Ah wherefore! he deserv'd no such return
From me, whom he created what I was ;'
In that bright eminence, and with his good
Upbraided none; nor was his service hard.

What could be less than to afford him praise,
The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks,
How due! yet all his good prov'd ill in me,
And wrought but malice; lifted up so high
I sdeind subjection, and thought one step higher so
Would set me hig’hest, and in a moment quit
The debt immense of endless gratitude,


che life of his uncle. And what a inordinate desires that break forth noble opening of a play would into the most execrable acts to acthis have been! The lines were complish their haughty designs ; certainly too good to be lost, and which makes our author ftigmatize the author has done well to em- ambition as a worse fin than pride. ploy them here, they could not

Hume. have been better employ'd any Dr. Bentley reads and curs'd ambiwhere. Satan is made to address tion, because he thinks it hard to the sun, as it was the most conspi. say whether pride or ambition is cuous part of the creation; and worse : but Milton seems to mean the thought is very natural of ad- by pride the vice consider'd in itself, dressing it like the God of this and only as it is the temper of the world, when so many of the Hea- proud man; and by ambition the then nations have worshipped and vice that carry'd him to aim at beadored it as such.

ing equal with God: and was not 40. Till pride and worse ambition) this vice the worst of the two ? I Pride is a kind of excessive and vi- observe that Satan always lays the cious self-esteem, that raises men blame on his ambition, as in ver. in their own opinions above what 61 and 92. Pearce. . is juft and right: but ambition is 50. Í sdeind] For disdain'd; an that which adds fuel to this flame, imitation of the Italian sdegnare. • and claps spurs to these furious and



So burdensome still paying, still to owe,
Forgetful what from him I still receiv'd,
And understood not that a grateful mind
By owing owes not, but still pays, at once
Indebted and discharg’d; what burden then?
O had his pow'rful destiny ordain'd
Me some inferior Angel, I had stood
Then happy; no unbounded hope had rais’d 60
Ambition. Yet why not? some other Power
As great might have aspir’d, and me though mean
Drawn to his part; but other Pow'rs as great
Fell not, but stand unshaken, from within
Or from without, to all temptations arm'd. b
Hadst thou the same free will and pow'r to stand!
Thou hadft: whom haft thou then or what to'accue,
But Heav'n’s free love dealt equally to all?
Be then his love accurs’d, since love or hate,

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The same word is used by Spenser, Gratiam autem et qui retule Fairy Queen, B. 5. Cant. 5. St. 44. bere, et qui habeat, retulite and other places. .

79. Othen at last relent :) There 55. And understood not] This verb is no fault to be found wit is to be connected with the other reading, but I am sometime verbs in ver. 50. I fdein'd and clin'd to think that the au thought,

might have given it - a grateful mind

O then at last repent : By owing owes not, but fill pays,] because of what follows, Satan here has anticipated a len

is there no place tence, afterwards us’d by Cicero; Left for repentance,



To me alike, it deals eternal woe.
Nay curs'd be thou; since against his thy will
Chose freely what it now fo justly rues.
Me miserable! which way shall I fly
Infinite wrath, and infinite despair?
Which way I Ay is Hell; myself am Hell;
And in the lowest deep a lower deep
Still threatning to devour me opens wide,
To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heaven.
O then at last relent: is there no place
Left for repentance, none for pardon left?
None left but by submission; and that word
Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame
Among the Spirits beneath, whom I seduc'd
With other promises and other vaunts
Than to submit, boasting I could subdue
Th’Omnipotent. Ay me, they little know

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and again, ver. 93.

Or if we retain the word relent, we But say I could repent, &c.

may suppose that Satan could not

at first bring himself to say repent, And it is not improbable, that he and therefore makes use of the had Shakespear in his thoughts, sofrer term relent. Hamlet, A& III. Try, what repentance : what can 81. - and that word it not?

Disdain forbids me,] Disdain for. Yet what can it, when one cannot bids me that word submission. repent?

Bentley 112. By

How dearly I abide that boast so vain,
Under what torments inwardly I groan,
While they adore me on the throne of Hell.
With diadem and scepter high advanc’d,
The lower still I fall, only supreme.
In misery; such joy ambition finds.
But say I could repent and could obtain
By act of grace my former state; how soon 94
Would highth recall high thoughts, how soon unsay
What feign’d submission swore? ease would recant
Vows made in pain, as violent and void.
For never can true reconcilement grow,
Where wounds of deadly hate have pierc'd so deep:
Which would but lead me to a worse relapse 100
And heavier fall: so should I purchase dear
Short intermiflion bought with double smart.


112. By tbee, and more than half to his diabolical sentiment, and to

perhaps will reign; ] This mark it more strongly to the reader: passage has occafion'd much per- and in a short time will reign per plexity and confusion, but it may haps more than half, in this new easily be understood thus. Evil be world as well as in Hell; as Max thou my good; be thou all my de. ere long and this new world foall light, all my happiness ; by thee I know. And he is very properly bold at least divided empire with made to conclude his speech with Heav'n's king at present, I ruling in this, as this was now his main buHell as God in Heaven: by thee I finess and the end of his coming say; he is made to repeat it with hither. emphasis, to add the greater force

114. — cache 126. -- en

This knows my punisher; therefore as far.
From granting he, as I from begging peace:
All hope excluded thus, behold in stead 105
Of us out-cast, exil'd, his new delight,
Mankind created, and for him this world.
So farewel hope, and with hope farewel fear,
Farewel remorse: all good to me is loft; .
Evil be thou my good; by thee at least 110
Divided empire with Heav'n's king I hold,
By thee, and more than half perhaps will reign;
As Man ere long, and this new world shall know.

Thus while he spake, each passion dimm’d his face
Thrice chang’d with pale, ire, envy, and despair; 115
Which marr’d his borrow'd visage, and betray'd
Him counterfeit, if any eye beheld.
For heav'nly minds from such distempers foul


114.-each paffion di mm'd his face companied with a pale livid counThrice changd with pale, ire, envy, tenance. It is remarkable that in

and despair;] Each passion, the argument to this book we ire, envy, and despair, dimm'd read, instead of ire, fear, envy and his countenance which was thrice despair; and as fear may be justi. chang'd with pale through the suc- fy'd by ver. 18. horror and doubt cessive agitations of these three diffrači, and other places; so is passions. For that faleness is the anger warranted by ver. 9. and by proper hue of envy and despair his cursing God and himself, and every body knows, and we always by his threatning of Man in the reckon that sort of anger the most close of his speech. deadly and diabolical, which is ac

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