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In the SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS, ample use has been made of what was already available; but in no case without a careful revision: while much has been added calculated to lead into an intelligent acquaintance with the whole inspired volume. The substance of the particular parallel or illustration generally precedes the reference to book, chapter, and verse, and will often afford a general view of the subject, usefully introductorysee § i. page 1, verse 2, "eye-witnesses;" and § ii. page 10, verse 35, "Son of God;" and page 12, verse 55, "Abraham."
For convenient reference, and a saving of time, the SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS are printed in full, on the opposite page, except such as are from the Gospels; these being already in the text of the book, there seemed no necessity for repeating them with the others. Occasionally, when the opposite page afforded greater space than was necessary for printing the references in full, opportunity has been taken of introducing those for which there was not room in their more appropriate place, and from which there is a reference to where they are thus to be found. After page 112 this will be found to cease, except occasionally, and the interleaved pages from (1)—(112) are referred to when necessary; and the new matter, as far as is practicable, is given in full in the Scripture Illustrations.
The NOTES have been very carefully selected, and it is hoped will prove gems of biblical literature. The best expositor of the Scriptures is unquestionably God's own word; and in the "SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS," we anticipate, the children of God will most delight. "To the law and to the testimony,” Isa. viii. 20. "Prove all things; hold fast that which is
good," 1 Thess. v. 21.
The PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS will, it is trusted, be found well chosen, and helpful to a useful application of the text.
The GEOGRAPHICAL NOTICES, which are from the most recent authorities, are as complete as our limits would allow, and sufficient for all practical purposes.
In the ADDENDA is given extra matter, which it may be good to consult; but which it was not necessary to introduce under any of these specific heads.
The ANALYTICAL AND HISTORICAL TABLE, p. xi, exhibits the most prominent subjects in each Section; and the parallels which occur in other portions of the Evangelical History [within brackets] will, with the column of illustrations, be usefully suggestive.
The "TREASURY HARMONY" will, it is expected, be found serviceable to all who are engaged in spreading abroad the knowledge of our LORD Jesus CHRIST, and in promoting the interests of HIS kingdom, whether by exertions in the pulpit, or in the Bible class-whether as catechists, as sabbath school teachers, as conductors of seminaries, or as heads of families.
FINALLY, whatever excellence there is in the book, the Compiler most unfeignedly acknowledges is due, not to himself, but to others; especially to the valuable contributions, and disinterested and laborious revision and superintendence of a dear christian brother, who will not permit more particular reference.
THE TREASURY HARMONY AS A MANUAL FOR TEACHERS.
To save expence, the book is adapted to the teachers of the Fourth and Fifth Grades of Mimpriss' "System of Graduated Simultaneous Instruction.” The distinctions to be observed are:
First.-In the "SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATIONS," only such as refer to the Gospels, the Acts, and the Epistles, are to be taken by the teacher of the FOURTH GRADE.
Second. In the "NOTES," only such portions as are not within brackets are to be taken by the same.
Third. In the "PRACTICAL REFLECTIONS," the same selection is to be made by the same teacher.
For the "Bible," or "Fifth Grade Teacher," there is presented, in this volume, it is believed, considerable help to a profitable searching of the entire word of God. Previous to assembling his class, the lesson should be carefully studied, and a suitable selection made by the teacher. A Note at Sect. vii. p. 49 will explain the use of a Harmony of the Gospel narratives, in realizing a Continuous History of our Lord's life and ministry, and by comparison will be seen to agree with the book prepared for the scholars in sabbath schools, and youth in catechumen classes.*
The Sections agree with the arrangement of the One Hundred Lessons, in the First, Second, and Third Grades of the "System of Graduated Simultaneous Instruction:" but it will very often occur, that a Section in the "TREASURY HARMONY," embraces more than can be gone through at one time: in such cases the lower grades must be accommodated to the higher; and in the lower grades beneficial results will follow the recapitulation of the last lesson, and the preceding, whether on one or more sabbaths in continuance.
