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should be ordained by you, Oliver Cowdery, mine each other, all having for their object to enapostle : this being an ordinance unto you, that you force the prophet's behests in the Church, are an elder under his hand, he being the first unto to consolidate his authority, to repress the you, that you might be an elder unto this church of Christ

, bearing my name, and the first preacher claims of his accomplices in the fraud to a of this church unto the church, and before the share of his power, and to dispose of inworld, yea, before the Gentiles; yea, and thus tractable Church-officers by 'sending them saith the Lord God, lo, lo! to the Jews also. forth on missionary excursions. While the Amen."

."- Covenants and Commandments, Sect. “ Church" continued in Manchester and its xlvi.

vicinity, under the sole control of Joseph, he Another “revelation ” shortly after made well. But a mighty change took place when,

contrived to maintain bis authority tolerably provision for the temporal necessities of the at the end of 1830, Sidney Rigdon's jointprophet, while confirming his alleged inspira- authority was brought into play. His intro

duction to the Church was most skillfully Magnify thine office, and after thou hast managed by means of a mission to Kirtland, sowed thy fields and secured them, go speedily Obio, where Rigdon was presiding over a unto the church which is in Colesville, Fayette, congregation of Campbellite Baptists. On and Manchester, and they shall support thee; and the new doctrine of the Book of Mormon I will bless them both spiritually and temporarily; being preached to them, a number of the but if they receive thee not, I will send upon Campbellites, and among them Rigdon himthem a cursing instead of a blessing. “ And thou shalt continue in calling upon

self, were converted, and received baptism

God in my name, and writing the things which shall at the hands of Joseph's emissaries. This be given thee by the Comforter, and expounding was followed by a visit from Rigdon to the all scriptures unto the church ; and it shall be “Church” at Manchester, when this “revegiven thee in the very moment what thou shalt lation” was "given to Joseph Smith and speak and write, and they shall hear it, or I will Sidney Rigdon,” in December, 1830 :send unto them a cursing instead of a blessing.” Covenants and Commandments, Sect. ix. $ 2, 3.

“ Behold, verily, verily, I say unto my servant

Sidney, I have looked upon thee and thy works. And in September of the same year 1830, I have heard thy prayers, and prepared thee for a a special “ revelation became necessary to

greater work. Thou art blessed, for thou shalt repress rival claims to prophetic gifts. One do great things. Behold thou wast sent forth, Hiram Page, one of the eight witnesses, was even as John, to prepare the way before me, and instructed that “ those things which he had before Elijah which should come, and thou knewest written from that stone,” were not of God, it not. Thou didst baptize by water unto repentbut that "Satan was deceiving him ;" and ance, but they received not the Holy Ghost ; but

now I give unto thee a commandment, that thou to apostle Oliver himself, the wide distinction shalt baptize by water, and they shall receive the between himself and the prophet had to be Holy Ghost by the laying on of thy hands, even pointed out :

as the apostles of old,” —Covenants and Com

mandments, Sect. xi. & 2. “ Behold, verily, verily, I say unto thee, no one

Soon after this, at the beginning of the shall be appointed to receive commandments and


year 1831, the head-quarters of revelations in this Church, excepting my servant Joseph Smith, jun., for he receiveth them even as

Church were removed to Kirtland, and Moses; and thon shalt be obedient unto the from this time forward the “revelations” things which I shall give unto him, even as assume a fuller and more ambitious characAaron, to declare faithfully the commandments ter, which evidently bespeaks the influence and the revelations, with power and authority of a thorough man of business, more highly unto the Church. And if thou art led at by the Comforter, to speak or teach, or at all educated, and more deeply versed in the times by the way of commandment unto the Scriptures than Joseph. One Edward ParChurch, thou mayest do it. But thou shalt not tridge, a creature of Rigdon's, who had come write by way of commandment, but by wisdom: with him from Kirtland to Manchester, and and thou shalt not command him who is at thy returned thither in his and Joseph's comhead, and at the head of the Church, for I have

pany, was by “ revelation" appointed given him the keys of the mysteries, and the revelations which are sealed, until I shall appoint unto

Bishop;" an office which had regard rathem another in his 'stead." - Corenants and ther to the ecclesiastical government of the Commandments, Sect. li. 9 2.

