Christendom, and hath written and described all had no other excellency; one that hath passed the his plots in blood.

degrees of honour with great travel and long time, There follow the articles of a universal peace, which quencheth always envy, except it be joined which the libeller, as a commissioner for the es- with extreme malice; then it appeareth manitate of England, hath propounded, and are these: festly to be but a brick wall at tennis, to make the

First, that the King of Spain should recall such defamation and hatred rebound from the counselforces, as, of great compassion to the natural lor upon the prince. And assuredly they be very people of France, he hath sent thither to defend simple to think to abuse the world with those them against a relapsed Huguenot.

shifts; since every child can tell the fable, that Secondly, that he suffer his rebels of Holland the wolf's malice was not to the shepherd, but to and Zealand quietly to possess the places they his dog. It is true, that these men have altered hold, and to take unto them all the rest of the their tune twice or thrice : when the match was Low Countries also; conditionally, that the Eng- in treating with the Duke of Anjou, they spake lish may still keep the possession of such port honey as to her majesty; all the gall was uttered towns as they have, and have some half a dozen against the Earl of Leicester : but when they had more annexed unto them.

gotten heart upon expectation of the invasion, Thirdly, that the English rovers might peace- they changed style, and disclosed all the venom ably go to his Indies, and there take away his in the world immediately against her majesty: treasure and his Indies also.

what new hope hath made them return to their And these articles being accorded, he saith, Sinon's note, in teaching Troy how to save itself, might follow that peace which passeth all under- I cannot tell. But in the mean time they do his standing, as he calleth it in a scurrile and pro- lordship much honour: for the more despitefully fane mockery of the peace which Christians they inveigh against his lordship, the more reason enjoy with God, by the atonement which is made hath her majesty to trust him, and the realm to by the blood of Christ, whereof the apostle saith honour him. It was wont to be a token of scarce that it passeth all understanding. But these his a good liegeman when the enemy spoiled the articles are sure mistaken, and indeed corrected country, and left any particular men's houses or are briefly these :

fields unwasted. 1. That the King of France be not impeached in reducing his rebels to obedience.

VI. Certain true general notes upon the actions 2. That the Netherlands be suffered to enjoy of the Lord Burleigh. their ancient liberties and privileges, and so forces But above all the rest, it is a strange fancy in of strangers to be withdrawn, both English and the libeller that he maketh his lordship to be Spanish.

the “ primum mobile" in every action without 3. That all nations may trade into the East and distinction; that to him her majesty is accountWest Indies; yea, discover and occupy such parts ant of her resolutions; that to him the Earl of as the Spaniard doth not actually possess, and are Leicester and Mr. Secretary Walsingham, both not under civil government, notwithstanding any men of great power, and of great wit and underdonation of the pope.

standing, were but as instruments : whereas it is

well known, that as to her majesty, there was V. Of the cunning of the libeller, in palliation never a counsellor of his lordship's long con

of his malicious invectives against her ma- tinuance that was so appliable to her majesty's jesty and the state, with pretence of taxing princely resolutions; endeavouring always, after

only the actions of the Lord Burleigh. faithful propositions and remonstrances, and these I cannot rightly call this point cunning in the in the best words, and the most grateful manner, libeller, but rather good will to be cunning, to rest upon such conclusions, as her majesty in without skill indeed of judgment: for finding that her own wisdom determineth, and them to execute it hath been the usual and ready practice of sedi- to the best: so far hath he been from contestation, tious subjects to plant and bend their invectives or drawing her majesty into any his own courses. and clamours, not against the sovereigns them- And as for the forenamed counsellors and others, selves, but against some such as had grace with with whom his lordship had consorted in her them and authority under them, he put in ure his majesty's service, it is rather true that his lordlearning in a wrong and unproper case. For this ship, out of the greatness of his experience and hath some appearance to cover undutiful invec- wisdom, and out of the coldness of his nature, tives, when it is used against favourites or new hath qualified generally all hard and extreme upstarts, and sudden-risen counsellors; but when courses, as far as the service of her majesty, and it shall be practised against one that hath been the safety of the state, and the making himself counsellor before her majesty's time, and hath compatible with those with whom he served, continued longer counsellor than any other coun- would permit: so far hath his lordship been from sellor in Europe; one that must needs have been inciting others, or running a full course with great if it were but by surviving alone, though he them in that kind.' But yet it is more strange


