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as well as original sounds, be not strongest near | And whereas in echoes of oņe return, it is much hand.
to hear four or five words; in this echo of so many 246. There be many places where you shall returns upon the matter, you hear above twenty hear a number of echoes one after another; and words for three. it is when there is a variety of hills or woods, 250. The like echo uponecho, but only with some nearer, some farther off: so that the return two reports, hath been observed to be, if you stand from the farther, being last created, will be like between a house and a bill, and lure towards the wise last heard.
hill. For the house will give a back echo; one 247. As the voice goeth round, as well towards taking it from the other, and the latter the weaker. the back, as towards the front of him that speak- 251. There are certain letters that an echo will eth; so likewise doth the echo: for you have hardly express; as S for one, especially being many back echoes to the place where you stand. principal in a word. I remember well, that when
218. To make an echo that will report three, I went to the echo at Pont-Charenton, there was or four, or five words distinctly, it is requisite that an old Parisian, that took it to be the work of the body repercussing be a good distance off : spirits, and of good spirits. For, said he, call for if it be near, and yet not so near as to make a • Satan," and the echo will not deliver back the concurrent echo, it choppeth with you upon the devil's name; but will say, “va t'en;" which is sudden. It is requisite likewise that the air be as much in French as “apage" or avoid. And not much pent: for air at a great distance pent, thereby I did hap to find, that an echo would not worketh the same effect with air at large in a small return S, being but a hissing and an interior distance. And therefore in the trial of speaking sound. in the well, though the well was deep, the voice 252. Echoes are some more sudden, and chop came back suddenly, and would bear the report again as soon as the voice is delivered; as hath but of two words.
been partly said: others are more deliberate, that 249. For echoes upon echoes, there is a rare is, give more space between the voice and the instance thereof in a place which I will now ex- echo, which is caused by the local nearness or actly describe. It is some three or four miles distance: some will report a longer train of words, from Paris, near a town called Pont-Charenton; and some a shorter; some more loud, full as loud and some bird-bolt shot or more from the river of as the original, and sometimes more loud, and Seine. The room is a chapel or small church. some weaker and fainter. The walls all standing, both at the sides and at 253. Where echoes come from several parts at the ends. Two rows of pillars, after the manner the same distance, they must needs make, as it of aisles of churches, also standing; the roof all were, a choir of echoes, and so make the report open, not so much as any embowments near any greater, and even a continued echo; which you of the walls left. There was against every pillar shall find in some hills that stand encompassed a stack of billets above a man's height; which theatre-like. the watermen that bring wood down the Seine in 254. It doth not yet appear that there is refracstacks, and not in boats, laid there, as it seemeth, tion in sounds, as well as in species visible. For for their ease. Speaking, at the one end, I did I do not think that, if a sound should pass through hear it return the voice thirteen several times; divers mediums, as air, cloth, wood, it would deand I have heard of others, that it would return liver the sound in a differing place from that unto sixteen times: for I was there about three of the which it is deferred; which is the proper effect clock in the afternoon: and it is best, as all other of refraction. But majoration, which is also the echoes are, in the evening. It is manifest that it work of refraction, appeareth plainly in sounds, is not echoes from several places, but a tossing as hath been handled at full, but it is not by diof the voice, as a ball, to and fro, like to reflections versity of mediums. in looking-glasses, where if you place one glass before and another behind, you shall see the glass Experiments in consort touching the consent and behind with the image, within the glass before; dissent between visibles and audibles. and again, the glass before in that; and divers We have s obiter,” for demonstration's sake, such super-reflections, till the “species speciei” used in divers instances the examples of the sight at last die. For it is every return weaker and and things visible, to illustrate the nature of more shady. In like manner, the voice in that sounds: but we think good now to prosecute that chapel createth - speciem speciei,” and maketh comparison more fully. succeeding super-reflections; for it melteth by degrees, and every reflection is weaker than the Consent of visibles and audibles. former: so that if you speak three words, it will, 255. Both of them spread themselves in round, perhaps, some three times report you the whole and fill a whole floor or orb unto certain limits; three words; and then the two latter words for and are carried a great way: and do languish and some times; and then the last word alone for lessen by degrees, according to the distance of the some times, still fading and growing weaker. objects from the sensories. VOL. II.-6
256. Both of them have the whole species in intentive and erect, insomuch as you contract your every small portion of the air, or medium, so as eye when you would see sharply; and erect your the species do pass through small crannies without ear when you would hear attentively; which in confusion: as we see ordinarily in levels, as to beasts that have ears movable is most manifest. the eye; and in crannies or chinks, as to the 267. The beams of light, when they are multisound.