“ Church,” and the management of her

temporalities, than to spiritual oversight, It would be an endless task to adduce the and which rendered him at times very obvarious “revelations” which now succeeded noxious to Smith, as several of the “reve

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lations” testify. With Rigdon, too, there we shall refer our readers once more to Mr. appears to have been sharp conflicts, which Caswall's book for information.* were composed on one occasion by a “reve- Long, however, before the removal of the lation," dividing the blame between them.* “ Saints " from Kirtland became a matter of Rigdon, however, soon attained to an equal necessity, in consequence of the failure of ity of power with the prophet, and one of the bank, under circumstances of great disthe visions, which sets forth the three states, grace, a scheme had been formed for the esthe celestial, terrestrial, and telestial, runs in. tablishment of a much larger settlement than their joint namest. At one time Joseph any this sect had as yet had, farther West. Smith and Sidney Rigdon saw fit to send As early as June, 1831, a "revelation” was away all the elders from the “Church,” on given, pointing to certain land in Missouri, different missions, “ two and two,” that they as land “to be consecrated to the Lord's should“ teach the principles of the gospel, people." which are in the Bible and in the Book of Mormon, in the which is the fullness of the “If ye are faithful, ye shall assemble yourgospel,” with a special injunction to “ob-selves together to rejoice upon the land of Misserve the covenants and church articles to do souri, which is the land of your inheritance, which them.” And all this they are bidden to

is near the land of your enemies. But, behold, I the Lord will hasten the city in its time, and will

crown the faithful with joy and with rejoicings.”“ Observe to do as I have commanded concern

Corenants and Commandments, Sect. Ixvi. 9 9. ing your teaching, until the fullness of my scriptures are (sic!) given";

An assembly of elders was convened, on The expression, the “fullness of my scrip: to occupy, and which was now declared to

the ground which it was intended hereafter tures,” has reference to a new translation of be the proper location for the city of Zion, the Bible which had been taken in hand, and the great temple that should be built.f probably as the suggestion of Rigdon, but At this time,- August, 1831,—the idea of the execution of which, except the publica acquiring the land otherwise than by purtion of a few fragments, was apparently pre- chase, though probably broached, received vented by subsequent occurrences and by

no countenance :the want of funds.

On the 17th of February, 1834, the “Behold this is the will of the Lord your God “Church” which had been going on in- concerning his Saints, that they should assemble creasing was finally “organized by revela- themselves together unto the land of Zion, not in tion,” when Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon,

haste, lest there should be confusion, which bringand R. G. Williams were acknowledged | Lord, holdeth it in mine own bands ; nevertheless,

eth pestilence. Behold, the land of Zion, I, the presidents. A council was appointed to as- I the Lord, rendereth unto Casar the things sist them in the administration of its affairs, which are Cæsar's: wherefore, I, the Lord, and a regular staff of resident and traveling willeth that you should purchase the lands, that officers, whose respective duties and relative you may have advantage of the world, that you positions were accurately defined. A costly

may have claim on the world, that they may not

be stirred up unto anger; for Satan putieth it temple was erected, as well as private resi

into their hearts to anger a rainst you, and to the dences for Smith and Rigdon, who having

shedding of blood; wherefore the land of Zion possessed themselves of the surplus wealth shali not be obtained but by purchase or by blood, of their converts, launched out into a multi- otherwise there is none inheritance for you. And plicity of enterprises, and among others if by purchase, behoid you are blessed ; and if by established Safety Society Bank,” which blood, as you are forbidden to shed blood, lo, your proved eventually the ruin of the Mormon enemies are upon you, and ye shall be scourged cause in the State of Ohio. Of these trans

from city to city, and from synagogue to syna. actions few traces are to be found in the

goglie, and but tew shall stand to receive an in

heritance."- Covenants and Commandinents, Sec. “ revelations” given at this period ; the his- xx. $ 8. tory of them is chiefly derived from the opponents of the Mormons; and as it lies out In the following year, 1832, a formal proof the way of our more immediate object, mise of the restoration of Zion, the erection

of the New Jerusalem in Missouri, was given * Covenants and Commandments, Sect. lxxxiii. by “revelation :" $57, 8. 7 Ibid. Sect. xcii. $ 3.

* Prophet of the Nineteenth Century, chap. vii. Covenants and Commandments, Sect. xiii. & 2, 5. viii. Ibid. Sect. y.

+ Covenants and Commandments, Sect. xxvii. $ 1.


