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Let others proudly stand, and, for a while, very nigh to those of a philosopher. There is The giddy danger to beguile,
no other sort of life that affords so many branchWith joy, and with disdain, look down on all, es of praise to a panegyrist : The utility of
Till their heads turn, and down they fall. it to a man's self; the usefulness, or rather Me, O ye gods, on earth, or else so near necessity, of it to all the rest of mankind; the That I no fall to earth may fear,
innocence, the pleasure, the antiquity, the And, Oye gods, at a good distance seat
dignity. From the long ruins of the great.
The utility (I mean plainly the lucre of it) Here, wrapt in th' arms of Quiet let me lie; is not so great, now in our nation, as arises Quiet, companion of Obscurity!
from merchandise and the trading of the city, Here let my life with as much silence slide, from whence many of the best estates and chief
As time, that measu: e; it, does glide, honours of the kingdom are derived: we have Nor let the breath of infamy, or fame,
no men now fetched froin the plough to be made From town to town echo about my name. lords, as they were in Rome to be made conNur let my homely death embroider'd be suls and dictators; the reason of which I conWith scutcheon or with elegy.
ceive to be from an evil custom, now grown as An old plebeian let me die,
strong among us as if it were a law, which is, Alas! all then are such as well as I.
that no men put their children to be bred-up To him, alas, to him, I fear,
apprentices in agriculture, as in other trades, The face of death will terrible appear,
but such who are so poor, that when they come Who, in his life flattering his senseless pride, to be men, they have not wherewithal to set up By being known to all the world beside,
in it, and so can only farm some small parcel of Does not himself, when he is dying, know, ground, the rent of which devours all but the Nor what he is, nor whither he 's to go.
bare subsistence of the tenant: whilst they who are proprietors of the land are either too proud,
or, for want of that kind of education, too igIV.
norant, to improve their estates, though the
means of doing it be as easy and certain in this, OF AGRICULTURE.
as in any other track of commerce. If there
were always two or three thousand youths, for THE first wish of Virgil (as you will find anon
seven or eight years, bound to this profession, by his verses) was to be a good philosopher; that they might learn the whole art of it, and the second, a good husbandman: and God afterwards be enabled to be masters in it, by a (whom he seemed to understand better than moderate stock; I cannot doubt but that we most of the most learned heathens) dealt with should see as many aldermen's estates made in hirn, just as he did with Solomon; because he the country, as now we do out of all kind of prayed for wisdom in the first place, he added merchandizing in the city. There are as many all things else, which were subordinately to be ways to be rich, and, which is better, there is desired. He made him one of the best philo- no possibility to be poor, without such neglisophers, and best husbandmen; and, to adorn
gence as can neither have excuse nor pity : for and communicate both those faculties, the best
a little ground will without question feed a little poet: he made him, besides all this, a rich man, family, and the superfluities of life (which are and a man who desired to be no richer
now in some cases by custom made almost ne
cessary) must be supplied out of the superO fortunatus nimium, & bona qui sua novit!
abundance of art and industry, or contemped by
as great a degree of philosophy. To be a husbandman, is but a retreat from the As for the necessity of this art, it is evident city; to be a philosopher, from the world; or
enough, since this can live without all others, raiher, a retreat from the world, as it is man's, and no one other without this. This is like into the world, as it is God's.
speech, without which the society of men canBut, since nature denies to most men the not be preserved: the others like figures and capacity or appetite, and fortune allows but to tropes of speech, which serve only to adorn it, a very few the opportunities or possibility, of Many nations have lived, and some do still, applying themselves wholly to pbilosophy, the without any art but this : not so elegantly, í best mixture of human affairs that we can make, confess, but still they live ; and almost all the are the employments of a country life.
