ceeded toward Fontenay-aux-Roses ; but | village of Clamart, and describing himself as Condorcet's weak legs, after nine months' a carpenter out of work, called for an omelet. total disuse of exercise, were little suited for | His address excited doubts, which were such a walk, and it was three o'clock ere he strengthened by a little observation of his reached the country-house of his brother hands, but especially when, being asked how academician, Suard. They had been intimate many eggs should be put in the pan, he friends for more than twenty years—as the answered a dozen—and then proceeded to Correspondence shows. Madame Suard, eat the mess with the eagerness of a famishtoo (sister to the great publisher Pancouke), ing man, but still with a certain aristocratic may be said to have been an important mem- management of spoon and fork. He was ber of the philosophical sect; she was much recommended to the notice of the village in the confidence of Voltaire, and had often authorities, who considered the Latin book been of great use to him as well as to his (on which he had written some notes with allies and successors. M. Suard appears to his pencil) an insufficient substitute for a have kept himself as much as possible aloof passport ; so he was immediately arrested from the troubles of the recent time; it is and sent toward Paris. One of his limbs probable that Condorcet had selected him was now in a very helpless state, and a vineas the friend who might afford him shelter dresser, seeing him limping along between a for a limited space and then set him on with couple of officers, kindly offered the use of the needful appliances of purse and passport, his horse, which was accepted and allowed. at the minimum cost of hazard to himself. It was dark, however, ere they got as far as One of the biographers asserts that Condor- the little prison at Bourg-la-Reine, and here cet had no design of asking the Suards to the sergeants deposited him for the night. lodge him even for a night—that he was at When the jailer entered his cell on the 3 P. m., as he had been at 10 A. M., annoyed morning of the 8th, he was a corpse. “He with the want of his snuff-box, and intended had swallowed,” says Arago, “a concenno more than to borrow one and proceed. trated poison which he had carried about with M. Arago says the accounts are so discordant him for some years in a ring ; what it was is be must decline to offer any opinion. It is not known, but it is understood that that of agreed, however, that Condorcet dismissed which Napoleon wished to make use at Fongood Sarret at M. Suard's door, which seems tainebleau in 1814 was of the same composito prove that he considered his travels as tion, and dated from the same epoch.” The ended for that day at any rate—and further editor of the Memoirs of 1824 has a little more that M. Suard lent him a snuff-box- more on this point. According to him, in and a Horace! The rest of the ascertained the tempestuous summer of 1792, the Carcircumstances are few. How long he stayed dinal de Brienne, formerly prime minister to with these friends is not one of them—but he the King, though he had voted at some elecfound his night's lodgings among the neigh- tions of Sens, with the bonnet rouge (not boring quarries of Clamart. Some reporters that of his ecclesiastical rank) upon his head, say that, though M. and Madame Suard was greeted with such looks and cries that found it necessary not to retain him under he never recovered his nerve. He requested their roof, they let him out by a postern in Condorcet to procure him the means of selftheir garden, assured him that both that destruction in case of need — Condorcet door and a little summer-house adjoining obtained the prescription of an eminent physhould be left on the latch, and were much sician-gave the Cardinal enough for his distressed next morning to find no signs of purpose (which was soon afterward enacted). his having been in the summer-house. What and retained a dose for himself. Condorcet Madame Vernet says is, we may be very was only in his 5 1st year. sure, true—that her front door, back door, and side door were all on the latch during a “ Thus died a man who honored Science by his week, and that on one of the days she walked works, France by his high qualities, the human to Fontenay-aux-Roses, and loitered for family by his virtues.” hours about M. Suard's premises—but returned without having received (probably So originally ended M. Arago's Biographie, without having ventured to ask for) any in- and so it still ends; but it has now a tailformation. Condorcet remained in the quar- piece of respectable dimensions, occasioned ries from the evening of the 5th until the by “divers passages relating to Condorcet in afternoon of the 7th, when driven forth by the History of the Girondins.” Arago says mere hunger, he appeared in a cabaret of the I his attention was directed to these “ blemishes « divers passages.

in a beautiful work,” by Madame O'Connor, | Luxembourg, which it seems caused a vertigo in who had read its two first volumes with the ex-secretary of the Academy, must be put natural eagerness, and laid them down with

out of the account, for I believe they were not at

that time visible from the Rue Servandoni-and I natural indignation, as she found her father

can affirm positively that they were entirely invisimisrepresented wherever he was named.

ble from any window of Madame Vernet's house. Not doubting that M. Lamartine had, from I will add, that if Condorcet's passion had been mere haste, allowed himself to follow the for hearing the flow of waters,' he must have hints of obscure traducers, Arago communi- been ill-inspired when he directed his steps to cated to him Madame O'Connor's remarks Fontenay-aux-Roses-a flat locality where there and replies, which he received “ avec cette

existed neither a river nor even the smallest brook,

and where in fact he could have no chance of hearbienveillance fascinatrice (the italics are ing the flow of waters unless in the moment of a Arago's) dont toutes ses connaissances ont heavy shower.” éprouvé, les affets. He even did me the honor to request a perusal of my Life of