plied and conglomerate, generate heat, which is a 257. Both of them are of a sudden and easy different action from the action of sight: and the generation and delation: and likewise perish multiplication and coglomeration of sounds doth swiftly and suddenly; as if you remove the light, generate an extreme rarefaction of the air; which or touch the bodies that give the sound.
is an action materiate, differing from the action 258. Both of them do receive and carry ex- of sound; if it be true, which is anciently reportquisite and accurate differences; as of colours, ed, that birds with great shouts have fallen figures, motions, distances, in visibles ; and of down. articulate voices, tones, songs, and quaverings, in audibles.
Dissents of visibles and audibles. 259. Both of them, in their virtue and working, 268. The species of visibles seem to be emisdo not appear to admit any corporal substance into sions of beams from the objects seen, almost like their mediums, or the orb of their virtue ; neither odours, save that they are more incorporeal : but again to rise or stir any evident local motion in the species of audibles seem to participate more their mediums as they pass; but only to carry with local motion, like percussions, or imprescertain spiritual species; the perfect knowledge sions made upon the air. So that whereas all of the cause whereof, being hitherto scarcely at- bodies do seem to work in two manners, either by tained, we shall search and handle in due place. the communication of their natures or by the im
260. Both of them seem not to generate or pressions and signatures of their motions; the produce any other effect in nature, but such as diffusion of species visible seemeth to participate appertaineth to their proper objects and senses, more of the former operation, and the species auand are otherwise barren.
dible of the latter. 261. But both of them, in their own proper 269. The species of audibles seem to be caraction, do work three manifest effects. The first, ried more manifestly through the air than the spein that the stronger species drowneth the lesser; cies of visibles: for I conceive that a contrary as the light of the sun, the light of a glow-worm; strong wind will not much hinder the sight of the report of an ordnance, the voice: The second, visibles, as it will do the hearing of sounds. in that an object of surcharge or excess destroyeth 270. There is one difference above all other bethe sense; as the light of the sun the eye; a tween visibles and audibles, that is the most reviolent sound near the ear the hearing: The third, markable, as that whereupon many smaller differin that both of them will be reverberate; as in ences do depend: namely, that visibles, except mirrors, and in echoes.
lights, are carried in right lines, and audibles in 262. Neither of them doth destroy or hinder arcuate lines. Hence it cometh to pass, that vithe species of the other, although they encounter sibles do not intermingle and confound one another, in the same medium, as light or colour hinder not as hath been said before, but sounds do. Hence sound, nor "e contra."
it cometh, that the solidity of bodies doth not 263. Both of them effect the sense in living much hinder the sight, so that the bodies be clear, creatures, and yield objects of pleasure and dis- and the pores in a right line, as in glass, crystal, like: yet nevertheless the objects of them do also, diamonds, water, &c. but a thin scarf or handker if it be well observed, affect and work upon dead chief, though they be bodies nothing so solid, hin things; namely, such as have some conformity der the sight; whereas, contrariwise, these porous with the organs of the two senses, as visibles work bodies do not much hinder the hearing, but solid upon a looking-glass, which is like the pupil of bodies do almost stop it, or at the least attenuate the eye: and audibles upon the places of echo, it. Hence also it cometh, that to the reflection which resemble in some sort the cavern and of visibles small glasses suffice; but to the restructure of the ear.
verberation of audibles are required greater spaces, 264. Both of them do diversely work, as they as hath likewise been said before. have their medium diversely disposed. So a 271, Visibles are seen further off' than sounds trembling medium, as smoke, maketh the object are heard, allowing nevertheless the rate of their seem to tremble, and a rising or falling medium, bigness, for otherwise a great sound will be heard as winds, maketh the sounds to rise or fall. further off than a small body seen.