other arts, which are here practised, are beas Columella a calls it, Res sine dubitatione holden to this for most of their materials. proxima, & quasi consanguinea sapientiæ, the
The innocence of this life is the next thing nearest neighbour, or rather next in kindred, to
for which I commend it; and if husbandmen pbilosuphy. Varro says, the principles of it are preserve not that, they are much to blame, for the same which Ennius made to be the principles no men are so free from the temptations of iniof all nature, Earth, Water, Air, and the Sun. It quity. They live by what they can get by indoes certainly comprehend more parts of phi- dustry from the earth; and others, by what losophy, than any one profession, art, or science, they can catch by craft from men. They live in the world besides : and therefore Cicero says3, upon an estate given them by their mother; and the pleasures of a husbandman, mihi ad sa- others, upon an estate cheated from their brepieutis vitam proxime videntur accedere, come thren. They live, like sheep and kine, by the
allowances of nature : and others, like wolves · Lib. I. c, in 3 De Senect. and foxes, by the acquisitions of rapine, And
I hope, I may affirm (witnout any offence to the f they were made, and to which they must re. great) that sheep and kine are very useful, and turn, and pay at lust for their sustenance. that wolves and foxes are pernicious creatures. Behold ihe original and primitive nobility of They are, without dispute, of all men the most all those great persons, who are too proud now, quiet, and least apt to be inflamed to the dis- not only to till the ground, but almost to tread turbance of the commonwealth; their manner
We may talk what we please of lilies, of life inclines them, and interest binds them, to and lions rampant, and spread eagles, in fields love peace; in our late mad and miserable d'or or d'argent; but, if heraldry were guided civil wars, all other trades, even to the meanest, by reason, a plough in a field arable would be set forth whole troops, and raised up some great the most noble and ancient arms. commanders, who became famous and mighty All these considerations make me fall into the for the mischiefs they had done: but I do not wonder and complaint of Columella, how it remember the name of any one husbandman, should come to pass that all arts or sciences who had so considerable a share in the twenty (for the dispute, which is an art, and which a years ruin of his country, as to deserve the science, does not belong to the curiosity of us curses of his countrymen.
husbandien) metaphysic, physic, morality, And if great delights be joined with so much mathematics, logic, rhetoric, &c. which are innocence, I think it is ill done of men, not to all, I grant, good and usefui faculties, (except take them here, where they are so tame, and only metaphysic, which I do not know whether ready at hand, rather than hunt for them in it be any thing or no) but even raulting, fenecourts and cities, where they are so wild, and the ing, dancin attiring, cookery, carving, and chase so troublesome and dangerous.
such-like vanities, should all have public schools We are here among the vast and noble scenes and masters; and yet that we should never see of nature; we are there among the pitiful shifts or hear of any man, who took upon him the of policy; we walk here in the light and open profession of teaching this so pleasant, so virtuways of the divine bounty; we grope there in ous, so profitable, so hunourable, so necessary the dark and confused labyrinths of human ma- art. lice: our senses are here feasted with the clear A man would think, when he is in serious huand genuine taste of their objects; which are all mour, that it were but a vain, irrational, and sophisticated there, and for the most part over- ridiculous thing for a great company of men whelmed with their contraries. Here pleasure and women to run up and down in a room tolooks, methinks, like a beautiful, constant, and gether, in a hundred several postures and figures, modest wife; it is there an impudent, fickle, to no purpose, and with no design; and thereand painted harlot. Here is harmless and fore dancing was inverted first, and only pracheap plenty; there guilty and expenceful lux- tise: anciently, in the ceremonies of the heaury.