It is not expected that ALL that is provided in a Section of the "TREASURY HARMONY" can be imparted to any class in a sabbath or other school at one sitting; but we have furnished a "TREASURY," from which every diligent teacher may obtain valuable aid, for training the rising generation to ascribe, TO THE ONLY WISE GOD OUR SAVIOUR, GLORY AND MAJESTY, DOMINION AND POWER, BOTH NOW AND EVER." AMEN.
* A Harmony of the Four Gospels, arranged as a Continuous History, pp. 220.
And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.-1 Jno. v. 11.
He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life.-1 Jno. v. 12.
JERUSALEM.-Is the Lost renowned city in the world; whether we consider its antiquity (see GEOG. NOTICES, § v. p. 36; § vi. p. 42; § xxili. pp. 181-..4); Hebron and Damascus being the only cities clainiing earlier origin; or whether we consider its vast wealth, accumulated in the time of David and of his son Solomon, when the king made silver and gold at Jerusalem as plenteous as stones, and cedar trees made he as the sycamore trees that are in the vale for abundance. 2 Chron. i. 15; or whether we contemplate its earlier history, in which was manifested the obedience of faithful Abraham, in preparing to offer up his only son there, on mount Moriah. In looking back upon the history of Jerusalem, we become acquainted with patriarchs, prophets, priests, and kings, who lived and died and are buried there; and with the stupendous exhibition of God's, love in delivering up his dear and only begotten Son, to die for the sin of the world. From thence the gospel flowed unto There the blessed Saviour proclaimed salvation through his death; and, after ages have rolled by, and Jerusalem has been trodden down by the Gentiles, the time is fast approaching when the place in which he was abased shall witness his glory. Jeru
. is accessible to the people of Asia on the north, and to those of the east by the Euphrates, the Persian gulf, and the Red sea; to our own nation and Europe generally, and America in the far west, by the Mediterranean or Great sea; and to the people of Africa and Arabia, on the south. Jerusalem is the city of the great King!' Matt. v. 35. They shall call Jerusalem the throne of the LORD;'-see Jer. iii. 17; and to it all nations shall flow, to worship the Lord in Jerusalem. -See Isa. ii. 1-4. The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem. 2 And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the LORD's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it. 3 And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. 4 And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people: and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. Therefore they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow together to the goodness of the LORD, for wheat, and for wine, and for oil, and for the young of the flock and of the herd: and their soul shall be as a watered garden; and they shall not sorrow any more at all, Jer. xxxi. 12. See also Mic. iv. 2; Zech. viii. 20-23. Thus saith the LORD of hosts; It shall yet come to pass, that there shall come people, and the inhabitants of many cities:
21 and the inhabitants of one city shall go to another, saying, Let us go speedily to pray before the LORD, and to seek the LORD of hosts: I will go also. 22 Yea, many people and strong nations shall come to seek the LORD of hosts in Jerusalem, and to pray before the LORD. 23 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you; for we have heard that God is with you.'
It is gratifying to trace our proximity to this Holy land: that land, which heretofore was considered only approachable after a long and tedious pilgrimage, is now brought within a holiday trip for recreation. The following brief outline is presented for the gratification of those who are looking with hope to the land of their fathers.
Every thing being prepared, three hours' run by the railway to Southampton, and a few minutes for embarkation, will secure the traveller comfortably on board a gigantic steamer, which shortly after will be majestically cleaving the placid bosom of Southamp ton Water; and after passing the venerable pile of Netley Abbey, and Calshot Castle, the Isle of Wight is coasted, and soon the vast Atlantic entered. In three or four days the Spanish coast is made; and shepherds' and fishermen's huts are seen dispersed on the rocky shore, and the sea is animated by fishing boats skimming along the water like things of life.' Instead of the toil and danger experienced by ancient pilgrims, in the soft evening, music charms the ear, and the deck is promenaded by ladies and gentlemen, as at the Spas and watering places of home: the difference being the vessel's deck instead of lawns and gravel walks; and for flowering shrubs is the smooth sea; and instead of variegated lamps deviced, the silvery beams of the moon fantastically dancing upon the water. And in the morning, the sun emerging from his ocean bed, amply repays him who witnesses the gorgeous display of its early beams, and brings in view the coast of Portugal; and, perhaps, a finny inhabitant of the deep sportively spouting water in the air. Then comes the evening, and sweet music again refreshens and enlivens the gay scene. Another day the artificial monster of the deep foams onward, and having neared the barren and mountainous coast, the evening brings its former delights. On the seventh day, the impetuous vessel progresses through Gibraltar's straits, affording a distinct view of the Spanish mountains, richly cultivated from the base almost to their summits; and the mountains on the African side are visible also. This, perhaps, is the Lord's day, and its decent observance is felt in the mustering of all hands for prayer and praise. Isaiah lvi. 2. Soon the delightful passage is varied by a walk on terra firma; and what has been glowingly set forth, beautiful, in the picture, is
GOD IS LOVE.-1 Jno. iv. 8.