M. Arago proceeds, however, to say that Condorcet, as yet in MS.; and I 'need not M. de Lamartine's "inexactitudes have say that I immediately complied with a re- had one good consequence : they led him to quest so flattering to me." The result, how- hunt out some surviving acquaintance of ever, is, that M. de Lamartine has neither in Sarret's, and one of these possessed a copy subsequent revisions of his earlier volumes, of Sarret's own little Traité d'Arithmétique, nor in any epilogue or appendix, modified in the preface to which volume he had given a one of the

full and precise account of the incidents with We do not imagine our readers would which he was so creditably connected. From thank us for going into most of the details of this evidence it appears that “on the evening this controversy between the two illustrious before Condorcet quitted his asylum,” a man colleagues of the Institute and of the Provis- called there on pretext of looking for lodgional Government; but we make room for ings, but whose very particular questions and one topic—the treatment of the escape of remarks soon betrayed that he had some the 5th of April, 1794. M. Arago had different errand. Among other things, “he bestowed all due pains on the history of mentioned searches then going on for saltthat incident. M. de Lamartine takes it up petre; and observed, that whoever had any in his character of historical romancer :

valuables would do well to look to them, for

that the agents of this inquest were not the * Condorcet," says he, "might have been happy most scrupulous people in the world.” Conand saved, if he could but have waited; but the dorcet, his door being ajar, heard the whole impatience of his ardent imagination exhausted of this, and did not conceal the impression and destroyed him. He was seized on the return it made on him. M. Sarret does not doubt of spring, and at the reverberation of the April that the stranger was some well-wisher-and craving for liberty and movement, such a passion he adds, that in point of fact next morning's for beholding once more nature and the sky, that post brought a letter to Condorcet, without Madame Vernet was forced to watch him like a signature, but expressly warning him that real prisoner, lest he should escape from her the house was to be searched that very day benevolent care. He could speak of nothing but there being a suspicion that it harbored the delight of roaming among the fields, of sitting fugilives from the south : which letter was under the shade of a tree, of listening to the song | found on his table after he had fled. of birds, the murmur of leaves, the flow of waters. The first verdure of the trees of the Luxembourg,

M. Arago's summing up iswhich bis window had a glimpse of, carried this thirst for air and motion to an actual delirium.”

"On ne trouve point, comme on voit, dans cette relation aucune trace de l'impatience juvé

nile qui, suivant M. de Lamartine, amena la fin In dealing with these “ 'puerilities," as he

déplorable de Condorcet.” does not scruple to call them, M. Arago begins as becomes a man of exact science.

Certainly not; but the result will astonish “ If,” says he, “ Condorcet had been dominated the Histoire des Girondins. Nor, we must

no one who has bestowed any attention on by the desire of seating himself under a tree and listening to the murmur of leaves, he could have add, is there any perversion of fact even in found that satisfaction without quitting Madame that meretricious farrago more gross than Vernet's house, for there were five large lime-trees some which disfigure this Life of Condorcet in her court.

At all events, the trees of the I by a graver Academician.

From the Dublin University Magazine.


When the political storms which are agi- , communication by land is the lateness of tating nations shall have subsided—when their date. While all other departments of the revolutionary madness shall have gone the useful arts were advancing with giant through its appointed phases—when its strides, the art of transport was comparaleaders and promoters, raised to a factitious tively stationary. We select some curious elevation, and surrounded with a spurious examples, quoted in the work just referred celebrity, shall have been reduced to their to, of the state of land-traveling in Great proper stature, and divested of their false Britain within a period so recent as the last splendor, by the inexorable sentence of a dis- seventy years :-passionate posterity-one monument raised by the present generation will stand, com

“Until the middle of the eighteenth century, manding a respect and admiration which most of the merchandise which was conveyed time cannot diminish nor revolutions reverse.

from place to place in Scotland' was transported The Railway and the Locomotive will carry merchandise between distant places, a cart

on pack-horses ; but when it was necessary to rende forever memorable the nineteenth was used. The time required by the common century

carriers to complete their journey seems, when Many talk flippantly enough of the won compared with our present standard of speed, ders wrought in our time by the application quite incredible. Thus, it is recorded that the of the discoveries of physical science to the carrier between Selkirk and Edinburgh, a disimprovement of the art of transport ; few, tance of thirty-eight miles, required a fortnight for however, are in a condition to estimate the contract was made to establish a coach for passtupendous extent of what has been actually sengers between Edinburgh and Glasgow, a disaccomplished in the advancement of that art tance of forty-four miles. This coach was to be in various parts of the globe, and still less of drawn by six horses, and the journey between the what will probably have been realized before two places, to and fro, was engaged to be comthe third quarter of the present century shall pleted in six days. Even so recently as the year have expired. We propose in this article to took thirty-six hours to make the journey. In

