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tively limited, and resembling closely in their of short cuttings and low embankments. Curves commercial conditions the roads of the United of comparatively short radius have also been adStates, the German railways have been con- mitted, so that the railways might wind along structed, in general, on principles analogous to those levels which would offer the most economithose which have been found to answer so well cal conditions of construction. in America. The vast expenditure for earth-work and costly works of art, such as viaducts, bridges, and tunnels, by which valley are bestridden and mountains pierced to gain a straight and level line lation which railways and railway capital
The following comparative view of the rein the English system, have not been attempted; bear to the territorial extent and population and the railways have been carried more nearly along the natural level of the country, the cost of of different countries, will be read with inteearth-work having been generally limited to that I rest :
Comparative View of the Movement of Traffic on a Portion of the Railways in operation in the United
Kingdom, United States, Belgium, France, and Germany.
" In making such a comparison it is especially | utility and value. Such a line of communication necessary to consider not merely the length of as that which connects, or lately connected, Portsrailway reported to be in operation or in progress, mouth (Virginia) with Weldon (North Carolina), but the capital which has been invested in its and that which connects London and Birmingham construction ; for two lines of communication re- both receive the common name of railway, nearly ceiving the common denomination of railways in the same manner as a log cabin of a Missouri may differ from each other extremely in their settler and the palace of Blenheim receive the
* The average cost of all the remaining lines was about £8,000 per mile. VOL. XXI. NO. I.
common denomination of dwelling-house.” The wished. I have, however, collected in a table as most exact measure of the relative utility or effi- many data as are supplied by authentic docuciency of two lines of railway is their cost. It ments for nearly corresponding epochs. The is not, however, to be forgotten that, even in railways on which the traffic reporied has been adopting this test, regard must be had to the rela-carried do not in general include all the lines open tive cost of land, material, and manual labor. in the respective countries; nevertheless, they
" It would have been desirable to have exhibit. will afford some approximation to a comparison of ed a comparative view of the average movement the extent of intercommunication by railway. In of the traffic upon the railways in operation in some cases also I have been obliged to obtain the different countries at a corresponding epoch. Un- numerical results by estimation. These I have fortunately we have no documents to enable us to indicated in the table." do this with all the precision which might be
From the New Monthly Magazine.
WALLACE AND FAWDON.
BY LEIGH HUNT.
(This ballad was suggested by one of the notes to the Lay of the Last Minstrel. Wallace, the great Scottish patriot, had been defeated in a sharp encounter with the English. He was forced to retreat with only sixteen followers; the English pursued him with a bloodhound; and his sole chance of escape from that tremendous investigator was either in baffling the scent altogether (which was impossible, unless fugitives could take to the water, and continue there for some distance), or in confusing it by the spilling of blood. For the latter purpose a captive was sometimes sacrificed ; in which case the hound stopped upon the body.
The supernatural part of the story of Fawdon is treated by its first relater, Harry the Minstrel, as a mere legend, and that not a very credible one; but as a mere legend it is very fine, and quite sufficient for poetical purposes ; nor should the old poet's philosophy have thought proper to gainsay it. Nevertheless, as the mysteries of the conscience are more awful things than any merely gratuitous terror (besides leaving optical phenomena quite as real as the latter may find them), even the supernatural part of the story becomes probable when we consider the agitations which the noble mind of Wallace may have undergone during such trying physical circumstances, and such extremes of moral responsibility. It seems clear, that however necessary the death of Fawdon may have been to his companjons or to Scotland, his slayer regretted it ; I have suggested the kind of reason which he would most likely have had for the regret; and upon the whole, it is my opinion, that Wallace actually saw the visions, and that the legend originated in the fact. I do not mean to imply that Fawdon became present, embodied or disembodied, whatever may have been the case with his spectre. I only say that what the legend reports Wallace to have seen, was actually in the hero's eyes. The remainder of the question I leave to the pyschologist.]
The bloodhound's bay comes down the wind, Part the First.
Right upon the road;
Town and tower are yet to pass,
With not a friend's abode.
