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very little saffron. The more full handling of that the spirits do less spend the nourishment in alimentation we reserve to the due place. sleep, than when living creatures are awake, and

We have hitherto handled the particulars which because, that which is to the present purpose, it vield best, and easiest, and plentifullest nourish- helpeth to thrust out the nourishment into the ment; and now we will speak of the best means parts. Therefore in aged men, and weak bodies, of conveying and converting the nourishment. and such as abound not with choler, a short sleep

55. The first means is to procure that the nourish- after dinner doth help to nourish; for in such ment may not be robbed and drawn away; where- bodies there is no fear of an over-hasty digestion, in that which we have already said is very mate which is the inconvenience of postmeridian sleeps. rial; to provide that the reins draw not too strong- Sleep also in the morning, after the taking of somely an over great part of the blood into urine. To what of easy digestion, as milk from the cow, this add that precept of Aristotle, that wine be nourishing broth, or the like, doth further nourishforborne in all consumptions; for that the spirits ment: but this would be done sitting upright, of the wine do prey upon the roscid juice of the that the milk or broth may pass the more speedily body, and inter-common with the spirits of the to the bottom of the stomach. body, and so deceive and rob them of their nourish- 58. The fourth means is, to provide that the ment. And therefore, if the consumption, grow- parts themselves may draw to them the nourishing from the weakness of the stomach, do force ment strongly. There is an excellent observation you to use wine, let it always be burnt, that the of Aristotle; that a great reason, why plants, quicker spirits may evaporate ; or, at the least, some of them, are of greater age than living creaquenched with two little wedges of gold, six or tures, is, for that they yearly put forth new leaves seven times repeated. Add also this provision, and boughs: whereas living creatures put forth that there be not too much expense of the nourish- after their period of growth, nothing that is young, ment, by exhaling and sweating; and therefore if but hair and nails, which are excrements, and no the patient be apt to sweat, it must be gently re-parts. And it is most certain, that whatsoever is strained. But chiefly Hippocrates's rule is to be young, doth draw nourishment better than that followed, who adviseth quite contrary to that which is old; and then, that which is the mystewhich is in use : namely, that the linen or gar- ry of that observation, young boughs, and leaves, ment next the flesh be, in winter, dry and oft calling the sap up to them, the same nourisheth changed; and in summer seldom changed, and the body in the passage. And this we see notasmeared over with oil; for certain it is, that any bly proved also, in that the oft cutting, or polling substance that is fat, doth a little fill the pores of of hedges, trees, and herbs, doth conduce much to the body, and stay sweat in some degree: but the their lasting. Transfer therefore this observation more cleanly way is, to have the linen smeared to the helping of nourishment in living creatures: lightly over with oil of sweet almonds; and not the noblest and principal use whereof is, for the to forbear shifting as oft as is fit.

prolongation of life; restoration of some degree 56. The second means is, to send forth the nou- of youth, and inteneration of the parts; for certain rishment into the parts more strongly; for which it is, that there are in living creatures parts that the working must be by strengthening of the nourish and repair easily, and parts that nourish stomach ; and in this, because the stomach is and repair hardly; and you must refresh and renew chiefly comforted by wine and hot things, which those that are easy to nourish, that the other may otherwise hurt, it is good to resort to outward ap- be refreshed, and as it were, drink in nourishment plications to the stomach : Wherein it hath been in the passage. Now we see that draught oxen, tried, that the quilts of roses, spices, mastic, worm- put into good pasture, recover the flesh of young wood, mint, &c. are nothing so helpful, as to take beef; and men after long emaciating diets wax a cake of new bread, and to bedew it with a little plump and fat, and almost new: so that you may sack, or Alicant, and to dry it, and after it be dried surely conclude, that the frequent and wise use a little before the fire, to put it within a clean of those emaciating diets, and of purgings, and napkin, and to lay it to the stomach; for it is cer- perhaps of some kind of bleeding, is a principal tain, that all four hath a potent virtue of astric- means of prolongation of life, and restoring some tion; in so much as it hardeneth a piece of flesh, degree of youth; for as we have often said, death or a flower, that is laid in it: and therefore a bag cometh upon living creatures like the torment of quilted with bran is likewise very good; but it Mezentius : drieth somewhat too much, and therefore it must

Mortua quin etiam jungebat corpora vivis not lie long.

