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do the like, he followeth by the sight of another. nourishment into the parts more forcibly. See So the laughing of another maketh to laugh. condly, that it helpeth to excern by sweat, and so
maketh the parts assimilate the more perfectly. Experiment solitary touching infectious diseases.
Thirdly, that it maketh the substance of the body 297. There be some known diseases that are
more solid and compact, and so less apt to be infectious; and others that are not. Those that are infectious are, first, such as are chiefly in the evils that come of exercise are, first, that it maketh
consumed and depredated by the spirits. The spirits, and not so much in the humours, and the spirits more hot and predatory, Secondly, therefore pass easily from body to body; such
that it doth absorb likewise, and attenuate too are pestilences, lippitudes, and such like. Secondly, such as taint the breath, which we see maketh too great concussion, especially if it be
much the moisture of the body. Thirdly, that it passeth manifestly from man to man, and not violent, of the inward parts, which delight more invisibly, as the effects of the spirits do; such
But generally exercise, if it be much, are consumptions of the lungs, &c. Thirdly, is no friend to prolongation of life, which is one such as come forth to the skin, and therefore taint
cause why women live longer than men, because the air of the body adjacent, especially if they they stir less. consist in an unctuous substance not apt to dissipate, such as scabs and leprosy. Fourthly, such Experiment solitary touching meats that induce as are merely in the humours, and not in the
satiety. spirits, breath, or exhalations; and therefore they
300. Some food we may use long, and much, never infect but by touch only; and such a touch without glutting, as bread, flesh that is not fat or also as cometh within the “ epidermis ;" as the rank, &c. Some other, though pleasant, glutteth venom of the French pox, and the biting of a sooner, as sweet-meats, fat-meats, &c. The cause mad dog.
is, for that appetite consisteth in the emptiness of the Experiment solitary touching the incorporation of mouth of the stomach, or possessing it with somepowders and liquors.
what that is astringent, and therefore cold and 298. Most powders grow more close and co- dry. But things that are sweet and fat are more herent by mixture of water, than by mixture of filling, and do swim and hang more about the oil, though oil be the thicker body: as meal, &c. mouth of the stomach, and go not down so speediThe reason is, the congruity of bodies; which if ly: and again turn soon to choler, which is hot, it be more, maketh a perfecter imbibition and in- and ever abateth the appetite. We see also that corporation; which in most powders is more be- another cause of satiety is an over-custom, and tween them and water, than between them and of appetite is novelty, and therefore meats, if the oil : but painters' colours ground, and ashes, do same be continually taken, induce loathing. To better incorporate with oil.
give the reason of the distaste of satiety, and of
the pleasure in novelty, and to distinguish not Experiment solitary touching exercise of the body. only in meats and drinks, but also in motions,
299. Much motion and exercise is good for loves, company, delights, studies, what they be some bodies; and sitting and less motion for that custom maketh more grateful, and what more others. If the body be hot and void of super- tedious, were a large field. But for meats, the fluous moistures, too much motion hurteth: and cause is attraction, which is quicker, and more it is an error in physicians to call too much upon excited towards that which is new than towards exercise. Likewise men ought to beware, that that whereof there remaineth a relish by former they use not exercise and a spare diet both: but use. And, generally, it is a rule, that whatsoever if much exercise, then a plentiful diet; and it is somewhat ingrate at first is made grateful by sparing diet, then little exercise. The benefits custom; but whatsoever is too pleasing at first, that come of exercise are, first, that it sendeth | groweth quickly to satiate.
Experiments in consort touching the clarification 306. On the other side it were good to try,
of liquors, and the accelerating thereof. what the adding to the liquor more lees than his Acceleration of time, in works of nature, may own will work; for though the lees do make the well be esteemed “inter magnalia naturæ.” And | liquor turbid, yet they refine the spirits. Take even in divine miracles, accelerating of the time thererore a vessel of new beer, and take another is next to the creating of the matter. We will vessel of new beer, and rack the one vessel from the now therefore proceed to the inquiry of it: and lees, and pour the lees of the racked vessel into for acceleration of germination, we will refer it the unracked vessel, and see the effect: this inover unto the place where we shall handle the stance is referred to the refining of the spirits. subject of plants generally, and will now begin 307. Take new beer, and put in some quantity with other accelerations.