then religion, which consisted all in mommery I shall only instance in one delight more, the and madness: the latter being the chief gory most natural and best-natured of all others, a of the worship, and accounted divine inspiration : perpetual companion of the husbandınan; and this, I say, a severe man would think, though that is, the satisfaction of looking round about I dare not determine so far against so customhim, and seeing nothing but the effects and im
ary a part, now, of good-Ireeding. provements of his own art and diligence; to be who is there among our gentry, that does not always gathering of some fruits of it, and at the entertain a dancing-master for his children, as same time to behold others ripening, and others soon as they are abie to walk? But, did ever budding: to see all his fields and gardens co- any father provide a tutor for his son, to invered with the beauteous creatures of bis own struct him betimes in the nature and improveindustry ; and to see, like God, that all his ments of that land which he intended to leave works are good :
himThat is at least a superfluity, and this a
defect, in our manner of education: and thereHinc atque hinc glomerantur Oreades ; fore I could wish (but cannot in these times much ipsi
hope to see it) that one college in each wuiverAgricolæ tacitum pertentant gaudia pectus 4. sity were erected, and appropriated to this
stuly, as well as there are to menicine and the On his heart-strings a secret joy does strike. civil law: there would be no need of inaking a
bory of scholars and fello us, with certain enThe antiquity of his art is certainly not to be ) dowments, as in other colleges; it would sufcontested by any other. The three first men infice, if, after the manner of halls in Oxford, the world, were a gardener, a ploughman, and there were only four professors constituted (fur
grazier; and if any man object that the second it would be too much work for only one master, of these was a murtherer, I desire he would con
or principal, as they call him there) to teach sider, that as soon as he was so, he quited our these four parts of it: First, Aration, and all prufession, anci turned builder. It is for this things relating to it. Secoudly, Pasturage. reason, suppose, that Ecclesiasticus s forbids Thirdly, Gardens, Orchards, Vineyards, and us to hate husbandry; “because,” says he, Woods. Fourthly, all parts of Rural Oeco" the Most High has created it.” We are all nomy; which would contain the government born to this art, and taught by nature to nou- of Bees, Swine, Poultry, Decoys, Ponds, &c. rish our bodies by the same earth out of which and all that which Varro calls villaticas pas
tiones, together with the sports of the field Viry, Æn, i, 504, &c. Chap, vii, 15. (which, Qught to be looked ppon not only as
pleasures, but as parts of house-keeping), and extant (if Homer, as some think, preceded bim, the domestical conservation and uses of all that but I rather believe they were contemporaries) ; is brought in by industry abroad. The business and he is the first writer too of the art of husof these professors should not be, as is com- bandry: “ he has contributed (says Columella) monly practised in other arts, only to read not a little to our profession;" I suppose, he pompons and superficial lectures, out of Virgil's means not a little honour, for the matter of his Georgics, Pliny, Varro, or Columella; but to instructions is not very important; his great aninstruct their pupils in the whole method and tiquity is visible through the gravity and simplicourse of this study, which might be run through city of his stile. The most acute of all his sayperhaps with diligence in a year or two; and the ings concerns our purpose very much, and is continual succession of scholars, upon a moderate couched in the reverend obscurity of an oracle taxation for their diet, lodging, and learning, Inéov nulou Waylès, The half is more than the would be a sufficient constant revenue for main- whole. The occasion of the speech is this; his tenance of the house and the professors, who brother Perseus had, by corrupting some great should be men not chosen for the ostentation of men, (Bacsnéas dogs pares, great bribe-eaters he critical literature, but for solid and experimental | calls them) gotten from him the half of his knowledge of the things they teach; such men, estate. It is no matter (says he); they have so industrious and public-spirited, as I conceive not done me so much prejudice as they imagine: Mr. Hartlib 6 to be, if the gentleman be yet alive: but it is needless to speak further of my
Νήπιοι, εδ' ίσασιν, κ. τ. λ. thoughts of this design, unless the present disposition of the age allowed more probability of Unhappy they, to whom God has not reveald, bringing it into execution. What I have further By a strong light which must their sense conto say of the country life, shall be borrowed from trole, the poets, who were always the most faithful That half a great estate's more than the whole: apd affectionate friends to it. Poetry was born Unhappy, from whom still conceal'd does lie among the shepherds.
