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more interesting picture. If the former is recommended by its naiveté, and simplicity, it may be expected that the latter should have the preference in point of beauty and variety.
Two of the greatest poets of antiquity have described the pleasures of a country life in these two different aspects.
The former view is exhibited, with great propriety and elegance, in one of the most beautiful
of Horace :
Quod si pudica mulier in partcm juvans
Domum, atque dulces liberos ;
Pernicis uxor Appuli)
Lassi sub adventum viri:
Distenta siccet ubera ;
But if a chast and yirtuous wife
Of sun-burnt charms, but honest fame
Fatigued when homeward he returns,
Or if she milk her swelling kine,
While unbought dainties crown the feast,
The more elevated Virgil has given a picture of the latter kind no less delightful, in that passage at the end of the second book of the Georgics, beginning.
O fortunatos nimium sua si bona norint
O happy if he knew his happy state
The enlargement of the field of pastoral poetry, which is here suggested, would surely be of advantage, considering how much the common topics of that species of writing are already exhausted. We are become weary of the ordinary sentiments of shepherds, which have been so often repeated, and which have usually nothing but the variety of expression to recommend them. The greater part of the productions which have appeared under the name) f pastorals are, accordingly, so insipid, as to have excited little attention, which is the more remarkable because the subjects which they treat of naturally interest the affections, and are easily painted in such delusive colours as tend to soothe the imagination by romantic dreams of happi
Mr. de Fontenelle has attempted to write pastorals, upon the extensive plan above mentioned; but, though this author writes with great elegance in prose, his poetical talents seem rather below mediocrity; so that it is not likely he will be rea garded, by succeeding poets, as a model for imitation.
N° 80. SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 12, 1780.
Ex fumo dare lucem
Authors have been divided into two classes, the in. structive and the entertaining ; to which has been added a third, who mix, according to Horace, the • utile dulci,' and are, in his opinion, entitled to the highest degree of applause.
Readers complain, that in none of these departments is there, in modern writing, much pretension to originality. In science, they say, so much has been already discovered, that all a modern writer has left, is, to explain and enforce the systems of our predecessors; and, in literature, our fathers have so exhausted the acuteness of reasoning, the flashes of wit, the luxuriance of description, and the invention of incident, that an author now-a-days can only give new form, not matter, to his argu. ment; a new turn, not thought, to his epigram; new attitudes, not object, to his picture ; new language, not situation, to his story.
However true this complaint may be in the main, there is one class of writers to whom the charge of triteness does, I apprehend, very little apply: They are generally of the first species mentioned above, who publish useful information to mankind; yet in the last quarter of the 18th century, their information is often as new as if they had written in the infancy of art and of science, when every field was open to the researches of industry, and the invention of genius. The writers I allude to, are the authors of those little
in the learned world under the title of ADVERTISEMENTS.
The necessary and ornamental arts of life are equally the objects of the class of authors whom I describe. In both, I will venture to assert,
that the novelty of their productions is equal to their usefulness.
It was formerly imagined, that disease was an evil which mankind had inherited as a punishment for the lapse of their progenitor. Milton has given, in his Paradise Lost, a catalogue of some of those tormenting maladies which were to be felt by the race of fallen Adam.- So has Dr. Dominiceti in an ad. vertisement, which is now lying before me; but, with the most extraordinary force of original discovery, has informed us, that, in his treatment of those disorders, there is no evil, no pain, but, on the contrary, much pleasure, and even luxury. I en'gage,' say the Doctor, ' with pleasure and even • luxury, to the patient, to increase or diminish the vital
beat, and the circulatory, secretory, and excretory functions; to soften and relax the too hard and dry
muscular and nervous fibres, and contracted ligaments; " and to harden and make compact, and give the proper 'tone and elasticity to the too moist and fabby muscular ' and nervous fibres, and relaxed sinews, and provide
and establish an equilibrium between the fluids and • vessels ; to sweeten acrid, corrosive, and saline hue mours ; and to cure the dropsy, asthma, consumptions, colic, gravel, rheumatism, palsy, pleurisy, and fevers, stone and gout, scurvy and leprosy ; to mollify and destroy inveterate callosities, to deterge and cure obsti• nate ulcers, &c.
• These are not the representations of a Quack's bill; • I detest the arts of quackery as much as any man liv
ing. I deal not in nostrums or mysteries, or magic or expedient to captivate :
• Non sibi, sed toro genitum se credere mundo.'
If he who invented one new pleasure was formerly thought entitled to imperial munificence, what reward does the Doctor deserve, who has added as many luxuries to the list, as there are diseases in the catalogues of nosology? Scotland, though not remarkable in this department of literature, has the honour of producing an author, who, in an advertisement published not long ago, has added to the stores of natural history the following very curious facts with regard to the properties of air and heat. Mr. Fair, mason, opposite to the White Hart Inn, Grass-market, Edinburgh, thus delivers himself on the subject of pneumatics :Air and smoke,' says he, are iwo elastic fluids, capable of being condensed • and expanded. Heat, or the fire in the grate, expands • the air. Being expanded, it becomes lighter. And • as it is in nature for light matter to swim to the top of • heavier, it rises up the vent, carrying the smoke along ! with it. This is the principle by which fire burns,
and smoke ascends. Now, that the particles of air may, ! be brought above the
fire, that they may be heated to expand and carry of the smoke, should be the chief
care of a mason in finishing of the fire places. On the ? contrary it is the cause of smoke.
• The other cause of smoke is the wind. Wind is a Ć current of the air always rushing inio voids. At the
same time it goes forward, by the law of gravity, it
has a tendency to press downwards. Now, when it • blows over any one objea higher than the chimney-topa