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Experiments in consort touching the motion of 206. But to make an exact trial of it, let a man
sounds, in what lines they are circular, oblique, stand in a chamber not much above the ground, straight, upwards, downwards, forwards, back- and speak out at the window, through a trunk, to wards.
one standing on the ground, as softly as he can, 201. All sounds whatsoever move round; that the other laying his ear close to the trunk; then is to say, on all sides: upwards, downwards, " via versa,” let the other speak below, keeping forwards, and backwards. This appeareth in all the same proportion of softness; and let him in instances.
the chamber lay his ear to the trunk: and this 202. Sounds do not require to be conveyed to may be the aptest means to make a judgment, the sense in a right line, as visibles do, but may whether sounds descend or ascend better. be arched; though it be true they move strongest in a right line; which nevertheless is not caused Experiments in consort touching the lasting and by the rightness of the line, but by the shortness perishing of sounds ; and touching the time they of the distance; “ linea recta brevissima." And require to their generation or delation. therefore we see if a wall be between, and you 207. After that sound is created, which is in speak on the one side, you hear it on the other; a moment, we find it continueth some small time, which is not because the sound passeth through melting by little and little. In this there is a the wall, but archeth over the wall.
wonderful error amongst men, who take this to 203. If the sound be stopped and repercussed, be a continuance of the first sound; whereas, in it cometh about on the other side in an oblique truth, it is a renovation, and not a continuance; line. So, if in a coach one side of the boot be for the body percussed hath, by reason of the down, and the other up, and a beggar beg on the percussion, a trepidation wrought in the minute close side; you will think that he were on the parts, and so reneweth the percussion of the air. open side. So likewise, if a bell or clock be, for This appeareth manifestly, because that the meltexample, on the north side of a chamber, and the ing sound of a bell, or of a string strucken, which window of that chamber be upon the south; he is thought to be a continuance, ceaseth as soon as that is in the chamber will think the sound came the bell or string are touched. As in a virginal, from the south.
as soon as ever the jack falleth, and toucheth the 201. Sounds, though they spread round, so that string, the sound ceaseth ; and in a bell, after you there is an orb or spherical area of the sound, yet have chimed upon it, if you touch the bell the they move strongest, and go farthest in the fore- sound ceaseth. And in this you must distinguish lines, from the first local impulsion of the air. that there are two trepidations: the one manifest And therefore, in preaching, you shall hear the and local; as of the bell when it is pensile: the preacher's voice betier before the pulpit than be- other secret, of the minute parts; such as is dehind it, or on the sides, though it stand open. scribed in the ninth instance. But it is true, that So a harquebuss, or ordnance, will be farther the local elpeth the secret greatly. We see heard forwards from the mouth of the piece, than likewise that in pipes, and other wind instrubackwards, or on the sides.
ments, the sound lasteth no longer than the breath 205. It may be doubted, that sounds do move bloweth. It is true, that in organs there is a better downwards than upwards. Pulpits are confused murmur for a while after you have placed high above the people. And when the played; but that is but while the bellows are in ancient generals spake to their armies, they had falling. ever a mount of turf cast up, whereupon they 208. It is certain, that in the noise of great stood; but this may be imputed to the stops and ordnance, where many are shot off together, the obstacles which the voice meeteth with, when one sound will be carried, at the least, twenty miles speaketh upon the level. But there seemeth to upon the land, and much farther upon the water. be more in it; for it may be that spiritual species, But then it will come to the ear, not in the instant both of things visible and sounds, do move better of the shooting off, but it will come an hour or downwards than upwards. It is a strange thing, more later. This must needs be a continuance that to men standing below on the ground, those of the first sound; for there is no trepidation that be on the top of Paul's seem much less than which should renew it. And the touching of the they are, and cannot be known; but to men ordnance would not extinguish the sound the above, those below seem nothing so much lessen- sooner: so that in great sounds the continuance ed, and may be known: yet it is true, that all is more than momentary. things to them above seem also somewhat con- 209. To try exactly the time wherein sound tracted, and better collected into figures: as knots is delated, let a man stand in a steeple, and have in gardens show best from an upper window or with him a taper; and let some veil be put before terrace.