Of roots and herbs the wholesome luxury. Nescio quâ natale solum dulcedine Musas
This I conceive to have been honest Hesiod's Ducit & immemores non finit esse sui 7. meaning. From Homer we must not expect
much concerning our affairs. He was blind, and The Muses still love their own native place; could neither work in the country, nor enjoy the Thas secret charms, which nothing can desace. pleasures of it; his helpless poverty was likeliest
to be sustained in the richest places; he was to The truth is, no other place is proper for their delight the Grecians with fine tales of the wars, work; one might as well undertake to dance in and adventures of their ancestors ; his subject a crowd, as to make good verses in the midst of removed him from all commerce with us, and noise and tumult,
yet, methinks, he made a shift to show his good
will a little. For, though he could do us no boAs well might corn, as versé, in cities grow; nour in the person of his hero Ulysses (much less In vain the thankless glebe we plough and sow: of Achilles), because his whole time was conAgainst th' unnatural soil in vain we strive ; sumeil in wars and voyages ; yet he makes his 'Tis not a ground, in which these plants will fatber Laertes a gardener all that while,and seekthrive.
ing bis consolation for the absence of his son in
the pleasure of planting and even dunging his It will bear nothing but the nettles or thorns own grounds. Ye see he did not contemn us of satire, which grow most naturally in the worst peasants ; nay, so far was he from that insolence, earth; and therefore almost all poets, except that he always styles Eumæus, who kept the those who were not able to eat bread without the hogs, with wonderful respect, 87. y üçóf6c9, the bounty of great men, that is, without what they divine swineherd: he could have dune no more could get by flattering of them, bave not only for Menelaus or Agamemnon. And Theocritus withdrawn themselvés from the vices and vani- (a very ancient poet, but he was one of our own ties of the grand world,
tril;e, for he wrote nothing but pastorals) gave
the same epithet to an husbandman,
-αμείβειο δίoς αγρώτης 9, into the innocent happiness of a retired life; but the divine husbandman replied to Hercules, who have commended and adorned nothing so much was but dios himself. These were civil Greeks, by their ever-living poems. Hesiod was the first and who understood the dignity of our calling ; or second poet in the world that remains yet Among the Romans we have, in the first place,
our truly-divine Virgil, who, though by the fa6 A gentleman, of whom it may be enough to
vour of Mæcepas and Augustus he might have say, that he had the honour to live in the friend been one of the chief men of Rome, yet chose ship of Mede and Milton. The former of these rather to employ much of his time in the exgreat men addressed some letters to him, and ercise, and much of his immortal wit in the praise the latter, his “ Tractate on Education.” HURD.
and instructions, of a rustic life; who, thuugh be 7 Ovid. 1 Ep. ex Pont, iii. 35. • Ovid. Fast. i. 300.
• Idyll. xxv. ver. 31.
had written before whole books of pastorals and | Latin verses (though of another kind), and have georgics, could not abstain in his great and in- the confidence to translate them. I can only say, perial poem from describing Evander, one of his that I lore the matter, and that ought to cover best princes, as living just after the homely man- many faults; and that I run not to contend with ner of an ordinary countryman. He seats him those before me, but follow to applaud them. in a throne of maple, and lays him but upon a bear's-skin; the kine and oxen ate lowing in his court-yard; the birds under the eves of his window call him up in the morning; and when he
A Translation out of VIRGIL. goes abroad, only two dogs go along with him for his guard : at last, when he brings Æneas into
Georg. Lib. II. 458. his royal cottage, he makes him say this memorable compliment, greater than ever yet was Ou happy (if his happiness he knows) spoken at the Escurial, the Louvre, or our White- | The country swain, on whom kind Heaven bestows hall:
At home all riches, that wise nature needs;
Whom the just earth with easy plenty feeds. Hæc (inquit) limina victor
"Tis true, no morning tide of clients comes, Alcides subiit, hæc illum regia cepit :
And fills the painted channels of his rooms, Aude, hospes,contemnere opes : & te quoque Adoring the rich figures, as they pass, dignum
In tapestry wrought, or cut in living brass ; Finge Deo rebúsque veni non asper egenis '. Nor is his wool superfluously dy'd
With the dear poison of Assyrian pride: This humble roof, this rustic court (said he) Nor do Arabian perfumes vainly spoil Receiv'd Alcides, crown'd with victory :
The native use and sweetness of his oil, Scorn not, great guest, the steps where he has trod; Instead of these, his calm and harmless life, But contemn wealth, and imitate a god.