that this man should be so absurdly malicious, as any attainted of any treason, felony, or otherwise; he should charge his lordship, not only with all that he never had, or sought any kind of benefit by actions of state, but also with all the faults and any forfeiture to her majesty ; that he was never vices of the times; as, if curiosity and emulation a factious commender of men, as he that intended have bred some controversies in the church ;'any ways to besiege her, by bringing in men at though, thanks be to God, they extend but to out- his devotion; but was ever a true reporter unto ward things; as, if wealth, and the cunning of her majesty of every man's deserts and abilities; wits have brought forth multitudes of suits in that he never took the course to unquiet or offend, law; as, if excess in pleasures, and in magnifi- no, nor exasperate her majesty, but to content her cence, joined with the unfaithfulness of servants, mind, and mitigate her displeasure; that he ever and the greediness of moneyed men, have decayed bare himself reverently and without scandal in the patrimony of many noblemen, and others; matters of religion, and without blemish in his that all these, and such like conditions of the private course of life. Let men, I say, without time, should be put on his lordship's account; passionate malice, call to mind these things, and who hath been, as far as to his place appertaineth, they will think it reason, that though he be not a most religious and wise moderator in church canonized for a saint in Rome, yet he is worthily matters to have unity kept; who with great jus celebrated as “pater patriæ" in England, and tice hath despatched infinite causes in law that though he be libelled against by fugitives, yet he have orderly been brought before him: and for is prayed for by a multitude of good subjects; and, his own example, may say that which few men lastly, though he be envied whilst he liveth, yet can say; but was sometimes said by Cephalus, he shall be deeply wanted when he is gone. And the Athenian so much renowned in Plato's works; assuredly many princes have had many servants who having lived near to the age of a hundred of trust, name, and sufficiency: but where there years, and in continual affairs and business, was have been great parts, there hath often wanted wont to say of himself; “ That he never sued any, temper of affection; where there have been both neither had been sued by any:" who by reason ability and moderation, there have wanted diliof his office hath preserved many great houses gence and love of travail ; where all three have from overthrow, by relieving sundry extremities been, there have sometimes wanted faith and sintowards such as in their minority have been cir- cerity ; where some few have had all these four, cumvented ; and towards all such as his lordship yet they have wanted time and experience; but might advise, did ever persuade sober and limited where there is a concurrence of all these, there is expense. Nay, to make proof farther of his con- no marvel, though a prince of judgment be contented manner of life, free from suits and covetous- stant in the employment and trust of such a serness; as he never sued any man, so did he never vant. raise any rent, or put out any tenant of his own: nor ever gave consent to have the like done to VII. Of divers particular untruths and abuses any of the queen's tenants; matters singularly to dispersed through the libel. be noted in this age.

The order which this man keepeth in his libel, But, however, by this fellow, as in a false ar- is such, as it may appear, that he meant but to tificial glass, which is able to make the best face empty some note-book of the matters of England, deformed, his lordship's doings being set forth; to bring in, whatsoever came of it, a number of yet let his proceedings, which be indeed his own, idle jests, which he thought might fly abroad be indifferently weighed and considered ; and let and intended nothing less than to clear the mat. men call to mind, that his lordship was never a ters he handled by the light of order and disviolent and transported man in matters of state, tinct writing. Having, therefore, in the principal but ever respective and moderate; that he was points, namely, the second, third, and fourth never man in his particular a breaker of necks; articles, ranged his scattering and wandering disno heavy enemy, but ever placable and mild; course into some order, such as may help the that he was never a brewer of holy water in judgment of the reader, I am now content to court; no dallier, no abuser, but ever real and gather up some of his by-matters and straggling certain; that he was never a bearing man, nor untruths, and very briefly to censure them. carrier of causes, but ever gave way to justice Page 9, he saith, That his lordship could and course of law; that he was never a glorious neither, by the greatness of his beads, creeping to wilful proud man, but ever civil and familiar, and the cross, nor exterior show of devotion before the good to deal withal; that in the course of his high altar, find his entrance into high dignity in service, he hath rather sustained the burden, than Queen Mary's time. All which is a mere fiction sought the fruition of honour or profit; scarcely at pleasure; for Queen Mary bare that respect sparing any time from his cares and travels to the unto him, in regard of his constant standing for sustentation of his health ; that he never had, nor her title, as she desired to continue his service; sought to have for himself and his children, any the refusal thereof growing from his own part: pennyworth of lands or goods that appertained to he enjoyed nevertheless all other liberties and