265. To both, the medium, which is the most 272. Visibles require, generally, some distance propitious and conducible, is air, for glass or between the object and the eye, to be better seen; water, &c. are not comparable.
whereas in audibles, the nearer the approach of 266. In both of them, where the object is fine the sound is to the sense, the better. But in this and accurate, it conduceth much to have the sense there may be a double error. The one, because to
seeing there is required light; and any thing that little tincture to that air which is adjacent; which toucheth the pupil of the eye all over excludeth if they did, we should see colours, out of a right the light. For I have heard of a person very cre- line. But as this is in colours, so otherwise it dible, who himself was cured of a cataract in one is in the body of light. For when there is a of his eyes, that while the silver needle did work screen between the candle and the eye, yet the upon the sight of his eye, to remove the film of light passeth to the paper whereupon one writeth; the cataract, he never saw any thing more clear so that the light is seen where the body of the or perfect than that white needle: which, no flame is not seen, and where any colour, if it doubt, was, because the needle was lesser than were placed where the body of the flame is, would the pupil of the eye, and so took not the light not be seen. I judge that sound is of this latter from it. The other error may be, for that the ob- nature ; for when two are placed on both sides ject of sight doth strike upon the pupil of the eye of a wall, and the voice is heard, I judge it is not directly without any interception; whereas the only the original sound which passeth in an archcave of the ear doth hold off the sound a little from ed line; but the sound which passeth above the the organ: and so nevertheless there is some dis- wall in a right line, begetteth the like motion tance required in both.
round about it as the first did, though more weak. 273. Visibles are swiftlier carried to the sense than audibles; as appeareth in thunder and light- Experiments in consort touching the sympathy or ning, flame, and report of a piece, motion of the untipathy of sounds one with another. air in hewing of wood. All which have been set 278. All concords and discords of music are, down heretofore, but are proper for this title. no doubt, syınpathies and antipathies of sounds.
274. I conceive also, that the species of au- And so, likewise, in that music which we call dibles do hang longer in the air than those of vi- broken music, or consort music, some consorts sibles: for although even those of visibles do of instruments are sweeter than others, a thing hang some time, as we see in rings turned, that not sufficiently yet observed: as the Irish harp show like spheres; in lute-strings filliped ; a fire- and base viol agree well: the recorder and brand carried along, which leaveth a train of light stringed music agree well: organs and the voice behind it; and in the twilight, and the like; yet agree well, &c. But the virginals and the lute, I conceive that sounds stay longer, because they or the Welsh harp and Irish harp, or the voice are carried up and down with the wind; and be- and pipes alone, agree not so well: but for the cause of the distance of the time in ordnance dis- melioration of music there is yet much left, in charged, and heard twenty miles off.
this point of exquisite consorts, to try and inquire. 275. In visibles there are not found objects so 279. There is a common observation, that if a odious and ingrate to the sense as in audibles. lute or viol be laid upon the back, with a small For foul sights do rather displease, in that they straw upon one of the strings, and another lute excite the memory of foul things, than in the or viol be laid by it; and in the other lute or viol immediate objects. And therefore in pictures, the unison to that string be strucken, it will make those foul sights do not much offend; but in au- the string move, which will appear both to the dibles, the grating of a saw, when it is sharpen-eye, and by the straw's falling off. The like will ed, doth offend so much as it setteth the teeth on be, if the diapason or eighth to that string be edge. And any of the harsh discords in music strucken, either in the same lute or viol, or in the ear doth straightways refuse.
others lying by: but in none of these there is 276. In visibles, after great light, if you come any report of sound that can be discerned, but suddenly into the dark, or contrariwise, out of the only motion. dark into a glaring light, the eye is dazzled for a 280. It was devised, that a viol should have a time, and the sight confused; but whether any lay of wire-strings below, as close to the belly such effect be after great sounds, or after a deep as a lute, and then the strings of guts mounted silence, may be better inquired. It is an old tra- upon a bridge as in ordinary viols: to the end, dition, that those that dwell near the cataracts of that by this means, the upper strings strucken Nilus are strucken deaf: but we find no such effect should make the lower resound by sympathy, and in cannoniers nor millers, nor those that dwell so make the music the better; which if it be to upon bridges.