Free from th’alarms of fear, and storms of strife,
Docs with substantial blessedness abound, The next man, whom we are much obliged to, And the soft wings of Peace cover him round: both for his doctrine and example, is the next Throughartless grots the murmuring waters glide; best poet in the world to Virgil, his dear friend Thick trees both against heat and cold proride, Horace; who, when Augustus had desired Mæ- From whence the birds salute hiin; and his ground cenas to persuade him to come and live domestic With lowing herds and bleating sheep does sound; cally and at the same table with him, and to be And all the rivers and the forests nigh, secretary of state of the whole world under him, Both food and game, and exercise, supply. or rather jointly with him, for he says, ut nos Here a well-harden'd, active youth we see, in epistolis scribendis adjuvet, could not be Taught the great art of cheerful poverty, tempted to forsake his Sabin, or 'Tiburtin manor, Here, in this place alone, there still do shine for so rich and so glorious a trouble. There was Some streaks of love, both human and divine; never, I think, such an example as this in the From hence Astræa took her flight, and here world, that he should have so much moderation Still her last footsteps upon Earth appear. and courage as to refuse an offer of such great- | 'Tis true, the first desire, which does control ness, and the emperor so much generosity and All the inferior wheels that more my soul, goodnature as not to be at all offended with his Is, that the Muse me her high-priest would make, refusal, but to retain still the same kindness, and into her holiest scenes of mystery take, express it often to him in most friendly and fa- And open there, to my mind's purged eye, miliar letters, part of which are still extant. If I Those wonders, which to sense the gods deny: should produce all the passages of this excellent How in the Moon such change of shapes is found, author upon the several subjects which I treat of The Moon, the changing world's eternal bound; in this book, I must be obliged to translate half What shakes the solid Earth, what strong disease his works ; of which I may say more truly than Dares trouble the firm centre's ancient ease; in my opinion he did of Homer,
What makes the sea retreat, and what advance
(Varieties too regular for chance);" Qui, quid sit pulchrum, quid turpe, quid utile, what drives the chariot on of winter's light, quid non,
And stops the lazy waggon of the night. Planiùs & meliùs Chrysippo & Crantore dicit 2. But, if my dull and frozen blood deny
To send forth spirits, that raise a soul so high, I shall content myself upon this particular in the next place, let woods and rivers be theme with three only, one out of his Odes, the My quiet, though inglorious, destiny. other out of his Satires, the third out of his Epis- In life's cool vale let my low scene be laid ; tles; and shall forbear to collect the suffrages of Cover me, gods, with Tempe's thickest shade. all other poets, which may be found scattered Happy the man, I grant, thrice happy, he, up and down through all their writings, and es- Who can through gross effects their causes see: pecially in Martial's. But I must not omit to Whose courage from the deeps of knowledge make some excuse for the bold undertaking of springs, my own unskilful pencil upon the beauties of a Nor vainly fears inevitable things; face that has been drawn before by so many great But does his walk of virtue calmly go masters; especially, that I should dare to do it in Through all th' alarms of Death and Hell below.
Happy ! but, next such conquerors, happy they, 'Virg. Æn. viii. 365.
: 1Ep. ii. 3. Whose humble life lies not in fortune's way.
They unconcern’d, from their safe distant seat,
Hor. EPOD. ODE 11.
Happy the man, whom bounteous gods allow Nor can evin Rome their steady course misguide, With his own hands paternal grounds to plough 'With all the lustre of her perishing pride.
Like the first golden mortals happy, he, Them never yet did strife or ararice draw from business and the cares of money free! Into the noisy markets of the law,
No human storms break off at land bis sleep ; The camps of gowned war; nor do they live No loud alarıns of nature, on the deep: By rules or forms, that many madmen give.