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“A revelation of Jesus Christ unto his servant, the elders, or high priests, such as he shall or has Joseph Smith, jun., and six elders, as they united appointed and set apart for that purpose. their hearts and lifted their voices on high; yea, * And it shall come to pass, that after they are the word of the Lord concerning his Church, es- laid before the bishop of my church, and after that tablished in the last days for the restoration of his he has receired these testimonies concerning the conpeople, as He has spoken by the mouth of his secration of the properties of my church, that they prophets, and for the gathering of his saints to cannot be taken from the church agreeably to my stand upon mount Zion, which shall be the city commandments; every man shall be made account. New Jerusalem, which city shall be built, begin- able unto me, a steward over his own property, ning at the temple lot, which is appointed by the or that which he has received by consecration, finger of the Lord, in the western boundaries of inasmuch as is sufficient for himself and fanily. the State of Missouri, and dedicated by the hand " And again, if there shall be properties in the of Joseph Smith, jun., and others with whom the hands of the church, or any individuals of it, more Lord was well pleased.

than is necessary for their snpport, after this first Verily this is the word of the Lord, that the consecration, which is a residue to be consecrated city New Jerusalem shall be built by the gather- | unto the bishop, it shall be kep! to administer to ing of the saints beginning at this place, even the those who have not, from time to time, that every place of the temple, which temple shall be reared man who has need may be amply supplied, and in this generation ; for verily, this generation shall receive according to his wants. Therefore, the not all pass away until an house shall be built residue shall be kept in my store-house, to adminis, unto the Lord, and a cloud shall rest upon it, ter to the poor and the needy, as shall be appoinied which cloud shall be even the glory of the Lord, by the high council of the church, and the bishop which shall fill the house.”_ Corenants and Com- and his council, and for the purpose of purchasmandments, Sect. iv. $ 1,2.

ing lands for the public benefit of the church, and

building houses of worship, and building up of the And in the month of December, 1833, a

New Jerusalem which is hereafter to be revealed, commandment went forth for a general gath- that my covenant people may be gathered in one ering in all the churches in every part of the in that day when I shall come to my temple. And

this I do for the salvation of my people. world, in order to collect funds for “the

“And it shall come to pass, that he that sinredemption of Zion."*

neth and repenteth not, shall be cast out of the How far the investments in Missouri may church, and shall not receive again that which he have helped to embarrass the finances of the has consecrated un!o the poor and needy of my “Church” at Kirtland, it is impossible to church; or in other words unto me; for inasmuch şay; The probability, however, is, that they as ye do it unto the least of these, ye do it unto had no small share in the catastrophe which

me; for it shall come to pass, that which I spake eventually accelerated the transfer of the før I will consecrate of the riches of those who

by the mouths of my prophets, shall be fulfilled ; centre of Mormonism to the spot prophetical- embrace my gospel among the Gentiles, unto the ly pointed out as the place in which the New poor of my people who are of the house of Israel. Jerusalem should be erected. And certain "-Corenants and Commandments, Sect. it is that the most stringent measures were

xiii. 8–11. taken to levy contributions upon the members of the Church, by a system of enforced However unpalatable this system might donations, which had much more the charac- prove, and undoubtedly did prove, to many ter of confiscation than of taxation. The of the members, and especially the new principle of complete surrender of private comers, it was constantly enforced by “reveproperty was laid down broadly, soon after | lations,” and carried out with greater rigor the removal to Kirtland, in the first instance than ever, after the removal from Kirtland, as under the guise of securing support for the appears from a “revelation” given at Far poor, but in reality for enriching the Church, West, Missouri, July 8, 1838, in answer to and placing all the property of the members the question, “ O Lord, show unto thy serat the disposal of the leaders.

vants how much thou requirest of the pro" If thou lovest me, thou shalt serve me and perties of thy people for a tithing." The keep all my commandments. And behold, thou

answer is as follows: wilt remember the poor, and consecrate of thy properties for their support that which thou bast “ Verily, thus saith the Lord, I require all their to impart unto them with a covenant and a deed surplus property to put into the hands of the which cannot be broken ; and inasmuch as ye im-bishop of my church in Zion, for the building of part of your substance unto the poor, ye will do mine house, and for the laying the foundation of it unto me, and they shall be laid before the Zion and for the priesthood, and for the debts of bishop of my church and his counsellors, two of the presidency of my church ; and this shall be

the beginning of the tithing of my people ; and * Covenants and Commandments, Sect. xcv. $$ after that, those who have thus been tithed, shall 9, 10.

pay one-tenth of all their interest annually, and




this shall be a standing law unto them forever, / and authorities, even what shall befall them in a for my holy priesthood, saith the Lord.