the taper; and let another man stand in a field a
mile off. Then let him in the steeple strike the touch of the sides. Take therefore a hawk's bell; and in the same instant withdraw the veil; bell, the holes stopped up, and hang it by a thread and so let him in the field tell by his pulse what within a bottle glass, and stop the mouth of the distance of time there is between the light seen, glass very close with wax; and then shake the and the sound heard : for it is certain that the glass, and see whether the bell give any sound delation of light is in an instant. This may be at all, or how weak: but note, that you must tried in far greater distances, allowing greater instead of the thread take a wire; or else let the lights and sounds.
glass have a great belly; lest when you shake 210. It is generally known and observed that the bell, it dash upon the sides of the glass. light and the object of sight move swifter than 214. It is plain, that a very long and downright sound: for we see the flash of a piece is seen arch for the sound to pass, will extinguish the sooner than the noise is heard. And in hewing sound quite; so that that sound, which would be wood, if one be some distance off, he shall see heard over a wall, will not be heard over a church; the arm lifted up for a second stroke, before he nor that sound, which will be heard if you stand hear the noise of the first. And the greater the some distance from the wall, will be heard if you distance, the greater is the prevention: as we see stand close under the wall. in thunder which is far off, where the lightning 215. Soft and foraminous bodies, in the first precedeth the crack a good space.
creation of the sound, will dead it: for the strik211, Colours, when they represent themselves ing against cloth or fur will make little sound; to the eye, fade not, nor melt not by degrees, but as hath been said : but in the passage of the sound, appear still in the same strength; but sounds they will admit it better than harder bodies; as melt and vanish by little and little. The cause is, we see, that curtains and hangings will not stay for that colours participate nothing with the mo- the sound much; but glass windows, if they be tion of the air, but sounds do. And it is a plain very close, will check a sound more than the like argument, that sound participateth of some local thickness of cloth. We see also in the rumbling motion of the air, as a cause “ sine qua non,” in of the belly, how easily the sound passeth through that it perisheth so suddenly; for in every section the guts and skin. or impulsion of the air, the air doth suddenly re- 216. It is worthy the inquiry, whether great store and reunite itself; which the water also sounds, as of ordnance or bells, become not more doth, but nothing so swiftly.
weak and exile when they pass through small
crannies. For the subtilties of articulate sounds, Experiments in consort touching the passage and it may be, may pass through small crannies not interceptions of sounds.
confused, but the magnitude of the sound, perhaps, In the trials of the passage, or not passage of not so well. sounds, you must take heed you mistake not the passing by the sides of a body for the passing Experiments in consort touching the medium of through a body; and therefore you must make
sounds. the intercepting body very close; for sounds will 217. The mediums of sounds are air, soft and pass through a small chink.
porous bodies, also water. And hard bodies refuse 212. Where sound passeth through a hard or not altogether to be mediums of sounds. But all close body, as through water; through a wall; of them are dull and unapt deferents, except the through metal, as in hawks' bells stopped, &c., the air. hard or close body must be but thin and small; for 218. In air, the thinner or drier air carrieth not else it deadeth and extinguisheth the sound utter- the sound so well as the more dense; as appeareth ly. And therefore in the experiment in speaking in night sounds and evening sounds, and sounds in air under water, the voice must not be very in moist weather and southern winds. The readeep within the water; for then the sound pierceth son is already mentioned in the title of majoration not. So if you speak on the farther side of a of sounds; being for that thin air is better pierced ; close wall, if the wall be very thick, you shall but thick air preserveth the sound better from kot be heard; and if there were a hogshead waste: let further trial be made by hollowing in empty, whereof the sides were some two foot mists and gentle showers; for it may be that will thick, and the hunghole stopped; I conceive the somewhat dead the sound. resounding sound, by the communication of the 219. How far forth flame may be a medium of outward air with the air within, would be little sounds, especially of such sounds as are created or none: but only you shall hear the noise of the by air, and not betwixt hard bodies, let it be tried outward knoek as if the vessel were full. in speaking where a bonfire is between; but then
213. It is certain that in the passage of sounds you must allow for some disturbance the noise through hard bodies the spirit or pneumatical that the flame itself maketh. part of the body itself aoth co-operatė; but much 220. Whether any other liquors, being made better when the sides of that hard body are struck, mediums, cause a diversity of sound from water, than when the percussion is only within, without it may be tried : as by the knapping of the tongs;
or striking of the bottom of a vessel, filled either ferior to that of silver or brass, but rather better: with milk or with oil; which, though they be yet we see that a piece of money of gold soundeth more light, yet are they more unequal bodies than far more flat than a piece of money of silver. air.