of stale beer into it, and see whether it will not 301. Liquors are, many of them, at the first, accelerate the clarification, by opening the body thick and troubled; as muste, wort, juices of of the beer, and cutting the grosser parts, whereby fruits, or herbs expressed, &c. and by time they they may fall down into lees. And this instance settle and clarify. But to make them clear before again is referred to separation. the time is a great work, for it is a spur to nature, 308. The longer malt or herbs, or the like, are and putteth her out of her pace; and, besides, it infused in liquor, the more thick and troubled the is of good use for making drinks and sauces po- liquor is; but the longer they be decocted in the table and serviceable speedily. But to know the liquor, the clearer it is. The reason is plain, means of accelerating clarification, we must first because in infusion, the longer it is, the greater know the causes of clarification. The first cause is the part of the gross body that goeth into is, by the separation of the grosser parts of the liquor : but in decoction, though more go. a liquor from the finer. The second, by the equal forth, yet it either purgeth at the top, or settleth distribution of the spirits of the liquor with the at the bottom. And therefore the most exact way tangible parts: for that ever representeth bodies to clarify is, first, to infuse, and then to take off clear and untroubled. The third, by the refining the liquor and decoct it; as they do in beer, which the spirit itself, which thereby giveth to the liquor hath malt first infused in the liquor, and is aftermore splendour and more lustre.
wards boiled with the hop. This also is referred 302. First, for separation, it is wrought by to separation. weight, as in the ordinary residence or settlement 309. Take hot embers, and put them about a of liquors; by heat, by motion, by precipitation, bottle filled with new beer, almost to the very or sublimation, that is, a calling of the several neck; let the bottle be well stopped, lest it fly parts either up or down, which is a kind of at- out; and continue it, renewing the embers every traction; by adhesion, as when a body more day, by the space of ten days, and then compare viscous is mingled and agitated with the liquor, it with another bottle of the same beer set by. which viscous body, afterwards severed, draweth Take also lime both quenched and unquenched, with it the grosser parts of the liquor; and lastly, and set the bottles in them “ut supra." This by percolation or passage.
instance is referred both to the even distribution, 303. Secondly, for the even distribution of the and also to the refining of the spirits by heat. spirits, it is wrought by gentle heat; and by 310. Take bottles, and swing them, or carry agitation or motion, for of time we speak not, them in a wheel-barrow upon rough ground twice because it is that we would anticipate and re- in a day, but then you may not fill the bottles full, present; and it is wrought also by mixture of but leave some air; for if the liquor come close to some other body which hath a virtue to open the the stopple, it cannot play nor flower: and when liquor, and to make the spirits the better pass you have shaken them well either way, pour the through.
drink into another bottle stopped close after the 304. Thirdly, for the refining of the spirit, it usual manner, for if it stay with much air in it, is wrought likewise by heat, by motion, and by the drink will pall; neither will it settle so permixture of some body which hath virtue to attenu- fectly in all the parts. Let it stand some twentyate. So therefore, having shown the causes for four hours, then take it, and put it again into a the accelerating of clarification in general, and the bottle with air, “ut supra :" and thence into a botinducing of it, take these instances and trials. tle stopped, “ut supra :" and so repeat the same
305. It is in common practice to draw wine or operation for seven days. Note, that in the emptybeer from the lees, which we call racking, whereby ing of one bottle into another, you must do it it will clarify much the sooner; for the lees, though swiftly lest the drink pall. It were good also to try they keep the drink in heart, and make it lasting, itin a bottle with a little air below the neck, without yet withal they cast up some spissitude: and this emptying. This instance is referred to the even instance is to be referred to separation.
distribution and refining of the spirits by motion
311. As for percolation inward and outward, ' maketh it work again. It were good also to enwhich belongeth to separation, trial would be made force the spirits by some mixtures that may excite of clarifying by adhesion, with milk put into new and quicken them; as by putting into the bottles, beer, and stirred with it: for it may be that the nitre, chalk, lime, &c. We see cream is matured grosser part of the beer will cleave to the milk: and made to rise more speedily by putting in cold the doubt is, whether the milk will sever well water; which, as it seemeth, getteth down the again ; which is soon tried. And it is usual in whey. clarifying hippocras to put in milk; whicii after 315. It is tried, that the burying of bottles of severeth and carrieth with it the grosser parts of drink well stopped, either in dry earth a good the hippocras, as hath been said elsewhere. Also depth; or in the bottom of a well within water; for the better clarification by percolation, when and best of all, the hanging of them in a deep well they tun new beer, they use to let it pass through somewhat above the water for some fortnight's a strainer, and it is like the finer the strainer is space, is an excellent means of making drink fresh the clearer it will be.
and quick; for the cold doth not cause any exhal
ing of the spirits at all, as heat doth, though it rariExperiments in consort touching maturation, and fieth the rest that remain; but cold maketh the
the accelerating thereof. And first, touching the spirits vigorous, and irritateth them, whereby they maturation and quickening of drinks. And next, incorporate the parts of the liquor perfectly. touching the maturation of fruits.