favours of the time; save only that it was put into Page 43, he saith, That his lordship, whom he the queen's head that it was dangerous to permit calleth the arch-politic, hath fraudulently provided, him to go beyond the sea, because he had a great that when any priest is arraigned, the indictment wit of action, and had served in so principal a is enforced with many odious matters :' wherein place; which nevertheless after, with Cardinal he showeth great ignorance, if it be not malice; Pool, he was suffered to do.

for the law permitteth not the ancient forms of Page “ eadem” he saith, Sir Nicholas Bacon, indictments to be altered; like as, in an action that was lord keeper, was a man of exceedingly of trespass, although a man take away another's crafty wit; which showeth that this fellow in his goods in the peaceablest manner in the world, yet slanders is no good marksman, but throweth out the writ hath quare vi et armis;" and if a man his words of defaming without all level. For all enter upon another's ground, and do no more, the the world noted Sir Nicholas Bacon to be a man plaintiff mentioneth “quod herbam suam, ibidem plain, direct, and constant, without all' finesse crescentem, cum equis, bobus, porcis, et bidenand doubleness; and one that was of the mind that tibus, depastus sit, conculcavit et consumpsit.” a man in his privato proceedings and estate, and Neither is this any absurdity, for in the practice in the proceedings of state, should rest upon the of all law, the formularies have been few and soundness and strength of his own courses, and not certain; and not varied according to every partiupon practice to circumvent others; according to cular case. And in indictments also of treason, the sentence of Solomon, “ Vir prudens advertit it is not so far fetched as in that of trespass; for ad gressus suos, stultus autem divertit ad dolos :" the law ever presumeth in treason, an intention insomuch that the Bishop of Ross, a subtle and of subverting the state, and impeaching the observing man, said of him, that he could fasten majesty royal. no words upon him, and that it was impossible to Page 45, and in other places, speaking of the come within him, because he offered no play: and persecuting of the Catholics, he still mentionethi the queen-mother of France, a very politic prin- bowellings and consuming men's entrails by fire; cess, said of him, that he should have been of the as if this were a torture newly devised: wherein council of Spain, because he despised the occur- he doth cautelously and maliciously suppress, that rents, and rested upon the first plot: so that if he the law and custom of this land from all antiquity were crafty, it is hard to say who is wise. hath ordained, that punishment in case of treason,

Page 10, he saith, That the Lord Burleigh, in and permitteth no other. And a punishment the establishment of religion, in the beginning of surely it is, though of great terror, yet by reason the queen's time, prescribed a composition of his of the quick despatching, of less torment far than own invention; whereas the same form, not fully either the wheel or forcipation, yea, than simple six years before, had been received in this realm burning. in King Edward's time : so as his lordship being Page 48, he saith, England is confederate with a Christian politic counsellor, thought it better to the great Turk : wherein, if he mean it because follow a precedent, than to innovate ; and chose the merchants have an agent in Constantinople, the precedent rather at home than abroad. how will he answer for all the kings of France,