time to come. For, behold, I am about to call “ Verily I say unto you, it shall come to pass, upon them to give heed to the light and glory of that all those who gather unto the land of Zion | Zion, for the set time has come to favor her."shall be rithed of their surplus properties, and Covenants and Commandments, Sect. ciii. $ 1. shall observe this law, or they shall not be found worthy to abide among you. And I say unto you, At Nauvoo the wickedness of the Mormon if my people observe not this law, to keep it holy, system reached its climax. Flushed by his and by this law sanctisy the land of Zion unio me, that my statutes and my judgments may be success, after the most fearful reverses, the kept thereon, that it may be most holy; behold, prophet now overleapt all the bonds of selfverily I say unto you, it shall not be a land of restraint, and in more than one sense carried Zion unto you; and this shall be an ensample himself as the Mahomet of the West. A full, unto all the stakes of Zion. Even so. Amen." and to all appearance authentic, account of Covenants and Commandments, Sect. cvii. the state of affairs at Nauvoo,* and of the

private as well as public conduct of Joseph The settlement of Zion, however, notwith Smith at this period, is given by one whose standing the most confident predictions, and testimony it is hardly possible for a follower of the most positive and explicit " revelations," the prophet to repudiate, considering the reproved an utter failure. One short year was ception which was given him, the estimation sufficient to provoke the Missourians to a

in which he was for a long time held by the war of extermination against the sect, which prophet, and the position which he occupied ended in its expulsion from the State,* and at Nauvoo, where he continued to live as a its removal to the State of Illinois, where, on Mormonite, for the space of eighteen months, the banks of the Mississippi, the foundations holding, during the greater part of that time, of the famous city of Nauvoo were laid in

a high station in the sect, which gave him 1839. To avoid the confession of failure, the admission to all its mysteries, and a knowlprophet boldly asserted, that notwithstanding edge of all its secrets; -we allude to General all that had passed, Independence in Jack-J. A. Bennet, whese " Exposé of Joe Smith son County, Missouri, was the place where and of Mormonism” is quoted (No. 3) at the Zion should be built; but in the mean time, head of this article. According to J. A. BenNauvoo, “the beautiful city," was to be net's own account, he never was a believer their principal “stake,” until the time of in Mormonism, but having reasons to suspect the Gentiles should be fulfilled.” No one

the Mormon leader of “ a daring and colossal could suspect the straits to which the sect scheme of rebellion and usurpation throughhad been reduced, the sufferings which its out the Northwestern States," having in fact members had undergone, or the damage documents to show a scheme for conquering which the character of the prophet had sus-Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri,

, tained, from the tone of gratulation and of and creating a despotic military and religious triumph, and of arrogated supremacy over empire, with Joe Smith at the head, he deterall the nations and kingdoms of the earth, mined to spy out the land, and for this purwhich pervades the “revelation” given at pose feigned himself a convert to Mormonism. Nauvoo in January, 1841:

However questionable the morality of this

proceeding may be,f certain it is that the “ I say unto you, that you are now called imme. | inspiration of Joseph did not serve him to diately to make a solemn proclamation of my goso discern the traitor in the camp. So far from pel, and of this stake which I have, planted to be discovering Bennet's real intentions, Joseph a corner-stone of Zion, which shall be polished with that refinement which is after the similitude of a palace. This proclamation shall be made to * See also Caswall's City of the Mormons; or, all the kings of the world--to the four corners Three Days at Nauvoo in 1842. thereof-to the bonorable president elect, and the + Bennet himself offers a kind of apology for it. higli-minded governors of the nation in which “Persons unacquainted,” he says, “with the subject, you live, and to all the nations of the earth scat- can scarcely imagine the baseness and turpitude of tered abroad. Let it be written in the spirit of Mormon principles, or the horrid practices to which meekness, and by the power of the Holy Ghost | these principles gave rise. When they learn how which shall be in you at the time of the writing habitually the Murmons sacrifice to their brutal proof the same; for it shall be given you by the Holy pensities the virtue and happiness of young and Ghost to know my will concerning those kings who refuse to join them, and how they murder those

innocent females; how they cruelly persecute those

who attempt to expose them; they will look with * For an account of the wars between the Mis- | indulgence upon almost any means employed to sourians and the Mormonites, see Caswall, The thwart their villanous designs, and detect and disProphet of the Nineteenth Century, ch. ix. x. close their infamy."