1750, the stage-coach from Edinburgh to Glasgow present the reader with a rapid sketch of this present year, 1849,

the same journey is made, some of the most striking examples of these by a route three miles longer, in one hour and a vast improvements which have been made in hálf! the internal communication on the Continent “ In the year 1763 there was but one stageof Europe and in the United States. Our coach between Edinburgh and London. This limits necessarily preclude details; but those started once a month from each of these cities. whose curiosity may be awakened, and whose It took a fortnight to perform the journey. At the interest may be excited by what we shall York required four days.

same epoch the journey between London and state, may slake their thirst at the same “ In 1763, the number of passengers conveyed fountain from which we have, for the most by the coaches between London and Edinburgh part, derived our information.*

could not have exceeded about twenty-five One of the most striking circumstances at monthly, and by all means of conveyance whattending the improvements in the art of inter

ever did not exceed fifty. The intercourse between London and Edinburgh in 1835 was one

hundred and sixty times greater than in 1763. “ Railway Economy: a Treatise on the new Art

“At present the intercourse is increased in a of Transport, its Management, Prospects, and Rela- much higher ratio, by the improved facility and tions, Commercial, Financial, and Social; with an

greater cheapness of railwa y transport. Exposition of the Practical Results of the Railways

“ Arthur Young, who traveled in Lancashire in operation in the United Kingdom, on the Conti. | about the year 1770, has left us in his tour the pent, and in America.” By Ďionysius Lardner, following account of the state of the roads at that D.C.L. 12mo. London : 1850.

time : I know not,' he says, 'in the whole

range of language, terms sufficiently expressive it were not attested by undeniable statistito describe this infernal road. Let me most se- cal evidence. In 1843, the number of pasriously caution all travelers who may accidentally propose to travel this terrible country to avoid it sengers booked on the railways of the United as they would the devil, for a thousand to ope

Kingdom was, in round numbers, twentythey break their necks or their limbs by over

three and a half millions. In 1848, it rose throws or breakings down. They will here meet to sixty millions !—that is to say, five milwith ruts, which I actually measured, four feet lions per month, or about 170,000 per day! deep, and floating with mud, only from a wet The work before us supplies a very curisummer. What, therefore, must it be after a ous analysis of this vast intercourse of the winter? The only mending it receives is tum- individuals forming the hive of British indusbling in some loose stones, which serve no other purpose than jolting a carriage in the most in- try and enterprise. It appears that about tolerable manner. These are not merely opin-half the total number of passengers are of ions, but facts ; for I actually passed three carts the third class, and that only one eighth of broken down in these eighteen miles of execrable the whole belong to the first class. This is memory.'

a fact as unexpected as it is important. It " He says of a road near Warrington, This is might naturally have been supposed, that a paved road, most infamously bad. Any person the affluent classes, the bourgeoisie and those wonld imagine the people of the country had who are raised above subsistence on the made it with a view to immediate destruction ! for the breadth is only sufficient for one carriage;

mere wages of labor, would form the staple consequently it is cut at once into ruts; and you of railway passengers. We have before us may easily conceive what a break down, dislo- “ facts and figures ” which incontestibly escating road, ruts cut through a pavement must tablish the reverse. The laborious class, the be.' “ He says of a road near Newcastle, ' A more customers of the railway proprietors.

penny-a-milers, form, after all, the great dreadful road cannot be imagined. I was obliged to hire two men at one place to support my chaise

But it may be supposed, that although froin overturning. Let me persuade all travelers the inferior class may travel in greater numto avoid this terrible country, which must either bers, this may be more than compensated by dislocate their bones with broken pavements, or the greater distances traveled by the supebury them in muddy sand.'”—pp. 32–34. rior classes. Here again, however, our pre

visions are delusive. True it is, that the It would be difficult to find, in the history average distances traveled by third class are of human progress, a fact more striking than less than those traveled by first class pasthat pointed out by the author of “Railway sengers: but this difference bears no proEconomy," that the precise ground traveled portion to the enormous difference of the over by Young is now literally reticulated number of travelers of the two classes rewith rail ways, over which tens of thousands spectively. Taking the number and disof passengers are transported daily at a tances traveled together, it is found that the speed varying from thirty to fifty miles an third class passengers supply from forty-two hour !