Page 41, he saith, That Catholics never at- since Francis the First, which were good Cathotempted to murder any principal person of her lics ? For the emperor? For the King of Spain majesty's court, as did Burchew, whom he calleth himself ? For the senate of Venice, and other a puritan, in wounding of a gentleman instead of states, that have had long time ambassadors Sir Christopher Hatton; but by their great virtue, liegers in that court? If he mean it because the modesty, and patience, do manifest in themselves Turk hath done some special honour to our a far different spirit from the other sort. For ambassador, if he be so to be termed, we are Burchew, it is certain he was mad; as appeareth beholden to the King of Spain for that: for that not only by his mad mistaking, but by the vio- the honour, we have won upon him by opposition, lence that he offered afterwards to his keeper, and hath given us reputation through the world: if most evidently by his behaviour at his execution: he mean it because the Turk seemeth to affect us · but of Catholics, I mean the traitorous sort of for the abolishing of images; let him consider them, a man may say as Cato said sometimes of then what a scandal the matter of images hath Cæsar, “eum ad evertendam rempublicam so- been in the church, as having been one of the brium accessisse :” they came sober and well principal branches whereby Mahometism entered. advised to their treasons and conspiracies; and Page 65, he saith, Cardinal Allen was of late commonly they look not so low as the counsel- very near to have been elected pope. Whereby Jors, but have bent their murderous attempts im- he would put the Catholics here in some hope, mediately against her majesty's sacred person, that once within five or six years, for a pope which God have in his precious custody! as may commonly sitteth no longer, he may obtain that appear by the conspiracy of Sommerville, Parry, which he missed narrowly. This is a direct Savage, the six, and others; nay, they have de- abuse, for it is certain in all the conclaves since fended it " in thesi,” to be a lawful act.

Sixtus Quintus, who gave him his hat, he was


never in possibility; nay, the King of Spain, that council, who hath neither wit nor experience; hath patronised the church of Rome so long, as which speech is as notorious an untruth, as is in all he is become a right patron of it, in that he seek- the libel: for it is confessed by all men that know eth to present to that see whom he liketh, yet the gentleman, that he hath one of the rarest and never durst strain his credit to so desperate a most excellent wits of England, with a singular point as once to make a canvass for him: no, he delivery and application of the same; whether it never nominated him in his inclusive narration. be to use a continued speech, or to negotiate, or And those that know any thing of the respects to couch in writing, or to make report, or discreetly of conclaves, know that he is not papable: first, to consider of the circumstances, and aptly to because he is an ultråmontane, of which sort there draw things to a point; and all this joined with hath been none these fifty years. Next, because a very good nature and a great respect to all men, he is a cardinal of alms of Spain, and wholly at as is daily more and more revealed. And for his the devotion of that king. Thirdly, because he experience, it is easy to think that his training is like to employ the treasure and favours of the and helps hath made it already such, as many, popedom upon the enterprizes of England, and that have served long prentishood for it, have not the relief and advancement of English fugitives, attained the like: so as if that be true, “qui his necessitous countrymen. So as he presumed beneficium digno dat, omnes obligat," not his much upon the simplicity of the reader in this father only but the state is bound unto her majesty, point, as in many more.

for the choice and employment of so sufficient Page 55, and again p. 70, he saith, His lord- and worthy a gentleman. ship, meaning the Lord Burleigh, intendeth to There be many other follies and absurdities in match his grandchild, Mr. William Cecil, with the book; which, if an eloquent scholar had it in the Lady Arabella. Which being a mere imagi- hand, he would take advantage thereof, and justly nation, without any circumstance at all to induce make the author not only odious, but ridiculous it, more than that they are both unmarried, and and contemptible to the world: but I pass them that their years agree well, needeth no answer. over, and even this which hath been said hath It is true that his lordship, being no stoical unna- been vouchsafed to the value and worth of the tural man, but loving towards his children, for matter, and not the worth of the writer, who "charitas reipublicæ incipit a familia,” hath been hath handled a theme above his compass. glad to match them into honourable and good blood: and yet not so, but that a private gentle- VIII. Of the height of impudency that these man of Northamptonshire, that lived altogether men are grown unto in publishing and in the country, was able to bestow his daughters avouching untruths, with a particular recital higher than his lordship hath done. But yet it of some of them for an assay. is not seen by any thing past, that his lordship These men are grown to a singular spirit and ever thought, or affected to match his children in faculty in lying and abusing the world : such as, it the blood royal. His lordship's wisdom, which seemeth, although they are to purchase a particular hath been so long of gathering, teacheth him to dispensation for all other sins, yet they have a disleave to his posterity, rather surety than danger. pensation dormant to lie for the Catholic cause; And I maryel where be the combinations which which moveth me to give the reader a taste of have been with great men; and the popular and their untruths, such as 'are written, and are not plausible courses, which ever accompany such merely gross and palpable; desiring him out of designs as the libeller speaketh of: and therefore their own writings, when any shall fall into his this match is but like unto that which the same hands, to increase the roll at least in his own fellow concluded between the same Lady Arabella memory. and the Earl of Leicester's son, when he was but We retain in our calendars no other holydays a twelvemonth old.

