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vigilance and fidelity have passed into a men at that day,” gave him a guinea, which proverb. The “watchman " employed on he spent in punch before night. Subsethis occasion was an Irishman, named Pat- quently, it appears, from the same extract rick O'Toole, and he distinctly stated on the of the “ Diary,” that Woodfall himself called following morning (that is to say, as dis- at “ Jack's,” and learnt that a gentleman tinctly as he could, after a night's hard named Smith was in the habit of frequenting drinking with two chairmen and a link-boy,) the house, and several inhabitants of Deanthat just as he was calling “half-past six and street also care forward with their testia cloudy morning" (the time of year, it will mony to the effect that a person in a snuffbe remembered, was the depth of winter,) colored coat, &c., had “more than once been he observed a hackney-coach draw up at the seen in that neighborhood at a late hour of door of the hotel (his first impression being the night." that there were two, so certain was he of the Woodfall refrains from saying anything fact,) and, after considerable bustle inside, more on the subject; but when we consider the door was carefully opened by a waiter the several links of evidence-observing how in black, and a man dressed exactly like the closely the mysterious stranger was tracked gentleman who left the letter at Woodfall's -how vigilantly he was watched-how (except that he was wrapped from head to completely above suspicion is the testimony foot in a large traveling roquelaure, which of O'Toole-how fortuitous was the discovecompletely disguised his person,) stepped ry of the name of the unknown person-and bastily into the coach, and was driven off in how entirely all the circumstances of the the direction of the country. That, after case correspond with that mixture of caution having taken his “mornin',” and when pre- and daring which were so eminently characparing to leave his beat, O'Toole inquired of teristic of Junius,—when all these things are * somebody whom he anet ” who the gentleman taken into consideration, it requires a degree was who went off in the hackney-coach; of scepticism which I, for one, am happy not and then learnt, to his surprise, that his to acknowledge, to refuse immediate assent name was Smith. That as soon as he was to the proposition that Junius and MR. sufficiently recovered from his surprise, he Smith were ONE AND THE SAME PERSON, and called upon Woodfall, and communicated that Walker's Hotel, in Dean-street, was the the important intelligence to him, and that
HOUSE HE INHABITED. Woodfall, “as was the custom with gentle
COPYRIGHT OF AMERICAN Books.-John chased absolutely for large sums by the late Murray having prosecuted Henry Bohn for Mr. Murray. publishing the works of Washington Irving, Mr. Russell (with whom was Mr. Gifford) whereof Murray holds a copyright, it was for the defendant, Mr. Bohn, said that what stated that the defendants intended to rest was now complained of by the motion, had their right to publish the works in question been going on for three years, during the upon the suggestion that Mr. Washington whole of which time Mr. Murray's copyright, Irving was an alien, and that he could have if be bad any, had been infringed without no copyright in those works which he could any challenge, either in law or equity. assign or communicate to Mr. Murray. It The Vice Chancellor said he could not had recently been decided by the Court of help ihinking that the point there decided Exchequer, and it was argued that that de- must one day find its way to the House of cision would govern the case, that the law Lords. He thought the question, which was of copyright conferred no benefit except a very important one, could not as yet be upon British subjects by birth and domicile. considered finally settled. The copyright which it was the object of the On technical grounds the case was postpresent motion to protect had been pur. J poned to the next term of the Court.
From Hogg's Instroclor.
LACORDAIRE, THE FRENCH PULPIT ORATOR.
France has given birth to orators of the Henri Lacordaire is, as Bossuet was, a nahighest order. At the bar, in the senate, be tive of Burgundy, having been born in the fore the popular assembly, in the professorial village of Recez-sur-Ource in that province. chair, in the literary closet, in every depart- In 1812, being then ten years of age, he was ment of the art, she has produced men of sent to the Lyceum of Dijon, where he sufsurpassing eloquence. And such she still ficiently distinguished himself
, more especially produces—witness Thiers, Guizot, Lamartine, by his success in the study of rhetoric. From to name no more.
this school, being destined for the bar, he But there is, in particular, one kind of ora- was sent to the " Ecole de Droit” of Dijon. tory which the French at one time brought Here he studied law with considerable sucalmost to perfection, and in which they still cess; but the tendency of his mind and of greatly excel—the oratory of the pulpit. his pursuits may be gathered from the sage The names of the logical Bourdaloue, of the advice he received from the Dean of Faculty, puissant Bossuet, of the elegant Flechier, of “not to apply too much to metaphysics.” the tender Fenelon, of the graceful Massillon, But to metaphysics he nevertheless did apply, are known to every one; and the tradition of and that with ardor; the consequence was these great names has descended to worthy what might have been expected from a youth successors in the present day, for the high of his age, in a university where, to use his character of French pulpit eloquence is well own subsequent expression, “he breathed maintained by preachers such as Monod and skepticism with the very air." Coquerel of the Reformed Church, by such Drinking, but not deeply, of philosophy, as Ravagnan, Dupanloup, and Lacordaire and drawing only from the sources of the among the Romanists.