316. As for the maturation of fruits, it is wrought The accelerating of maturation we will now in- by the calling forth of the spirits of the body outquire of. And of maturation itselt. It is of three ward, and so spreading them more smoothly: and natures. The maturation of fruits, the maturation likewise by digesting in some degree the grosser of drinks, and the maturation of imposthumes and parts; and this is effected by heat, motion, attraculcers. This last we refer to another place, where tion, and by a rudiment of putrefaction; for the tve shall handle experiments medicinal. There inception of putrefaction hath in it a maturation. de also other maturations, as of metals, &c. where- 317. There were taken apples, and laid in straw, of we will speak as occasion serveth. But we in hay, in flour, in chalk, in lime; covered over will begin with that of drinks, because it hath with onions, covered over with crabs, closed up such affinity with the clarification of liquors. in wax, shut in a box, &c. There was also an
312. For the maturation of drinks, it is wrought apple hanged up in smoke, of all which the expeby the congregation of the spirits together, where- riment sorted in this manner. by they digest more perfectly the grosser parts : 318. After a month's space, the apple enclosed and it is effected partly by the same means that in wax was as green and fresh as at the first putclarification is, whereof we spake before; but then ting in, and the kernels continued white. The note, that an extreme clarification doth spread the cause is, for that all exclusion of open air, which spirits so smooth, as they become dull, and the is ever predatory, maintaineth the body in its first drink dead, which ought to have a little flowering. freshness and moisture; but the inconvenience And therefore all your clear amber drink is fiat. is, that it tasteth a little of the wax: which I sup
313. We see the degrees of maturation of drinks pose, in a pomegranate, or some such thick-coated in muste, in wine, as it is drunk, and in vinegar. fruit, it would not do. Whereof muste hath not the spirits well congre- 319. The apple hanged in the smoke turned gated; wine hath them well united, so as they make like an old mellow apple, wrinkled, dry, soft, the parts somewhat more oily; vinegar hath them sweet, yellow within. The cause is, for that such congregated, but more jejune, and in a smaller a degree of heat, which doth neither melt nor quantity, the greatest and finest spirit and part scorch, (for we see that in a greater heat, a roast being exhaled: for we see vinegar is made by set- apple softeneth and melteth; and pigs' feet, made ting the vessel of wine against the hot sun; and of quarters of wardens, scorch and have a skin of therefore vinegar will not burn; for that much of cole,) doth mellow, and not adure: the smoke the finer parts is exhaled.
also maketh the apple, as it were, sprinkled with 314. The refreshing and quickening of drink soot, which helpeth to mature. We see that in palled or dead, is by enforcing the motion of the drying of pears and prunes in the oven, and respirit: so we see that open weather relaxeth the moving of them often as they begin to sweat, there spirit, and maketh it more lively in motion. We is a like operation; but that is with a far more insee also bottling of beer or ale, while it is new tense degree of heat. and full of spirit, so that it spirteth when the stop- 320. The apples covered in the lime and ashes ple is taken forth, maketh the drink more quick were well matured, as appeared both in their yeland windy. A pan of coals in the cellar doth lowness and sweetness. The cause is, for that likewise good, and maketh the drink work again. that degree of heat which is in lime and ashes, beNew drink put to drink that is dead provoketh it ing a smothering heat, is of all the rest most proto work again: nay, which is more, as some per, for it doth neither liquefy nor arefy, and that affirm, a brewing of new beer set by old beer is true maturation. Note, that the taste of those apples was good, and therefore it is the experi- she would perform her own work; and that, if ment fittest for use.