but such as have their memorials in the ScripPage 70, he saith, Hé laboureth incessantly tures; and therefore in the honour of the blessed with the queen, to make his eldest son deputy of Virgin, we only receive the feast of the annunciaIreland; as if that were such a catch, considering tion and the purification; omitting the other of all the deputies since her majesty's time, except the conception and the nativity ; which nativity the Earl of Sussex and the Lord Grey, have been was used to be celebrated upon the eighth of Seppersons of meaner degree than Sir Thomas Cecil tember, the vigil whereof happened to be the nais; and the most that is gotten by that place, is tivity of our queen: which though we keep not but the saving and putting up of a man's own holy, yet we use therein certain civil customs of revenues, during those years that he serveth there; joy and gratulation, as ringing of bells, bonfires, and this, perhaps, to be saved with some displea- and such like: and likewise make a memorial of sure, at his return.

the same day in our calendar: whereupon they Page “eadem” he saith, He hath brought in have published, that we have expunged the natihis second son, Sir Robert Cecil, to be of the vity of the blessed Virgin, and put instead thereof the nativity of our queen: and, farther, that we pion of the heretics in his very last words cried sing certain hymns unto her, used to be sung unto he was confounded. our Lady.

In the act of recognition of “primo," whereby It happened that, upon some bloodshed in the the right of the crown is acknowledged by parliachurch of Paul's, according to the canon law, ment to be in her majesty, the like whereof was yet with us in force, the said church was inter- used in Queen Mary's time, the words of limitadicted, and so the gates shut up for some few tion are, “ in the queen's majesty, and the natudays; whereupon they published, that, because ral heirs of her body, and her lawful successors.” the same chureh is a place where people use to Upon which word, natural, they do maliciously, meet to walk and confer, the queen's majesty, and indeed villanously gloss, that it was the inafter the manner of the ancient tyrants, had for- tention of the parliament, in a cloud to convey the bidden all assemblies and meetings of people to- crown to any issue of her majesty's that were ilgether, and for that reason, upon extreme jealousy, legitimate; whereas the word heir doth with us did cause Paul's gates to be shut up.

so necessarily and pregnantly import lawfulness, The gate of London called Ludgate, being in as it had been indecorum, and uncivil speaking decay, was pulled down, and built anew; and of the issues of a prince, to have expressed it. on the one side was set up the image of King They set forth in the year a book with Lud and his two sons; who, according to the tables and pictures of the persecutions against name, was thought to be the first founder of that Catholics, wherein they have not only stories of gate; and on the other side, the image of her ma- fifty years old to supply their pages, but also taken jesty, in whose time it was re-edified; where all the persecutions of the primitive church, under upon they published that her majesty, after all the heathen, and translated them to the practice the images of the saints were long beaten down, of England; as that of worrying priests under the had now at last set up her own image upon the skins of bears, by dogs, and the like. principal gate of London, to be adored; and that I conclude, then, that I know not what to make all men were forced to do reverence to it as of this excess in avouching untruths, save this, they passed by, and a watch there placed for that that they may truly chant in their quires; purpose.

“ Linguam nostram magnificabimus, labia nostra Mr. Jewel, the Bishop of Salisbury, who accord- nobis sunt :” and that they who have long ago ing to his life died most godly and patiently, at forsaken the truth of God, which is the touchthe point of death used the versicle of the hyma, stone, must now hold by the whetstone ; and that “Te Deum, O Lord, in thee have I trusted, let me their ancient pillar of lying wonders being denever be confounded ;" whereupon, suppressing cayed, they must now hold by lying slanders, and the rest, they published, that the principal cham- I make their libels successors to their legend.

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