purpose, then sympathy worketh as well by 277. It seemeth that the impression of colour report of sound as by motion. But this device I is so weak as it worketh not but by a cone of conceive to be of no use, because the upper direct beams, or right lines, whereof the basis is strings, which are stopped in great variety, canin the object, and the vertical point in the eye; so not maintain a diapason or unison with the lower, as there is a corradiation and conjunction of which are never stopped. But if it should be of beams; and those beams so sent forth, yet are use at all, it must be in instruments which have not of any force to beget the like borrowed or no stops, as virginals and harps; wherein trial second beams, except it be by reflection, whereof may be made of two rows of strings, distant the we speak not. For the beams pass, and give one from the other
281. The experiment of sympathy may be essence of sounds. For if it were corporeal, the transferred, perhaps, from instruments of strings repercussion should be created in the same manto other instruments of sound. As to try, if ner, and by like instruments with the original there were in one steeple two bells of unison, sound: but we see what a number of exquisite whether the striking of the one would move the instruments must concur in speaking of words, other, more than if it were another accord: and so in whereof there is no such matter in the returning pipes, if they be of equal bore and sound, whether of them, but only a plain stop and repercussion. a little straw or feather would move in the one 288. The exquisite differences of articulate pipe, when the other is blown at a unison. sounds, carried along in the air, show that they
282. It seemeth, both in ear and eye, the in- cannot be signatures or impressions in the air, as strument of sense hath a sympathy or similitude hath been well refuted by the ancients. For it is with that which giveth the reflection, as hath true, that seals make excellent impressions; and been touched before; for as the sight of the eye so it may be thought of sounds in their first is like a crystal, or glass, or water; so is the ear generation; but then the delation and continuance a sinuous cave, with a hard bone to stop and of them, without any new sealing, show apparently reverberate the sound; which is like to the places they cannot be impressions. that report echoes.
289. All sounds are suddenly made, and do
suddenly perish: but neither that, nor the exquiExperiments in consort touching the hindering or site differences of them, is matter of so great helping of the hearing.
admiration: for the quaverings and warblings in 283. When a man yawneth, he cannot hear so lutes and pipes are as swift; and the tongue, well. The cause is, for that the membrane of which is no very fine instrument, doth in speech the ear is extended; and so rather casteth off the make no fewer motions than there be letters in all sound than draweth it to.
the words which are uttered. But that sounds 281. We hear better when we hold our breath should not only be so speedily generated, but than contrary: insomuch, as in all listening to carried so far every way in such a momentary attain a sound afar off, men hold their breath. time, deserveth more admiration. As, for exThe cause is, for that in all expiration the motion ample, if a man stand in the middle of a field is outwards; and therefore rather driveth away and speak aloud, he shall be heard a furlong in the voice than draweth it: and besides, we see, round; and that shall be in articulate sounds; that in all labour to do things with any strength, and those shall be entire in every little portion of we hold the breath; and listening after any sound the air; and this shall be done in the space of less that is heard with difficulty is a kind of labour. than a minute.
285. Let it be tried, for the help of the hearing, 290. The sudden generation and perishing of and I conceive it likely to succeed, to make an sounds must be one of these two ways. Either instrument like a tunnel; the narrow part whereof that the air suffereth some force by sound, and may be of the bigness of the hole of the ear; and then restoreth itself as water doth; which being the broader end much larger, like a bell at the divided, maketh many circles, till it restore itself skirts; and the length half a foot or more. And to the natural consistence: or otherwise, that the let the narrow end of it be set close to the ear: and air doth willingly imbibe the sound as grateful, mark whether any sound, abroad in the open air, but cannot maintain it; for that the air hath, as will not be heard distinctly from farther distance it should seem, a secret and hidden appetite of than without that instrument; being, as it were, receiving the sound at the first; but then other an ear-spectacle. And I have heard there is in gross and more materiate qualities of the air Spain an instrument in use to be set to the ear, straightways suffocate it, like unto flame, which that helpeth somewhat those that are thick of is generated with alacrity, but straight quenched hearing.
by the enmity of the air or other ambient bodies. 236. If the mouth be shut close, nevertheless There be these differences in general, by which there is yielded by the roof of the mouth a murmur, sounds are divided : 1. Musical, immusical. 2. such as is used by dumb men. But if the nostrils Treble, base. 3. Flat, sharp. 4. Soft, loud. be likewise stopped, no such murmur can be inade, 5. Exterior, interior. 6. Clean, harsh, or purling. except it be in the bottom of the palate towards 7. Articulate, inarticulate. the throat. Whereby it appeareth manifestly, We have laboured, as may appear, in this that a sound in the mouth, except such as afore- inquisition of sounds diligently; both because said, if the mouth be stopped, passeth from the sound is one of the most hidden portions of palate through the nostrils.
nature, as we said in the beginning, and because
it is a virtue which may be called incorporeal Experiments in consort touching the spiritual and and immateriate, whereof there be in nature but fine nature of sounds.