223. The harp hath the concave not along the Of the natures of the mediums we have now strings, but across the strings; and no instrument spoken; as for the disposition of the said me- hath the sound so melting and prolonged as the diums, it doth consist in the penning, or not pen- Irish harp. So as I suppose, that if a virginal ning of the air; of which we have spoken before in were made with a double concave, the one all the the title of delation of sounds: it consisteth also in length, as the virginal hath, the other at the end the figure of the concave through which it passeth ; of the strings, as the harp hath; it must needs of which we will speak next.
make the sound perfecter, and not so shallow and
jarring. You may try it without any sound-board Experiments in consort, what the figures of the pipes, along, but only harp-wise at one end of the strings;
or concaves, or the bodies deferent, conduce to the or lastly, with a double concave, at each end of sounds.
the strings one. How the figures of pipes, or concaves, through which sounds pass, or of other bodies deferent, Experiments in consort touching the mixture of conduce to the variety and alteration of the sounds;
sounds. either in respect of the greater quantity, or less 224. There is an apparent diversity between quantity of air which the concaves receive, or in the species visible and audible in this, that the respect of the carrying of sounds longer and visible doth not mingle in the medium, but the shorter way; or in respect of many other circum- audible doth. For if we look abroad, we see stances; they have been touched, as falling into heaven, a number of stars, trees, hills, men, beasts, other titles. But those figures which we are now at once. And the species of the one doth not conto speak of, we intend to be, as they concern the found the other. But if so many sounds came lines through which the sound passeth ; as from several parts, one of them would utterly constraight, crooked, angular, circular, &c.
found the other. So we see, that voices or con- 221. The figure of a bell partaketh of the pyra- sorts of music do make a harmony by mixture, mis, but yet coming off and dilating more sud- which colours do not. It is true nevertheless that denly. The figure of a hunter's horn and cornet a great light drowneth a smaller, that it cannot be is oblique; yet they have likewise straight horns ; seen; as the sun that of a glow-worm ; as well as if they be of the same bore with the oblique, differ a great sound drowneth a lesser. And I suppose little in sound, save that the straight require some-likewise, that if there were two lanterns of glass, what a stronger blast. The figures of recorders, the one a crimson, and the other an azure, and a and flutes, and pipes are straight; but the recorder candle within either of them, those coloured lights hath a less bore and a greater, above and be would mingle, and cast upon a white paper a purlow. The trumpet hath the figure of the letter S: ple colour. And even in colours, they yield a which maketh that purling sound, &c. Gene- faint and weak mixture: for white walls make rally the straight line hath the cleanest and round-rooms more lightsome than black, &e. hut the est sound, and the crooked the more hoarse and cause of the confusion in sounds, and the inconjarring
fusion in species visible, is, for that the sight 222. Of a sinuous pipe that may have some worketh in right lines, and maketh several cones; four flexions, trial would be made. Likewise of and so there can be no coincidence in the eye or a pipe made like a cross, open in the midst. And visual point: but sounds, that move in oblique so likewise of an angular pipe; and see what will and arcuate lines, must needs encounter and disbe the effects of these several sounds. And so turb the one the other. again of a circular pipe; as if you take a pipe per- 225. The sweetest and best harmony is, when fect round, and make a hole whereinto you shall every part or instrument is not heard by itself, blow, and another hole not far from that; but but a conflation of them all; which requireth to with a traverse or stop between them: so that your stand some distance off, even as it is in the mixbreath may go the round of the circle, and come ture of perfumes; or the taking of the smells of forth at the second hole. You may try likewise several flowers in the air. percussions of solid bodies of several figures; as 226. The disposition of the air in other qualities, globes, flats, cubes, crosses, triangles, &c., and except it be joined with sound, hath no great their combinations, as flat against flat, and convex operation upon sounds : for whether the air be against convex, and convex against flat, &c., and lightsome or dark, hot or cold, quiet or stirring, mark well the diversities of the sounds. Try also except it be with noise, sweet smelling, or stinkthe difference in sound of several crassitudes of ing, or the like; it importeth not much; some fiard bodies percussed; and take knowledge of the pretty alteration or differente it may make. diversities of the sounds. I myself have tried, that 227. But sounds do disturb and alter the one the a bell of gold yieldeth an excellent sound, not in- other: sometimes the one drowning the other
and making it not heard ; sometimes the one jar- | trial may be made of a lute or viol with a double ring and discording with the other, and making belly, making another belly with a knot over a confusion; sometimes the one mingling and the strings; yet so as there be room enough for compounding with the other, and making a har- the strings, and room enough to play below that mony.