Voltaire school, he became, naturally enough, The last mentioned is a remaykable man, a convert to the superficial doctrines of the and that not merely as a preacher or a last century; and in the Société d'Etudes, a rhetorician. His other qualities and his pre- debating society which existed in the college vious history are singular and striking. He for the discussion of “ public law, history, is, moreover, the type of a class; and, as philosophy, and literature,” the future monk such, his biography is far more instructive was known as the stoutest defender of deism. than his sermons, and far more impressive And to the defence of deism in religion he than his eloquence. Farther, the history of joined that of democracy in politics; so that, Lacordaire has been so intimately connected if a few years back he certainly recorded his with that of his church since he joined it, opinion that France could only be a mohe has been so much mixed up with the narchy or a chaos,” he did no more, after all, movement which has taken place in it—the when he took his place as a representative of vicissitudes of Romanism in France during the people in the National Assembly, to the the last twenty years, are so resumed in those cry of“ Vive la Republique !” than testify of the individual, that, to mark the course in his return to his earlier opinions. which he has floated, is to understand the Lacordaire having finished his law studies current of the stream. We propose, there in 1822, immediately went to Paris. There fore, to devote some space to this remarkable he began to practice as an advocate, and he man, confining ourselves, however, rather to soon had some trifling causes to plead, in a sketch of his life and of his opinions, than which, moreover, small as was the opportuentering into any systematic review of his nity, he appeared with considerable distincworks or upon any regular criticism of his tion. He became remarked, and M. Berryer, oratory.*
ex-doyen de ulté de Droit Dijon, and the * We have, once for all, to express our obligations 54th and 55th numbers of the “ Galerie des Contemto the notice of Lacordaire, published by M. Lorrain, 1 porains Illustres.”
it is said, even predicted him the first rank at | voice full of honey,” to use the words of M. the bar “ If he did not abuse his facility of Lorain, who employs the expression in a faspeaking." His ambition began to rise. Al. vourable sense. The result could scarcely be though he was then living “in a little room doubtful; the prize was too tempting, for the only six feet square," splendid dreams visited abbé was the correspondent of the Dijon dehim; the highest rewards his profession offer- bating society, and so knew the value of his ed appeared in the distance; his imagination man; and the opportunity was but too favorclothed him in the first magisterial robes ; able, for Lacordaire was weak, yearning for “ hope sprinkled favors manifold” on the as- sympathy, unable any longer himself to sufpiring lawyer; the springs of life were still fice for himself, disgusted with the world, not fresh in him; the idea of the celibate or the although he had seen nothing of it but because cloister would have made him shudder. But he had seen nothing of it-quite ready, in it was not to last. Within eighteen months short, to listen to a “ voice full of honey," after his appearance at the bar, Lacordaire whatever that voice might say. The abbé entered the seminary of St. Sulpice. In that worked skilfully and quickly. We find short time the skeptic became not only a con- Lacordaire writing in the month of February vert to religion but a candidate for the priest- | in such a tone as this, " I am working, I am hood. How did this come about?
taking patience, I have the future before me.' We find that the young advocate had not But on the 15th March he writes, “ A strange long entered on the practice of his profession, idea took possession of me the other day—I when a kind of melancholy took possession of seriously thought of becoming a village him, which neither present success nor bril- priest.' It is true that he continues, “ Illuliant prospects could chase away. He grew sions of the moment, phantoms that immesick of law; “this fire of enthusiasm and diately vanish !” but the idea existed-how imagination"-so he says in a letter of the had it been suggested? To a young man in time—" was not given me to be extinguished a morbid state of mind, declaring that he in the icy chills of jurisprudence—to be stifled longed for a tranquil life and a cottage in a under those hard and positive meditations.” Swiss valley, a single word would suffice, A splendid future ceased to allure him. without alarming him, to give the bint of the When his fancy had pictured to him all the similar blessings which a country priest enhonors his ambition aspired to, he asked him. joys. He would work out the idea himself. self what then ? and the answer was, “all is And so, in fact, Lacordaire did; for it was vanity.” He thus writes to a friend : “ I have on the 12th May, being in less than two little attachment to existence, my imagination months after treating the thought of becomhas worn that out; I am sated with every- ing a priest as an illusion and a phantom, thing without having had the experience of and within three of his expressing his deteranything. If you only knew how sad I am mination to struggle on resolutely at the bar, becoming! They speak to me of the glory that he entered the seminary. of authorship, of public office, but, to be Nor is this all. This hurried step was frank, I find glory a pitiable thing, and I can taken not only without the consent but withscarcely conceive how men can take so much out the knowledge of his family. His only trouble in running after such a silly little fool.” surviving parent, who had hoped very fondly
“Who would fardels bear” if mere fame of him, resigned herself to the blow only after were the only recompense, was the sum of the lapse of several months and the interLacordaire's reasoning. He sighed for tran- change of many letters ; yet this poor mother quillity, obscurity, and ease ; he longed to re- whom the proselytising abbé 'must have sume his literary pursuits ; all he wished was known to be ignorant of her son's intention“ to live quietly at his own fireside, without if, indeed, he was not actually the cause of pretension and without noise. I shall never her being kept so--was, according to M. be content,” he goes on, “ till I have three Lorain, “of a simple and firm piety," and, chestnut-trees, a potato field, a corn field, therefore, as “a good Catholic,” not likely to and a cottage in the depths of a Swiss val- have opposed her son's views had she thought ley.” This babbling o' green fields” of the step calculated for his welfare. But she course boded the death of his progress at the
a woman of sound and strong reabar.