If our heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things.-1 John iii. 20.
surpassed in personal experience. The houses are raohs, is entered; where Turk and Arab boatmen conclean and neat, standing out in pleasing relief from tend, and on shore hundreds of brawny natives with the steep bold mountain side which flanks the town. camels and donkeys squabble for employment. Dr. All those plants which, in England, can be reared Robinson describes the scene, vol. i. p. 20. thus:only in the hot-house, here grow in open air. The The moment we set foot on shore, we needed no finest grapes are sold for one penny per pound, and further conviction that we had left Europe and were every other fruit proportionably cheap. GIBRALTAR now in the Oriental world: we found ourselves in the is defended in an almost impregnable manner. The midst of a dense crowd, through which we made our inhabitants consist of Jews, Spaniards, Turks, &c., way with difficulty; Egyptians, Turks, Arabs, Copts, wearing the costumes of their different countries; Negroes, Franks; complexions of white, black, olive, presenting a grotesque appearance; and which, to bronze, brown, and almost all other colours; long a stranger only a few days removed from English so beards and no beards at all; all costumes and no cosciety, makes the place appear to him another world. tumes; silks and rags; wide robes and no robes; woAfter a few hours, the boiling steam is again plied, men muffled in shapeless black mantles, their faces and the calm evening renews its music and its grace- wholly covered except peep-holes for the eyes; endless ful charms. On the eighth day, the blue waters confusion, and a clatter and medley of tongues, Araof the Mediterranean are stemmed, and the playful bic, Turkish, Greek, Italian, French, German, and porpoise gambols on its surface. The day follow- English, as the case might be; strings of huge camels ing, the blazing sun asserts his power, and is acknow-in single file, with high loads; little donkeys, bridled ledged by all who expose themselves to his influence. and saddled, each guided by a sore-eyed Arab boy, The Algerine coast is neared; the town is clearly with a few words of sailor-English, who thrusts his seen, nearly surrounding the harbour, as an amphi- little animal, nolens volens, almost between your legs.' theatre: the curious sails of its small craft affording scope for the pencil's mimic art. Hitherto all has Alexandria to Joppa, or across the desert by Suez, All travellers to Jerusalem must proceed from been smooth, calm, and delightful; but another day dawns with storm, and tempest, and angry billows; Sinai, &c. The mail leaves Alexandria for Beyrout, and, instead of the pleasant evening cool, sickness is calling at Joppa, within 48 hours after the arrival of an unwelcome visiter. The eleventh day, the power the English packet. Beyrout is sea-port on the of steam quails to Almightiness; - trembling and coast of Palestine, about 250 miles from Alexandria. rolling, like a drunken man, before the lashing of the Joppa is a port on the same coast, about half-way. surge. Onward still, she passes one island after anPassengers, by other vessels, for Jerusalem, must go other. On the morning of the twelfth, MALTA, the to Beyrout, and return thence in a hired vessel to island on which St. Paul was shipwrecked, opens its Joppa: which materially increases the length of the capacious harbour, and boatmen clamouring for en- journey to such as cannot afford to go by land from gagement surround the vessel; others present shells Beyrout to Jerusalem. The following description of and curiosities for sale; others carry in their skiffs the passage from Alexandria to Beyrout is from an brown naked boys, who sportively dive for money, or interesting modern publication :other things thrown into the water, which they never 'It was blowing very fresh as we ran out to sea under fail to reach ere it touches the bottom; and for ap- a close-reefed mainsail, but the sun shone brightly, and plause, frequently descend under the ship to the the waves were of the purple hue that they wore to other side. The houses are built of white and yellow Homer's eyes; their foam flew from them in rainbow stone; which the beautiful light and clear atmo- fragments; and the gallant little craft darted from sphere of the Mediterranean strikes, and causes all wave to wave, like the joyous sea birds that flew the designs of the cornices, corners of the angles, ba- around her. Now she hovers for a moment on the lustrades of the terraces, and carved work of the bal-watery