Wallace neither turn'd nor spake ,
Closer drew the men;
Little had they said that day,
But most went cursing then
From the North British Review,
MAHOMET AND THE KORAN.
Life of Mahomet. By WASHINGTON IRVING. London: Murray, 1850.
In the year 613, the inhabitants of Mecca,, was spoken of but the divine mission of Maa considerable walled town, situated in a bar- homet Ibn Abdallah. ren stony valley, about fifty miles from the The Arabic writers that tell us these facts, eastern shore of the Red Sea, were thrown give us an account also of the pedigree and into a state of no small excitement, by learn- previous history of Mahomet. The prophet, ing that they had a prophet among them, a they say, was not an Arab of the genuine or man professing to have a commission from pure race, the posterity of Kahtan or Joktan, God to teach them, and all the other Arabs, the son of Heber, by whom, after the annia new way of life. There was no doubt about hilation of the wicked aboriginal tribes of Ad, the fact. Already, for three years or more, Thamud, &c., the Arabian Peninsula had there had been whisperings in the town that been re-colonized; he was an Arab of the something strange had befallen Mahomet Ibn mixed or Ishmaelitish stock, that had been Abdallah, and his wife Kadijah ; and now introduced into the peninsula, and particularly the secret was out. Mahomet himself had into that western portion of it called Hejaz, revealed it. At a meeting of his kinsmen, by the marriage of Ishmael, the outcast son after having feasted them with lamb’s flesh of Abraham, with a daughter of the house of and milk, he had openly asserted what he Joktan. The distinction, however, between had till then told only to a few, and announ- these two kinds of Arabs was one rather of ced himself as a messenger of God, sent to re- tradition than reality, the Ishmaelitish and the form the faith of the Arabs. " Children of native Arabs living in a state of interfusion, Abd-al-Motalleb,” he had said to them, “I and pursuing exactly the same occupations do not believe that there is any man in Ara- —some settled in towns scattered at intervals bia that can make you a better present than over the Peninsula, but the greater proporthat I now bring to you; for I offer you the tion roaming over the desert spaces of the ingood both of this life and of the life that is to terior with their flocks and camels
Know that the great God has com- In the course of the general distribution of manded me to call you unto him.” For the Arabian Peninsula among the multitudisome time the kinsmen had kept silence, not nous tribes, whether pure or Ishmaelitish, knowing what to say ; but at last Mahomet's that divided the possesssion of it, that part of young cousin, Ali, a boy of thirteen or four the province of Hejaz in which the town of teen years of age, had sprung up and said, Mecca was included, had fallen to the tribe “Come, my cousin, I will be with you; I of the Koreishites, who traced their existence will be your vizier in Mecca.” And Maho-to Koreish, one of the descendants of Ishmael. met had embraced the boy before all the By the acquisition of this territory, the men kinsmen, and had said, “ Verily, this is my of Koreish found themselves raised to a posibrother, and iny vizier over you; see, then, tion of pre-eminence among the other Arab that ye pay lim reverence. And at this tribes ; for Mecca was a spot holy in the imthe kinsmen had laughed heartily, turning to agination of all the Arabians, on account of its Abu Thaleb, the father of Ali, who was pre- legendary associations. In this waterless and sent, and saying, “ Hearest thou this, Abu dreary valley, said the native tradition, had Thaleb, that henceforth thou must render Adam and Eve first met again after their exobedience to thine own son ?" And all these pulsion from Paradise, and long wanderings things, and many more, had been spread over the earth, in search of each other; here abroad in Mecca and its neighborhood, so had these parents of our race first worshipthat, both in and around the town, nothing led God in their new wretchedness ; here had