From all the cheats of law he lives secure, Duty for Nature's bounty they repay,
Nor does th' affronts of palaces endure. And her sole laws religiously obey. [main, Sometimes, the beauteous, marriageable vine
Some with bold labour plough the faithless He to the lusty bridegroom elm does join : Some rougher storms in prince's courts sustain : Sometimes he lops the barren trees around, Some swell up their slight sails with popular fame And grafts new life into the fruitful wound; Charm'd with the foolish whistlings of a name: Sometlmes he shears his flock, and sometimes he Some their vain wealth to earth again commit: Stores up the golden treasures of the bee. With endless cáres some brooding o'er it sit : lle sees his lowing herds walk o'er the plain, Country and friends are by some wretches sold, Whilst neighbouring hills lowe back to thein To lie on Tyrian beds, and drink in gold;
again; No price too high for profit can be shown ; And, when the season, rich as well as gay, Not brother's blood, nor hazards of their own : All her autumnal bonnty does display, Around the world in search of it they roam, How is he pleas'd th' increasing use to see It makes ev'n their antipodes their home; Of bis well-trusted labours bend the tree! Meanwhile, the prudent husbandınan is found, Of which large shares, on the glad sacred days, In mutual duties striving with his ground, He gives to friends, and to the gods repays. And half the year he care of that does take, With how much joy does he, beneath some shade That half the year grateful returns does make. By aged trees' reverend embraces made, Each fertile month does some new gifts present, His careless head on the fresh green recline, And with new work his industry content. His head uncharg'd with fear or with design. This the young lamb, that the soft fleece, doth By him a river constantly complains, yield;
The birds above rejoice with various strains, This loads with hay, and that with corn, the field : And in the solemn scene their orgies keep, All sorts of fruit crown the rich autumn's pride: Like dreams, mix'd with the gravity of sleep! And on a swelling hill's warm stony side,
Sleep, which does always there for entrance wait, The powerful princely purple of the vine, And nought within against it shuts the gate. Twice dy'd with the redoubled Sun, does shine. Nor does the roughest season of the sky, In th' evening to a fair ensuing day,
Or sullen Jove, all sports to him deny. With joy he sees his flocks and kids to play: He runs the mazes of the nimble hare, And loaded kine about his cottage stand,
His well-mouth'd dogs' glad concert rends the Inviting with known sound the milker's hand; Or with game bolder, and rewarded more, (air; And when from wholesome labour he doth come, He drives into a toil the foaming boar; With wishes to be there, and wish’d-for home, Here fies the hawk t' assault, and there the net He meets at door the softest human blisses, To intercept, the travailing fowl, is set; His chaste wife's welcome, and dear children's And all his malice, all his craft, is shown kisses.
In innocent wars on beasts and birds alone. When any rural holidays invite
This is the life from all misfortunes free, His genius forth to innocent delight,
From thee, the great one, tyrant Love, from On earth's fair bed, beneath some sacred shade, Amidst his equal friends carelessly laid,
And, if a chaste and clean, though homely wife He sings thee, Bacchus, patron of the vine; Be added to the blessings of this life, The beechen bowl foams with a flood of wine, Such as the ancient Sun-burnt Sabins were, Not to the loss of reason, or of strength :
Such as Apulia, frugal still, dues bear,To active games and manly sport, at length, Who makes her children and the house her care, Their mirth ascends, and with fill’d veins they see And joyfully the work of life does share, Who can the best at better trials be.
Nor thinks herself too noble or too fine Prom such the old Hetrurian virtue rose;
To pin the sheepfold or to milch the kine; Such was the life the prudent Sabins chose: Who waits at door against her husband come Such, Remus, and the god, his brother, led; Froin rural duties, late and wearied, home, From such firm-footing Rome grew the world's Where she receives him with a kind embrace, head,
A cheerful fire, and a more cheerful face;
Dress'd by the wanton liand of Luxury,