precipice, now flings herself into the bosom of conies, to be articulated fully and clearly in the blue old Neptune, whose next throb sent her aloft again horizon. This quality of the air, this white, yellow, into the golden sunshine and the diamond spray, till golden colour of the stone, imparts to the meanest the merry gale catches her drapery, and she plunges edifice a firmness and neatness which revive and once more into the watery valley, as if at hide and gladden the sight. As at Gibraltar, the inhabitants seek with her invisible playfellow, the wind. are dressed in the most diversified colours, and seemWe never saw a sail, or caught sight of land, but ingly are from all parts of the world, amid a melan- now and then we had a glimpse of a dolphin; several choly exhibition of squalid disease and mendicity. flying-fish fluttered on board with their iridescent Another day, the thirteenth, at Malta, will afford an opportunity to witness the illustration of our Lord's tented. Our voyage savoured more of a cruise in a wings, and lay panting, and apparently quite conbeautiful description, Jno. x. 4, of a shepherd going yacht than a passage in a packet. before his flock, leading them out to pasture, And when he putteth forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him: for they know his voice. Some of the streets are named after the craftsmen who occupy them; as the Tailor Street, where, almost at every door, may be seen two or three tailors, cutting and sewing. Further on may be seen cobblers, shoemakers, and others, following their handicraft with might and main, in the middle of the street. Grapes, of the most luscious kind, are sold at one penny per pound, and are seen every where hanging from the trees in large clusters. Some of the Roman Catholic churches are magnificent in their structure, and richly adorned; that of St. John has two gates, as large as those of a gentleman's mansion, of solid silver. The gates were formerly of solid gold, but Buonaparte unceremoniously removed them. After an agreeable detention of, sometimes, two days for the Marseilles mail, a bustle pervades the vicinity of the packet, and again the passenger for the Holy Land and the Holy City sleeps on the bosom of old Ocean. The fourteenth day, only the broad and blue sea, besprinkled with a few vessels gracefully gliding along, and the canopy of heaven, can now be seen. This brings again the heavenly blessing, the Lord's day,' mercifully appointed a day of rest for man and beast. Again the bell tolls; and all bow down to the Lord God Almighty, meekly bending upon their knees. The sixteenth-The refreshing sweetness of the early breeze is delightful to him who can forego Phoenician fleets once covered these silent waters; the luxury of slumber. The seventeenth-The never-wealthy cities once fringed those lonely shores; and tiring vessel now approaches land; the coast of Africa during 3,000 years, war has led all the nations of the is beheld; preparations are made, by assorting the earth in terrible procession along those historic plains: passengers' luggage, for disembarkation on the fol- yet it is not mere history that thrills the pilgrim to lowing day; the eighteenth. Awaking in the morn- the Holy Land with such feelings, as no other spot on ing, Alexandria, the seaport of the land of the Pha- the wide earth inspires; but the belief that on yonder
'On the fourth morning, the coast of Syria rose over the horizon; and the clearness of the atmosphere, together with the speed of our yacht bounding before a southerly gale, made the magnificent panorama of Lebanon start into sight, and develop its complicated beauty, as if by magic. At sunrise, a faint wavy line announced our approach to land; at eight o'clock, we seemed in the very shadow of its mountains, and that half-country before us was the HOLY LAND. For 1,800 years, the Western world, in all its prosperous life and youthful energy, has looked with reverence and hope towards that hopeless and stricken, but yet honoured land. After ages of obscurity and oblivion, as a mere province of a fallen empire, that country suddenly became invested with a glory till then unknown to earth. A few poor fishermen went forth from those shores among the nations, and announced such tidings, as changed their destiny for ever. Human life became an altered state; new tives, sympathies, and principles arose, new humanities became developed; new hopes, no longer bounded by, but enlarging from, the grave, animated our race. God had been amongst us, and spoken to us, like brethren, of our glorious inheritance.