their son Seth built the famous Kaaba, or merous uncles, and particularly to that of square-stone shrine, for which heaven itself Abu Thaleb, the eldest son of Abd-al-Motalhad furnished the model ; here also it was leb, and his successor in the government of that the outcast Hagar and her son had sat Mecca. The youth and the early manhood down to die, when the angel appeared, and of the Prophet were accordingly spent either showed them the waters of the well Zem-zem at Mecca, in the household of Abu Thaleb, bubbling up to refresh them; and here, finally, or in such casual expeditions for war, plunhad the mighty Ishmael, assisted by his aged der, or trade, as were undertaken by any of father, after their reconciliation, restored the the uncles. His sole patrimony, indepenwork of Seth, which the flood had swept dently of what he earned in the service of away, building into one of its walls, by the Abu Thaleb, consisted of five camels, a few direction of the angel Gabriel, the sacred sheep, and a black female slave. black stone that had been seen to fall from As an Arab of undoubted pedigree, Mathe open sky. Centuries, therefore, before homet must have inherited, in high measure, the Christian era, Mecca was the Kebla of the peculiar intellectual and moral qualities Arabia—the fixed point toward which, as that distinguish at this hour, as they have toward the holiest spot known, all devout always distinguished, the men of the ShemiArabs, from the Mediterranean to the Indian tic race. “ The Shemite," says Mr. Layard, Ocean, from the Red to the Persian Sea, were "possesses in the highest degree what we taught to turn when they prayed. What-call imagination. The poor and ignorant ever diversities of creed or worship distin-Arab, whether of the desert or town, moulds guished the different tribes of the great Pen- with clay the jars for his daily wants, in a insula, in this one feeling, at least, of re- form which may be traced in the most eleverence for the Kaaba, and for the city Mecca gant vases of Greece or Rome; and, what is as the seat of it, all were agreed. It was to no less remarkable, identical with that reprethis, its religious reputation, that Mecca owed sented on monuments raised by his ancestors its prosperity. Pilgrims traveling thither 3000 years before. If he speaks, he shows periodically from all parts of Arabia, in order a ready eloquence ; his words are glowing that they might walk in procession round the and apposite ; his descriptions true, yet brilKaaba, and kiss the black stone in its eastern liant ; his similes just, yet most fanciful. wall, were accustomed to bring their merchan- These high qualities seem to be innate in dise with them; and the Meccans, who but him; he takes no pains to cultivate or imfor this concourse of people to their little ter- prove them; he knows nothing of reducing ritory, would have been among the poorest them to any rule, or measuring them by any of all the Arabians, became rich by the con- standard." More particularly, the characsequent traffic. Little wonder, then, that the teristics of the Shemitic mind, whether as Koreishites, as the masters of Mecca, and the seen in the Arab, the Hebrew, or the Syrian hereditary keepers of the Kaaba, were accoun- type, seem to be these-extreme facility and ted illustrious among the Arab tribes ; or that spontaneity in operation, and comparative their particular dialect of the general Arabic independence, as regards the symmetry of spoken by all, was considered the finest, the the result, on training or culture ; a prevailrichest, and the most classic.
ing seriousness, or even ferocity of mood, Not only did the Prophet belong to the and, connected with this, a deficiency in at tribe of Koreish, he belonged also to the least the Teutonic form of humor; and, most important branch of that tribe—the above all, a deep and fervid faith in the sufamily of the Haschemites. His grandfather, pernatural
, and a strong aptitude for religAbd-al-Motalleb, the head of this family, ious emotion. All these qualities of his race was by that fact the first man in Mecca—the must have existed in Mahomet in a high dechief 'in civil authority, the most active in gree; and, if there were any minor peculibusiness, and the recognized guardian of the arities of temperament likely to arise from Kaaba. Dying in extreme old age, this man the grafting of a Hebrew shoot on an Arabic left a large family of descendants—children, stock, these, also, we may suppose, were grandchildren, and
and great-grandchildren. illustrated in him. Out of all these, his favorite is said to have The influences that must have acted on been his grandson Mahomet, the only and the soul of this young Arab in his progress orphan child of his deceased son Abdallah. to maturity, were many and various. Of Born in 571, Mahomet was but seven years education, in the scholastic sense, he reold at the time of his grandfather's death; ceived little or none, as he never was able after which he fell to the charge of his nu-either to read or to write,-accomplishments,