belly. Trial may be made also of an Irish harp, 228. Two voices of like loudness will not with a concave on both sides, whereas it useth to be heard twice as far as one of them alone: and have it but on one side. The doubt may be, lest two candles of like light will not make things it should make too much resounding, whereby one seen twice as far off as one. The cause is pro- note would overtake another. found; but it seemeth that the impressions from 233. If you sing into the hole of a drum, it the objects of the senses do mingle respectively, maketh the singing more sweet. And so I conevery one with his kind: but not in proportion, ceive it would, if it were a song in parts sung as is before demonstrated: and the reason may into several drums; and for handsomeness and be, because the first impression, which is from strangeness' sake, it would not be amiss to have privative to active, as from silence to noise, or a curtain between the place where the drums are, from darkness to light, is a greater degree than and the hearers. from less noise to more noise, or from less light 234. When a sound is ereated in a wind instru. to more light. And the reason of that again may ment between the breath and the air, yet if the be, for that the air, after it hath received a charge, sound be communicated with a more equal body doth not receive a surcharge, or greater charge, of the pipe, it meliorateth the sound. For, no with like appetite as it doth the first charge. As doubt, there would be a differing sound in a for the increase of virtue, generally, what propor- trumpet or pipe of wood: and again in a trumpet tion it beareth to the increase of the matter, it is or pipe of brass. It were good to try recorders a large field, and to be handled by itself. and hunters' horns of brass, what the sound
would be. Experiments in consort touching melioration of 235. Sounds are meliorated by the intension sounds.
of the sense, where the common sense is collected 229. All reflections concurrent do make sounds most to the particular sense of hearing, and the greater; but if the body that createth either the sight suspended: and therefore sounds are sweeter, original sound, or the reflection, be clean and as well as greater, in the night than in the day; smooth, it maketh them sweeter. Trial may be and I suppose they are sweeter to blind men than made of a lute or viol, with the belly of polished to others: and it is manifest, that between sleepbrass instead of wood. We see that even in the ing and waking, when all the senses are bound open air, the wire-string is sweeter than the and suspended, music is far sweeter than when string of guts. And we see that for reflection one is fully waking. water excelleth ; as in music near the water, or in echoes.
Experiments in consort touching the imitation of 230. It hath been tried, that a pipe a little
sounds. moistened on the inside, but yet so as there be 236. It is a thing strange in nature when it is no drops left, maketh a more solemn sound than attentively considered, how children, and some if the pipe were dry: but yet with a sweet degree birds, learn to imitate speech. They take no of sibilation or purling; as we touched it before mark at all of the motion of the mouth of him in the title of “equality.” The cause is, for that that speaketh, for birds are as well taught in the all things porous being superficially wet, and, dark as by light. The sounds of speech are very as it were, between dry and wet, became a little curious and exquisite: so one would think it more even and smooth; but the purling, which were a lesson hard to learn. It is true that it is must needs proceed of inequality, I take to be done with time, and by little and little, and with bred between the smoothness of the inward sur-many essays and proffers: but all this dischargeth face of the pipe, which is wet, and the rest of the not the wonder. · It would make a man think, wood of the pipe unto which the wet cometh not, though this which we shall say may seem exceed but it remaineth dry.
ing strange, that there is some transmission of 231. In frosty weather, music within doors spirits; and that the spirits of the teacher, put in soundeth better. Which may be by reason not motion, should work with the spirits of the learner of the disposition of the air, but of the wood or a predisposition to offer to imitate; and so to string of the instrument, which is made more perfect the imitation by degrees. But touching crisp, and so more porous and hollow: and we operations by transmissions of spirits, which is see that old lutes sound better than new, for the one of the highest secrets in nature, we shall same reason. And so do lute-strings that have speak in due place, chiefly when we come to been kept long.