son, of a judicious and elevated character”. In this sickly state of mind, “ feeble, dis- quite sufficient grounds for her being kept in couraged, solitary in the midst of eight hun the dark. dred thousand men,” Lacordaire
came ac- Such was the secret and precipitate way uainted with a certain abbé, a man “ with a l in which Henri Lacordaire retired from the
world and was lost to France. We say re- ! When, in 1817, the first volume of the fatired from the world, because, though the en- “ Essai sur l'Indifference” appeared, trance into a seminary has nothing final in it, the heavy blows which it dealt on incredulity, nevertheless, to a man of his stamp, it was and the fierce attack it made on Protestantimpossible that, having once adopted such a ism, were hailed with intense delight in the course, he should not pursue it to the end. Vatican, and its author was regarded as the And we say that he was thus lost to France, very champion of the church; but when, two because that course was inevitably to lead years afterwards, the second volume was him to belong to Rome, to whose interests, published, and in the attempt to reconcile henceforth, not only all his energies and Romanism with philosophy, Romanist tradiabilities were to be devoted, but his person- tion, instead of being considered as the sole ality and national feeling were to be sacrificed. and sufficient ground of belief, was sought to Henceforth in Lacordaire there are two be allied, if not subordinated, to the tradition natures, and we see a perpetually renewed of human reason, in other words, to the docstruggle between them; the victory, however, trines of common sense, the case was matealways declares for the same side; and rially changed. When Lamennais declared though ever and anon the man and the that this common sense-sentiment communFrenchman in him rebel, the priest in every sensus communis—was to him “the sole and case succeeds in putting down the insurrec-only seal of truth,” and that “his fundamention.
tal principle was, Whal all men agree in beIn the seminary Lacordaire pursued his lieving to be true is true,” Rome, well foretheological studies, sometimes cheerful, some- seeing and instinctively dreading the way in times sad; but, when sad, reasoning away which such a weapon might be turned against bis sadness by such thoughts as that con- her if she acknowledged its legitimacy, betained in the following fine passage :- came grievously alarmed at the imprudence "Where do we not at times experience sad- of her advocate, and, without authoritatively ness? It is a dart that we bear about with condemning the work, showed sufficiently her us in our soul; we must try not to lean upon repugnance to its principles. A large prothe side where it is planted, but we must portion, however, of the younger clergy in never attempt to draw it out. It is the jave - France, and great numbers of those among lin of Mantinea in the breast of Epameinon- the laity who occupied themselves with such das, not to be removed but with death and things, hailed the new system with entluour entrance into eternity.”
siasm. Among its supporters was ultimately On the 22d September, 1827, he was or- Lacordaire, who, after six years, as he says, dained, and soon after he was appointed of irresolution, finally became one of its most almoner to the convent of the Visitation. He ardent and valuable disciples. preached his first sermon at the College This was the ecclesiastico-philosophical Stanislas. In 1828 he was made almoner question raised by Lamennais; there was also adjunct to the College Henry IV., but his to be an ecclesiastico-political one, which, as ardent mind soon conceived the idea of enter will be seen, had more practical results. Be ing on a sphere where his energies would it remarked that Lacordaire, when he shuffled have more scope. He formed the project of off his deism, still retained his republican going out to America as a missionary. He opinions. was even in communication with the Roman- The attachment of Lamennais to the ist bishop of New York, when the revolution Church of Rome, far from being damped by of July broke out, altered his plans, and was the untoward reception his attempts to reconthe means of bringing him into notice. In-cile her dogmas with reason had met with stead of becoming a missionary he became from the higher clergy, had been pushed to one of the editors of a newspaper, and enter- extreme ultra-montanism; in his work ened upon the scene of public life.
