hand, except in a few instances, exhibiting his first thoughts and subsequent corrections. All these variations, Mr. Warton has observed, have been imperfectly and incorrectly printed by Dr. Birch. Various readings of this MS. have been also admitted into Dr. Newton's edition of all Milton's

poetical works; as have such, which relate to the respective pieces, and which have been more minutely investigated, in Mr. Warton's two editions of Milton's smaller poems. Upon a careful examination of this manuscript, I have discovered a few peculiarities, or variations of expression, which have escaped the notice of those who have preceded me in describing this literary curiosity; and which will be found in their proper places. For I have added, at the end of each particular poem, as of Lycidas, Arcades, and Comus; and at the end of each series of poems, as of Sonnets, Odes, and Miscellanies; the several various readings respectively belonging to them. In this arrangement I hope to gratify the reader: who, after reading the finished poem, may then trace without interruption, (to use the language of Dr. Johnson respecting the imperfect rudiments of Paradise Lost,) the gradual growth and expansion of great works in their seminal state; and observe how they are sometimes suddenly advanced by accidental hints, and sometimes slowly improved by steady meditation. For this reason also I have placed the dramatic plans of Paradise Lost at the conclusion of the poet's sublimer" heroic song;" and have subjoined, to the tragedy of Samson Agonistes, the plans of Milton's other intended dramas.

Of the tragedy or mystery there are two plans.


Afterwards master of the Rolls, and knight. * Mr. Warton says that sir Henry "had so great an affection for this college, in which he had been educated, that in his eightieth year he desired to be readmitted: and, residing there a whole summer, presented to the new library, just then finished, his own collection of books, amounting to near four thousand volumes. He was son of sir Adam Newton, tutor to prince Henry; and many papers written by that prince, or relating to him, are involved in the collection. Sir Henry took the name of Puckering in remembrance of his uncle sir Thomas Puckering of Warwickshire, a learned and accomplished man, brother in law to sir Adam Newton, son of lord keeper Puckering, a companion of the studies of prince Henry. Many of the books were presents to the prince from authors or editors. In Dr. Duport's Hore subseciva, a poem is addressed to this preserver of Milton's manuscripts, Ad D. Henricum Puckeringum, alias Newtonum, Equitum baronettum. Cantabr. 1676. 8vo. pp. 222, 223. This sir Henry had a son, pupil to Dr. Duport at Trinity College, but who died before his father." TODD.



Heavenly Love,
Chorus of Angels.

Adam, with the ser- Michael.
Eve, pent.



Divine Justice, Mercie, Wisdom, Heavenly Love.



with others;



Hesperus, the evening.

starre. Lucifer. Adam.


Mutes. Conscience.








Paradise Lost.



Moses poλoys, recounting how he assumed his true bodie; that it corrupts not, because of his [abode] with God in the mount: declares the like of Enoch and Eliah; besides the puritie of the place, that certain pure winds, dews, and clouds, præserve it from corruption; whence exhorts to the sight of God; tells they cannot see Adam in the state of innocence by reason of thire sin,

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