NARROW AS ARE ITS BOUNDARIES, We have all A SHARE IN THE POSSESSION. WHAT A CHURCH IS TO A CITY, PALESTINE IS TO THE WORLD.
What doth the LORD require of thee ?-See Micah vi. 8.
Let the beauty of the LORD our God be upon us: and establish thou the work of our hands upon us.-Ps. xc. 17.
Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven;
earth the Creator once trod with human feet, bowed down with human suffering, linked to humanity by its closest sympathy of sorrow, bedewing our tombs with his tears, and consecrating our world with his blood. Such thoughts will influence the most thoughtless traveller on his first view of Palestine, and convert into a pilgrim, for the time, the most reckless wanderer: even the infidel, in his lonely and desecrated heart, must feel a reverence for the human character of one who lived and died like him of Nazareth.
And now we can recognise Tyre and Sidon; now the pine forest and the garden-covered promontory; and now we open the city of Beyrout, with its groves and dismantled towers, and the magnificent scenery that surrounds it.
The promontory of Beyrout is of a triangular form, and the town lies on the N. W. coast, about an hour distant from the cape, directly on the shore. A broad plain or valley extends from S. to N. across the promontory, full of cultivation, and containing the largest olive grove in Syria. All around Beyrout is covered with mulberry groves: the culture of silk being the chief employment of all the inhabitants. The plain and adjacent mountain side swarms with villages. The port is now filled up; so that vessels can anchor only in the open road. The town is surrounded, on the land side, by a wall of no great strength, with towers. The houses are high, and solidly built of stone. The streets are narrow and gloomy, badly paved, or rather laid, with large stones, with a deep channel in the middle for animals, in which water often runs. The city lies on a gradual slope, so that the streets have a descent towards the sea; but back of the town, the ground rises towards the south, with considerable elevation. the
spreading of nets in the midst of the sea. Multitudes of ruins mark its former greatness. The sin of Tyre was pride.' Coasting southward CARMEL is reached. The village of KISHON, about two miles and a half north of Carmel, is mean and dirty, but on the mount is a convent of great magnificence; the seat of superstition and idolatry, as in the days when Elijah slew there the false prophets of Baal. CESAREA, the town where Herod was eaten of worms, is south of Carmel; after which is JOPPA. This is the coast of PALESTINE-THE HOLY LAND-THE LAND OF CANAAN-THE LAND OF JUDEA: but the most pleasing name by which we recognise it, is THE LAND OF PROMISE; for to Abraham, and to his seed, God gave it for an everlasting possession. Situated at the extremity of the Mediterranean sea, having the Euphrates and the Persian gulf on the east, and the Red sea on the south, it is the centre of all lands; and in it is situated JERUSALEM, of which it is said, The LORD of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients gloriously. See Isa. xxiv. 23. Travellers from Europe to the Holy City usually land at JAFFA, anciently Joppa, the principal sea-port in Palestine; and to which the cedar, employed by king Solomon in the building of the temple,' was brought from mount Lebanon. It is a small fortified town, standing on a promontory: having for its harbour a miserable enclosure of rocks. The town is a labyrinth of khans, convents, narrow lanes, deserted ruins, and waste places, with a few dirty streets leading from one quarter to another. The Franciscan convent often shelters 1,000 pilgrims at Easter, and other seasons of pilgrimage. The bazaars and markets look very gay with Syrian silks, and shining arms, and a profusion of fruit and flowers. From Jaffa to Jerusalem is about In the valley that lies between the promontory and 40 miles. The road for nearly 3 miles is through mountains, spreads one of the richest and most cultivated gardens, well filled with fig, orange, lemon, varied tracts of verdure in the world. Gardens, groves, pomegranate, and palm trees. The Indian fig, with the gleams of a winding river, white cottages, half its prickles, is used for and makes a durable fence. covered by creeping shrubs, lanes of flowering