the crudities, impurities, and leprosities of metals 321. The apples covered with crabs and onions were cured, they would become gold; and that a were likewise well matured. The cause is, not little quantity of the medicine, in the work of any heat; but for that the crabs and the onions projection, will turn a sea of the baser metal into draw forth the spirits of the apple, and spread gold by multiplying: all these are but dreams; them equally throughout the body, which taketh and so are many other grounds of alchymy. And away hardness. So we see one apple ripeneth to help the matter, the alchymists call in likewise against another. And therefore in making of ci- many vanities out of astrology, natural magic, der they turn the apples first upon a heap. So superstitious interpretations of Seriptures, aurione cluster of grapes that toucheth another whilst cular traditions, feigned testimonies of ancient it groweth, ripeneth faster; “botrus contra botrum authors, and the like. It is true, on the other citius maturescit."
side, they have brought to light not a few profit322. The apples in hay and the straw ripened able experiments, and thereby made the world apparently, though not so much as the other; but some amends. But we, when we shall come to the apple in the straw more. The cause is, for that handle the version and transmutation of bodies, the hay and straw have a very low degree of heat, and the experiments concerning metals and but yet close and smothering, and which drieth not. minerals, will lay open the true ways and pas
323. The apple in the close box was ripened sages of nature, which may lead to this great also : the cause is, for that all air kept close hath effect. And we commend the wit of the Chinese, a degree of warmth; as we see in wool, fur, who despair of making of gold, but are mad upon plush, &c. Note, that all of these were coinpared the making of silver: for certain it is, that it is with another apple of the same kind that lay of more difficult to make gold, which is the most itself; and in comparison of that were more sweet ponderous and materiate amongst metals, of other and more yellow, and so appeared to be more ripe. metals less ponderous and less materiate, than
324. Take an apple or pear, or other like fruit, “via versa," to make silver of lead or quicksilver, and roll it upon a table hard: we see in common both which are more ponderous than silver: so experience, that the rolling doth soften and sweeten that they need rather a further degree of fixation the fruit presently; which is nothing but the than any condensation. In the mean time, by smooth distribution of the spirits into the parts; occasion of handling the axioms touching matufor the unequal distribution of the spirits maketh ration, we will direct a trial touching the maturing the harshness : but this hard rolling is between of metals, and thereby turning some of them into concoction and a simple maturation ; therefore, if gold: for we conceive indeed, that a perfect good you should roll them but gently, perhaps twice a concoction, or digestion, or maturation of some day, and continue it some seven days, it is like metals, will produce gold. And hereby, we call they would mature more finely, and like unto the to mind, that we knew a Dutchman, that had natural maturation.
wrought himself into the belief of a great person, 325. Take an apple, and cut out a piece of the by undertaking that he could make gold: whose top, and cover it, to see whether that solution of discourse was, that gold might be made; but that continuity will not hasten a maturation: we see the alchymists over-fired the work: for, he said, that where a wasp, or a fly, or a worm hath bitten, the making of gold did require a very temperate in a grape, or any fruit, it will sweeten hastily. heat, as being in nature a subterrany work, where
326. Take an apple, &c., and prick it with a little heat cometh ; but yet more to the making of pin full of holes, not deep, and smear it a little gold than of any other metal; and therefore that with sack, or cinnamon water, or spirit of wine, he would do it with a great lamp that should carry every day for ten days, to see if the virtual heat a temperate and equal heat; and that it was the of the wine or strong waters will not mature it. work of many months. The device of the lamp
In these trials also, as was used in the first, set was folly; but the over-firing now used, and the another of the same fruits by to compare them, equal heat to be required, and the making it a and try them by their yellowness and by their work of some good time, are no ill discourses. sweetness.