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distinguished him by “ revelation" as a valu- | ambition of Joseph Smith and his associates. able accession to the staff of the Church. While these were accommodated with com

fortable quarters at the public expense, and “ Let my servant James A. Bennet, help you in lived in ease and comparative luxury, their your labor in sending my word to the kings of deluded followers were exposed to every spethe people of the earth, and stand by you, even cies of privation. This Bennet states, both you my servant Joseph Smith, in the hour of affliction, and his reward shall not fail if he receive upon his own authority, and upon that of counsel; and for his love he shall be great, for he others whose evidence he quotes; and, in ilshall be mine if he do this, saith the Lord. I have lustration of the spirit in which the prophet seen the work which he hath done, which I ac- acted, he adduces the following anecdote : cept, if he continue, and will crown him with blessings and great glory.”—Covenants and Com- " At the very time that the elders of this mandments, Sect. ciii. § 6.

Church, and indeed the poorer class were suffering

from the want of the common necessaries of life, Such revelation” in the standard book Smith demanded at the hands of the people 1200 of the sect, the record of the prophet's “ in- dollars per year, in order to aggrandize himself spired” utterance, bestowed upon a man who and enable him to live in luxury. And when himself openly declares that he never was

some complained that this would be a violation of

the rules of the Church, he remarked that if he anything but a spy and a traitor among could not obtain his demand, his people might the “saints,” is the most conclusive evidence, go to h–, and he would go to the Rocky Mounif any were needed, that Joseph Smith has tains.”Bennet's History of the Saints, p. 60. no pretensions whatever to be accounted a prophet. The mistake which he made in While the general multitude of believers pronouncing Mr. Caswall's manuscript of the in Mormonism were thus left to toil and to Greek Testament a dictionary of Egyptian starve, being deprived of their property by hieroglyphics,* is a mere trifle compared with revelations,” under the plea of its being de

the moral mistake of his reposing, and that voted to the service of the Most High, there professedly while under the influence of in- was an extensive organization, under the name spiration, the greatest confidence in an indi- of the Order Lodge, to which those who vidual who was in fact at that very moment were thought worthy of it were initiated, by planning his destruction. Nor was this want the most ridiculous, profane, and indecent of discernment confined to the one instance mysteries *. Among the ceremonies which of the “revelation” quoted above ; Bennet took place at these secret rites, was a blashad not been much more than six months in phemous personation of the Holy Trinity, Nauvoo, where Smith was then omnipotent, in which, in General Bennet's time, God the before he combined in bis person the offices Father was represented by Joseph, God the of Mayor of the City, Major-General of the Son by his brother Hyrum Smith, and God Nauvoo Legion, and First President of the the Holy Ghost by one George Miller. One Church of the Latter Day Saints ; and it is of the most horrible features of this secret worthy of remark, ihat when he determined organization was the spiritual seraglio, formto leave Nauvoo, he withdrew with the full ed for the gratification of the profligate proknowledge and consent of Joseph, and re- pensities of the prophet, and of the oiher ceived a vote of thanks from the City Coun- leaders of that sect. We cannot pullute our cil. All these circumstances, as well as his pages with any of the details given by standing in society, which is attested by a General Bennet; suffice it to say, that number of testimonials of the first respecta- a regular course of initiation took place, bility, impart a degree of credibility, and an of both married and unmarried females,

, air of authenticity, to the report of General through three degrees, or orders, that Bennet, to which few of the other opponents of the “ Cyprian Saints,” or the “Saints of Mormonism can lay claim.

of the White Veil,”-that of the “ ChamHaving, then, made our readers acquainted with the history and character of our wit- * The account given by Bennet of this Order ness, we now proceed briefly to sum up the Lodge is confirmed by a curious Tract, republished most important points of his evidence.Ac- by Arthur Hall (London), entitled, “ Sketch of the cording to General Bennet's statement, the John Thomas, M.D., Author of “ Elpin Israel,” Vir

Rise, Progress, and Dispersion of the Mormons. By whole community at Nauvoo was nothing ginia, U. S. of America ; to which is added, An Acmore than a huge organization for the grati- count of the Nauvoo Temple Mysteries, and other fication of the rapacity, the lust, and lawless Abominations, practised by the Mormons previous

to their Emigration for California. By Increase * Caswall's History of the Mormons, pp. 35–37. I M'Gee Van Dusen, formerly one of the Initiated." VOL. XXI. NO. IIL.


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