cactus, The road then opens on the highly fertile, but almost alternating tracts of yellow sands, and clumps of pine deserted and uncultivated plain of Sharon. Ramleh trees, afford a delightful range for the searching eye. is about 10 miles distant, and is ordinarily made the For those who have any time to spare, few places in resting place for the night, the remainder of the the East afford so desirable a resting place as this, journey being performed the following day. Ramleh combining, with many resources, such opportunities stands on a slight elevation, and is a mean straggling of acquiring information. A tolerably clean and town, without fortification, and surrounded with garcomfortable boarding-house is in the vicinity. All dens and orchards. From Ramleh the road continues Beyrout seem to be perpetually bathing in the deli- for several miles through a luxuriant but almost waste cious sea: little pyramids of red, and blue, and white plain, with scarcely an inhabitant; after which it engarments, may be seen all along the shore, and the ters a narrow defile of rocky mountains, rising almost shaved heads of their owners dotting the surface of perpendicularly, with toppling precipices all around, the water. Little children, almost as soon as they and obstructed with huge stones. Slippery rocks, can sprawl upon the ground, are to be seen kicking yawning into deep fissures, and almost impracticable among the waves.'-Crescent and the Cross, pp. 4-26. footing, is the only road, and this for 4,000 years proThe dwellings of the Franks are scattered upon at length the last acclivity is reached, emerging on a bably the highway from Jaffa to Jerusalem. When the hills towards the south, each in the midst of its wide and sterile plain, and the first glimpse of the garden; they are built of stone, in the European style, and exhibit many of the comforts of the West, Holy City is gained, the leading pilgrims sink on heightened by the luxuries of the East. On the right, each traveller, and Arab, Italian, Greek, and Englishtheir knees, and a shout of enthusiasm bursts from the mighty wall of Lebanon rises in indescribable majesty, teeming with villages, and more or less cultivated man exclaims, each in his own tongue, El Khuds!' to the very top. Beyrout is the centre of European From this height not a tree or green spot is visible; Gerusalemma!' Hagiopolis!' The Holy City!' trade, and the port for Damascus. From the convenience of its communication with the interior, it is right and left, as far as the eye can reach, vague unno sign of life breaks the solemn stillness. To the made the chief seat of the American mission in Syria; dulations of colourless rocks extend to the horizon. having flourishing schools, and doing good according A broken and desolate plain in front is bounded by a to their means. The population is supposed to be about 10.000.-See also Lowthian's Journal, pp. 26-wavy battlemented wall, over which are seen towers, 40, for a short residence at Beyrout. minarets, and mosque domes, intermingled with church turrets and terraced roofs. High over the city, to the left, rises the mount of Olives; and the distant hills of Moab afford a background to the picture. As the city is approached, nothing but the bare walls are visible, with the massive gates and lofty towers; and Jerusalem is entered under a high archway called the Jaffa or Pilgrim's gate. Pilgrims find lodgings in the various convents; and others, accommodation in a hotel kept by a Maltese, a relation of the late bishop's dragoman.-See Sect. v. p. 36, and [§ 23, pp. 181-..4.
The passage by sea from Beyrout to Joppa introduces many places of Old Testament interest. A few hours' sail brings SIDON close at hand, Lebanon continuing long in sight, a magnificent and sublime object. From a distance, Sidon looks clean and neat; and many small villages are seen on the sides, and even on the summits of the mountains.+ About 6 miles south of Sidon is TYRE, a city of ancient renown, but now poor and miserable, a place for the
Since the above was written, this is said to have been destroyed in the fierce contests of the Druses and the Maronites.
+ See Sect. 45, Harmony of the Holy Gospel.'
Who is able to stand before this holy LORD God?-1 Sam. vi. 20.
but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven.-Matthew vii. 21.