inquire of imagination. But as for imitation, it 232. Sound is likewise meliorated by the is certain that there is in men and other creatures mingling of open air with pent air; therefore a predisposition to imitate. We see how ready
apes and monkeys are to imitate all motions of Experiments in consort touching the reflection of man; and in the catching of dottrels, we see how
sounds. the foolish bird playeth the ape in gestures: and There be three kinds of reflections of sounds; no man, in effect, doth accompany with others, a reflection concurrent, a reflection iterant, which but he learneth, ere he is aware, some gesture, or we call echo; and a super-reflection, or an echo voice, or fashion of the other.
of an echo; whereof the first hath been handled 237. In imitation of sounds, that man should in the title of “magnitude of sounds;" the latter be the teacher is no part of the matter; for birds two we will now speak of. will learn one of another; and there is no reward 242. The reflection of species visible by mirrors by feeding, or the like, given them for the imita- you may command ; because passing in right tion; and besides, you shall have parrots that lines, they may be guided to any point: but the will not only imitate voices, but laughing, knock- reflection of sounds is hard to master; because ing, squeaking of a door upon the hinges, or of the sound, filling great spaces in arched lines, a cart-wheel; and, in effect, any other noise they cannot be so guided : and therefore we see there hear.
hath not been practised any means to make 238. No beast can imitate the speech of man, artificial echoes. And no echo already known but birds only; for the ape itself, that is so ready returneth in a very narrow room. to imitate otherwise, attaineth not any degree of
243. The natural echoes are made upon walls, imitation of speech. It is true, that I have woods, rocks, hills, and banks; as for waters, known a dog, that if one howled in his ear, he being near, they make a concurrent echo; but would fall a howling a great while. What should being farther off, as upon a large river, they he the aptness of birds in comparison of beasts, make an iterant echo: for there is no difference to imitate the speech of man, may be further between the concurrent echo and the iterant, but inquired. We see that beasts have those parts the quickness or slowness of the return. But which they count the instruments of speech, as there is no doubt but water doth help the delalips, teeth, &c., liker unto man than birds. As tion of echo; as well as it helpeth the delation for the neck, by which the throat passeth, we see of original sounds. many beasts have it for the length as much as 244. It is certain, as hath been formerly birds. What better gorge or artery birds have touched, that if you speak through a trunk may be farther inquired. The birds that are stopped at the farther end, you shall find a blast known to be speakers are, parrots, pies, jays, return upon your mouth, but no sound at all. daws, and ravens. Of which parrots have an The cause is, for that the closeness which preadunque bill, but the rest not.
serveth the original, is not able to preserve the 239. But I conceive, that the aptness of birds reflected sound: besides that echoes are seldom is not so much in the conformity of the organs of created but by loud sounds. And therefore there speech as in their attention. For speech must is less hope of artificial echoes in air pent in a come by hearing and learning; and birds give narrow
Nevertheless it hath been more heed, and mark sounds more than beasts; tried, that one leaning over a well of twenty-five because naturally they are more delighted with fathom deep, and speaking, though but softly, yet them, and practise them more, as appeareth in not so soft as a whisper, the water returned a good their singing. We see also that those that teach audible echo. It would be tried, whether speakbirds to sing, do keep them waking to increase ing in caves, where there is no issue save where their attention. We see also that cock birds, you speak, will not yield echoes as wells do. amongst singing birds, are ever the better singers; 245. The echo cometh, as the original sound which may be, because they are more lively and doth, in a round orb of air: it were good to try listen more.
the creating of the echo where the body reper210. Labour and intention to imitate voices cussing maketh an angle: as against the return doth conduce much to imitation: and therefore we of a wall, &c. Also we see that in mirrors there see that there be certain "pantomimi,” that will is the like angle of incidence, from the object to represent the voices of players of interludes so the glass, and from the glass to the eye. And if to life, as if you see them not you would think you strike a ball sidelong, not full upon the surthey were those players themselves; and so the face, the rebound will be as much the contrary voices of other men that they hear.
way: whether there be any such resilience in 2011. There have been some that could coun- echoes, that is, whether a man shall hear better "terfeit the distance of voices, which is a secondary if he stand aside the body repercussing, than if object of hearing, in such sort, as when they he stand where he speaketh, or anywhere in a stand fast by you, you would think the speech right line between, may be tried. Trial likewise came from afar off, in a fearful manner. How would be made, by standing nearer the place of this is done may be further inquired. But I see repercussing than he that speaketh; and again no great use of it but for imposture, in counter-by standing farther off than he that speaketh; and felting ghosts or spirits.
so knowledge would be taken, whether echoes,