We resort therefore to our axioms of maturation,
in effect touched before. The first is, that there be Experiment solitary touching the making of gold. used a temperate heat; for they are ever temperate
The world hath been much abused by the heats that digest and mature: wherein we mean opinion of making of gold: the work itself I temperate according to the nature of the subject; judge to be possible; but the means hitherto for that may be temperate to fruits and liquors, propounded to effect it are, in the practice, full of which will not work at all upon metals. The error and imposture, and in the theory, full of second is, that the spirits of the metal be quickunsound imaginations. For to say, that nature ened, and the tangible parts opened : for without hath an intention to make all metals gold; and those two operations, the spirit of the metal that, if she were delivered from impediments, wrought upon will not be able to digest the parts. Vol. II._7
The third is, that the spirits do spread themselves of the spirits of bodies, which ever are unquiet to even, and move not subsultorily, for that will make get forth and congregate with the air, and to enjoy the parts close and pliant. And this requireth a the sunbeams. The getting forth, or spreading of heat that doth not rise and fall, but continue as the spirits, which is a degree of getting forth, hath equal as may be. The fourth is, that no part of five differing operations. If the spirits be dethe spirit be omitted but detained : for if there be tained within the body, and move more violently, emission of spirit, the body of the metal will be there followeth colliquation, as in metals, &c. If hard and churlish. And this will be performed, more mildly, there followeth digestion or maturapartly by the temper of the fire, and partly by the tion, as in drinks and fruits. If the spirits be not closeness of the vessel. The fifth is, that there merely detained, but protrude a little, and that be choice made of the likeliest and best prepared motion be confused and inordinate, there followeth metal for the version, for that will facilitate the putrefaction; which ever dissolveth the consistwork. The sixth is, that you give time enough ence of the body into much inequality, as in flesh, for the work; not to prolong hopes, as the alchy- rotten fruits, shining wood, &c., and also in the mists do, but indeed to give nature a convenient rust of metals. But if that motion be in a certain space to work in. These principles are most order, there followeth vivification and figuration; certain and true; we will now derive a direction as both in living creatures bred of putrefaction, of trial out of them, which may, perhaps, by and in living creatures perfect. But if the spirits further meditation, be improved.
issue out of the body, there followeth desiccation, 327. Let there be a small furnace made of a induration, consumption, &c., as in brick, evapotemperate heat; let the heat be such as may keep ration of bodies liquid, &c. the metal perpetually molten, and no more; for 329. The means to induce and accelerate putrethat above all importeth to the work. For the faction, are, first, by adding some crude or watery material, take silver, which is the metal that in moisture; as in wetting of any flesh, fruit, wood, nature symbolizeth most with gold; put in also with water, &c., for contrariwise unctuous and with the silver, a tenth part of quicksilver, and a oily substances preserve. twelfth part of nitre, by weight; both these to 330. The second is by invitation or excitation: quicken and open the body of the metal ; and so as when a rotten apple lieth close to another apple let the work be continued by the space of six that is sound; or when dung, which is a substance months at the least. I wish also, that there be already putrefied, is added to other bodies. And at some times an injection of some oiled substance, this is also notably seen in churchyards, where such as they use in the recovering of gold, which they bury much, where the earth will consume by vexing with separations hath been made churl- the corpse in far shorter time than other earth will. ish; and this is to lay the parts more close and 331. The third is by closeness and stopping, smooth, which is the main work. For gold, as which detaineth the spirits in prison more than we see, is the closest, and therefore the heaviest they would; and thereby irritateth them to seek of metals; and is likewise the most flexible and issue; as in corn and clothes, which wax musty; tensible. Note, that to think to make gold of and therefore open air, which they call “aër perquicksilver, because it is the heaviest, is a thing fiabilis," doth preserve: and this doth appear more not to be hoped ; for quicksilver will not endure evidently in agues, which come, most of them, the manage of the fire. Next to silver, I think of obstructions, and penning the humours which copper were fittest to be the material.
332. The fourth is by solution of continuity; Experiment solitary touching the nature of gold. as we see an apple will rot sooner if it be cut or
328. Gold hath these natures; greatness of pierced; and so will wood, &c. And so the flesh weight, closeness of parts, fixation, pliantness or of creatures alive, where they have received any softness, immunity from rust, colour or tincture wound. of yellow. Therefore the sure way, though most 333. The fifth is either by the exhaling or by about, to make gold, is to know the causes of the the driving back of the principal spirits which several natures before rehearsed, and the axioms preserve the consistence of the body; so that concerning the same. For if a man can make a when their government is dissolved, every part metal that hath all these properties, let men dis- returneth to his nature or homogeny. And this pute whether it be gold or no.
appeareth in urine and blood when they cool, and
thereby break: it appeareth also in the gangrene, Experiments in consort touching the inducing and or mortification of flesh, either by opiates or by accelerating of putrefaction.
intense colds. I conceive also the same effect is The inducing and accelerating of putrefaction in pestilences: for that the malignity of the inis a subject of very universal inquiry: for corrup- fecting vapour danceth the principal spirits, and tion is a reciprocal to generation: and they two maketh them fly and leave their regiment; and are as nature's two terms or boundaries; and the then the humours, flesh, and secondary spirits, do guides to life and death. Putrefaction is the work dissolve and break, as in an anarchy.