few. Besides, we were willing, now in these 287. The repercussion of sounds, which we our first centuries, to make a pattern or precedent call echo, is a great argument of the spiritual (of an exact inquisition; and we shall do the like
hereafter in some other subjects which require it. | cleaving more or less : and that they love better For we desire that men should learn and perceive the touch of somewhat that is tangible, than of air. how severe a thing the true inquisition of nature For water in small quantity cleaveth to any thing is; and should accustom themselves by the light that is solid; and so would metal too, if the of particulars, to enlarge their minds to the ampli- weight drew it not off. And therefore gold fotude of the world, and not reduce the world to the liate, or any metal foliate cleaveth ; but those narrowness of their minds.
bodies which are noted to be clammy and cleaving,
are such as have a more indifferent appetite at Experiment solitary touching the orient colours in once to follow another body, and to hold to themdissolution of metals.
selves. And therefore they are commonly bodies 291. Metals give orient and fine colours in dis-ill mixed; and which take more pleasure in a fosolutions; as gold giveth an excellent yellow, reign body than in preserving their own consistquicksilver an excellent green, tin giveth an ence, and which have little predominance in excellent azure: likewise in their putrefactions or drought or moisture. rusts; as vermilion, verdigrease, bise, cirrus, &c., and likewise in their vitrifications. The cause is, Experiment solitary touching the like operations of for that by their strength of body they are able to
heat and time. endure the fire or strong waters, and to be put into 294. Time and heat are fellows in many effects. an equal posture, and again to retain part of their Heat drieth bodies that do easily expire; as parchprincipal spirit; which two things, equal posture ment, leaves, roots, clay, &c. And so doth time or and quick spirits, are required chiefly to make age arefy: as in the same bodies, &c. Heat discolours lightsome.
solveth and melteth bodies that keep in their spi
rits : as in divers liquefactions : and so doth time Erperiment solitary touching prolongation of life. in some bodies of a softer consistence, as is mani
292. It conduceth unto long life, and to the fest in honey, which by age waxeth more liquid, more placid motion of the spirits, which thereby and the like in sugar; and so in old oil, which is do less prey and consume the juice of the body, ever more clear and more hot in medicinable use. either that men's actions be free and voluntary, Heat causeth the spirits to search some issue out that nothing be done “invita Minerva,” but “ se- of the body; as in the volatility of metals: and cundum genium;" or, on the other side, that the so doth time; as in the rust of metals. But geneactions of men be full of regulaiion and commands rally heat doth that in small time which age doth within themselves : for then the victory and per- in long. forming of the command giveth a good disposition to the spirits, especially if there be a proceeding from Experiment solitary touching the differing operadegree to degree ; for then the sense of the victory
tion of fire and time. is the greater. An example of the former of these 295. Some things which pass the fire are softis in a country life; and of the latter in monks and est at first, and by time grow hard, as the crumb philosophers, and such as do continually enjoin of bread. Some are harder when they come from themselves.
the fire, and afterwards give again, and grow soft,
as the crust of bread, bisket, sweet-meats, salt, &c. Experiment solitary touching appetite of union in The cause is, for that in those things which wax bodies.
hard with time, the work of the fire is a kind of 293. It is certain that in all bodies there is an melting; and in those that wax soft with time, appetite of union and evitation of solution of conti- contrariwise, the work of the fire is a kind of baknuity; and of this appetite there be many degrees; ing: and whatsoever the fire baketh, time doth in but the most remarkable and fit to be distinguished some degree dissolve. are three. The first in liquors; the second in hard bodies; and the third in bodies cleaving or Experiment solitary touching motions by imitation. tenacious. In liquors this appetite is weak: we 296. Motions pass from one man to another, see in liquors the threading of them in stillicides, not so much by exciting imagination as by invitaas hath been said ; the falling of them in round tion; especially if there be an aptness or inclinadrops, which is the form of union, and the staying tion before. Therefore gaping, or yawning, and of them for a little time in bubbles and froth. In stretching do pass from man to man; for that that the second degree or kind, this appetite is strong; causeth gaping and stretching is, when the spirits as in iron, in stone, in wood, &c. In the third, are a little heavy by any vapour, or the like. For this appetite is in a medium between the other then they strive, as it were, to wring out and extwo: for such bodies do partly follow the touch of pel that which loadeth them. So men drowsy, another body, and partly stick and continue to and desirous to sleep, or before the fit of an ague, themselves; and therefore they rope and draw do use to yawn and stretch, and do likewise yield themselves in threads, as we see in pitch, glue, a voice or sound, which is an interjection of exbirdlime, &c. But note, that all solid bodies are pulsion: so that if another be apt and prepared to