to forty-three per cent. of the business of The augmentation of the internal inter- the 'raliways; while the first class passen-, course which necessarily followed the con-gers alone supply less than twenty per cent. struction of railways, forms one of the most of it. extraordinary facts in statistics. Before the From facts like those, railway directors opening of the railway between Liverpool may learn a useful lesson. This is not the and Manchester, the number of passengers, first unlooked for truth which experience has daily, between those places, did not exceed disclosed. It will not be forgotten, that four hundred. Immediately after the facility when railways were first projected, passenof railway transport was present, the num-ger-traffic was never seriously contemplated ; ber amounted to 1600! Nor was this in- and grave engineering authorities declared, crease merely a sudden change, succeeded that no sane person could contemplate the by a stationary, or a nearly stationary, rate practicability of traveling upon them at so of intercourse. The public did not at once great a speed as twelve miles an hours ! understand the value and importance of the Among the noticeable facts brought to facilities of intercourse thus presented. They light on the volume before us are, the averwere, however, more and more justly appre- age distances traveled by different classes of ciated, from year to year, and we find ac- | passengers. One of the consequencss which cordingly, that the amount of traveling un- was expected to ensue from the improved faderwent an increase, in the space of a few cilities offered by railways was, that passenyears, which would be deemed fabulous, if I gers would be induced, by the great cheap

9 TO


ness and speed, to travel to greater distances. Stoppages excluded, 32
That these inducements have been operative On American railways :-
on large numbers, cannot be doubted. But

Stoppages included, · 15 it seems certain that the same inducements

Stoppages excluded, (?) have operated, and even more powerfully On Belgian railways :still, in tempting much greater numbers of Stoppages included, 18+ passengers to take short trips, who formerly Stoppages excluded, used little else than their own legs for the On French railways purposes of locomotion. This inevitably fol- Stoppages included, lows from the fact, which is established by Stoppages excluded, 27 the railway statistics, that the average dis- On German railways :tance traveled by all classes of passengers

Stoppages included,

20 on the railways of the United Kingdom does Stoppages excluded, 24 not amount to sixteen miles, and that even

The advantage of the English railways first class passengers do not travel on an av

over foreign ones in point of speed, is not so erage more than twenty-four miles one with great as it would seem to be from the reanother. Nor is the result different on for- ports of the extraordinary performances of eign railways. In France, the average dis-English trains. 'It is necessary, however, to tance for all classes is twenty-five miles, in remember that the estimates given above are Belgium it is under twenty-three miles, in

average results; that the express trains are the Germanic States it is under twenty miles, comparatively few, and that they are more and in the United States it does not exceed than neutralized in the average estimates by eighteen miles.*

the more numerous third class trains, which It will be remarked, that the distances stop at all stations, and run at a low rate. traveled by each passenger are less in Eng

The greatest speed of any regular express land than in other countries where railway

trains exclusive of stoppages, is that of the transport prevails. So far as ralates to con

Great Western from London to Exeter—the tinental states, this fact is to be explained by rate of which is 51 6-10 miles an hour. But the higher rates of fare charged to all classes on the English railways; and as respects the class trains, excluding stoppages, is little

on the same line the speed of the third United States, it is explained by the nature more than 19 miles an hour. The following of the country, the distribution of its popu- are the estimates of the speed of the express lation, and the comparative case of the cir- trains, exclusive of stoppages, on the princumstanees of the inferior classes, who, as cipal English railways: we have seen, are everywhere the great customers of the railways.

London to Liverpool, 37 3-4 While in England the average fare exacted


51 6-10 per mile from passengers, one class taken

Southampton, . 45 8-10 with another, is above three half-pence, the

Dover, .

48 1-2 fare on the French railways is not more than

Brighton, 30 1-2 a penny per mile; on the German railways The stoppages reduce these speeds by about it is under that rate, and on the Belgian lines one-fourth: it is a little more than three farthings per One of the most surprising circumstances mile. In America the average fare for pas attending the creation of railways, is the sengers is nearly the same as in England. amount of capital which, within a limited pe

In comparing the fares on English with riod, has been expended in their construction those of foreign railways, it is, however, ne- and equipment. According to the calculacessary to take into account the speed at tions supplied in the work before us, there which the passenger is carried, inasmuch as were in operation at the commencement of the speed influences in a material degree the 1849, in different parts of the globe, a total cost of transport. The volume already quo- length of 18,656 miles of railway, on which ted supplies the following comparative esti- a capital of £368,577,000 bad been actually mste of the average speed with which pas- expended. Besides this, it is estimated that sengers are carried on the English and for- there were at the same epoch, in progress of eign railways :

construction, a further extent of 7,829 miles,

the cost of which, when completed, would On English railways

be £146,750,000! Thus when these latter Stoppages included, 24 lines shall have been brought into operation, * Lardner's "Railway Economy,” p. 600. the population of Europe and the United

Miles per hour.





« VorigeDoorgaan »