titled “Religion Considered in its Relations The newspaper was the “ Avenir,” found to Civil and Political Order,” he vigorously ed by M. de Lamennais. That remarkable attacked the famous declaration of 19th man had some time previously made a con- March, 1682, restrictive of the limits of the vert of Lacordaire ; though, according to the pope's jurisdiction in France, and possibly latter, it was long before he had been able to only waiting a fitter opportunity to vindicate come to any conclusion on the doctrines of for the see of Rome as much power as it the priest-philosopher, and he had finally possessed under Innocent III., hé labored in adopted them more from weariness than any- the meantime to establish that its authority, thing else. And here, in a few words, we at least in spiritual matters, was absolute, must advert to these.
universal, and supreme. Impelled by such ideas, harrassed by a prosecution for the work with the nomination of bishops, and with we have just mentioned, disgusted with the ecclesiastical affairs in general. state of things which preceded 1830, and At the same time, as being also an organ probably anticipating the coming revolution, of democracy, the “Avenir” claimed absolute he had weaned himself from his attachment liberty of conscience, absolute liberty of the to the monarchical principles he had pre-press, absolute liberty of association, univerviously so stoutly defended, and ready to sal suffrage, and, what was going perhaps transfer his support to the democratic party, much further, it denounced the “fatal system he only waited his time. That time came of centralization,” and advocated “the indewith the revolution of 1830, and the “Avenir" pendence of each department, each arronwas founded, upon what principles may easily dissement, and each commune. And if it be inferred.
seem strange that such extremely radical As the “ Essay on Indifference” had at- doctrines should be maintained by a journal tempted to harmonize reason and faith, so the which secretly hoped for the re-establish“ Avenir” was to attempt to harmonize de- ment of the Pope's supremacy, it must be mocracy and Romanism. The sovereignty of remembered that Lamennais, who was its the people was to be upheld, and the sove life and soul, was sincere in his belief that reignty of the pope was to be upheld. Un Rome could be adapted to the wants of the doubtedly, if it had been possible to get rid age and the progress of modern liberty. by any means of this people, if the universal When his eyes were opened, and he had to authority of Rome could possibly have been choose between his attachment to democracy openly declared, if a theocracy with the pope and his obedience to Rome, we shall presentas God's vicar upon earth could at once have ly see that he did not long hesitate how to been set up in opposition to a republic or a decide. newdy nasty, it, and nothing else, would have The chief contributors to the “ Avenir” been supported. For, while the sovereignty were, besides, Lamennais, the Abbé Gerbert, of the people in temporal matters was upheld, Count Montalembert, M. de Coux, M. Rohrand that of the pope in spiritual, who was to bacher, and Lacordaire. It may easily be define their respective jurisdictions ? The supposed that the last-mentioned, recalled to question was never broadly stated by the an active and exciting life, and restored to • Avenir,” and of course no solution was ever communion with a busy world, soon became attempted; but what it would have been is a very different being from the hypocondriac plain; the pope, though a party, would have young man he was when he took refuge in been the arbiter'; in other words, all that the the church during a fit of melancholy. Did papacy claims would have been conceded to he now repent of that basty resolution ? We it, and the lever would have been placed in do not know-it is his secret-but he took a its grasp wherewith it could move the world. step which looks very like it. On the 24th At a later period, M. de Lamennais, having December, 1830—Christmas-eve, be it rebecome still more a democrat and still less a marked—a strange time for a Romish priest churchman, declared that the system of the to think of such a thing—he addressed a “Avenir” was erroneous, and only postponed letter to the proper functionary, informing the difficulty ; but this was evident from the him that he intended to reappear at the bar. very first to any calm observer.
This attempt was, however, unsuccessful; Started with the principles we have stated, for an answer was returned from the Council the “ Avenir” preached various practical of Discipline, to the effect “that the indelimeans to bring them into operation. As an ble character with which the abbé had been organ of ultra-montanism, it called for the clothed was incompatible with the exercise abolition of every law regulating the relation of the profession of an advocate.” of the Gallican Church to the Papal see,
Nevertheless, in less than a month after, characterizing as “odious and base” the de- Lacordaire did appear at the bar. It was, claration of 1682—the work of Bossuet- however, at another bar from that he sought. which laid down the limits of the pontifical He and Lamennais were prosecuted for two power; it condemned all concordats, holding articles they had published in the “ Avenir” that the supreme authority of Rome should against the nomination of a bishop, and so o never pact with “disguised schism;" it de-obtained what they very much desired, an manded the complete separation of church opportunity of preaching in open court the and state, the rejection by the former of all novel alliance of Romanism and democracy. endowments, and the renunciation by the The jury, whom the nature of their defence atter of all interference, direct or indirect, probably greatly puzzled, acquitted them,