Componens manibusque manus, atque oribus ora. 57. The third means, which may be a branch of the former, is to send forth the nourishment For the parts in man's body easily reparable, as the better by sleep. For we see, that bears, and spirits, blood, and flesh, die in the embracement other creatures that sleep in the winter, wax ex- of the parts hardly reparable, as bones, nerves, and ceeding fat: and certain it is, as it is commonly membranes; and likewise some entrails, which helieved, that sleep doth nourish much, both for they reckon amongst the spermatical parts, are

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hard to repair: though that division of spermati- hath been said. Ordinary keepers of the sick of cal and menstrual parts be but a conceit. And the plague are seldom infected. Enduring of this same observation also may be drawn to the tortures, by custom, hath been made more easy: present purpose of nourishing emaciated bodies: the brooking of enormous quantity of meats, and and therefore gentle frication draweth forth the so of wine or strong drink, hath been, by custom, nourishment, by making the parts a little hungry, made to be without surfeit or drunkenness. And and heating them; whereby they call forth non- generally, diseases that are chronical, as coughs, rishment the better. This frication I wish to be phthisics, some kinds of palsies, lunacies, &c. done in the morning. It is also best done by the are most dangerous at the first: therefore a wise hand, or a piece of scarlet wool, wet a little physician will consider whether a disease be inwith the oil of almonds, mingled with a small curable; or whether the just cure of it be not full quantity of bay-salt, or saffron: we see that the of peril; and if he find it to be such, let him revery currying of horses doth make them fat, and sort to palliation; and alleviate the symptom, in good liking.

without busying himself too much with the per59. The fifth means is, to further the very actfect cure: and many times, if the patient be inof assimilation of nourishment; which is done hy deed patient, that course will exceed all expectasome outward emolliments, that make the parts tion. Likewise the patient himself may strive, by more apt to assimilate. For which I have com- little and little, to overcome the symptom in the acerpounded an ointment of excellent odour, which Ibation, and so, by time, turn suffering into nature. call Roman ointment; vide the receipt. The use of it would be between sleeps; for in the latter

Experiment solitary touching cure by excess. sleep the parts assiinilate chiefly.

62. Divers diseases, especially chronical, such Experiment solitary touching - Filum medicinale." as quartan agues, are sometimes cured by surfeit

and excesses: as excess of meat, excess of drink, 60. There be many medicines, which by them- extraordinary stirring or lassitude, and the like. selves would do no cure, but perhaps hurt; but the cause is, for that diseases of continuance get being applied in a certain order, one after another, do great cures. I have tried, myself, a remedy their material cause from the humours; so that

an adventitious strength from custom, besides for the gout, which hath seldom failed, but driven the breaking of the custom doth leave them only it away in twenty-four hours space: it is first to

to their first cause; which if it be any thing weak apply a poultis, of which vide the receipt, and will fall off. Besides, such excesses do excite then a bath, or fomentation, of which vide the re- and spur nature, which thereupon rises more ceipt; and then a plaister, vide the receipt. The forcibly against the disease. poultis relaxeth the pores, and maketh the humour apt to exhale. The fomentation calleth forth the Experiment solitary touching cure by motion of humour by vapours; but yet in regard of the way

consent. made by the poultis, draweth gently; and therefore 63. There is in the body of man a great consent draweth the humour out, and doth not draw more in the motion of the several parts. We see, it is to it; for it is a gentle fomentation, and hath children's sport, to prove whether they can rub withal a mixture, though very little, of some upon their breast with one hand, and pat upon stupefactive. The plaister is a moderate astrin- their forehead with another; and straightways gent plaister, which repelleth new humour from they shall sometimes rub with both hands, or pat falling. The poultis alone would make the part with both hands. We see, that when the spirits more soft and weak, and apter to take the deflux- that come to the nostrils expel a bad scent, the ion and impression of the humour. The fomen- stomach is ready to expel by vomit. We find tation alone, if it were too weak, without way that in consumptions of the lungs, when nature made by the poultis, would draw forth little; if cannot expel by cough, men fall into fluxes of the too strong, it would draw to the part, as well as belly, and then they die. So in pestilent diseases, draw from it. The plaister alone would pen the if they cannot be expelled by sweat, they fall humour already contained in the part, and so ex- likewise into looseness; and that is commonly asperate it, as well as forbid new humour. There- mortal. Therefore physicians should ingeniously fore they must be all taken in order, as is said. contrive, how, by emotions that are in their power, The poultis is to be laid to for two or three hours: they may excite inward motions that are not in the fomentation for a quarter of an hour, or some their power: as by the stench of feathers, or the what better, being used hot, and seven or eight like, they cure the rising of the mother. times repeated: the plaister to continue on still, till the part be well confirmed.

Experiment solitary touching cure of diseases which

arc contrary to predisposition. Experiment solitary touching cure by custom.

64. Hippocrates's aphorism, in niorbis minus," 61. There is a secret way of cure, unpractised, is a good profound aphorism. It importeth, that by assuetude of that which in itself hurteth. diseases, contrary to the complexion, age, sex, seaPoisons have been made, by some, familiar, as son of the year, diet, &c. are more dangerous thau VOL. II.-3

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those that are concurrent. A man would think | into sharp vinegar, hath made a sudden recess of it should be otherwise; for that, when the acci- the spirits, and stanched blood. Thirdly, by the dent of sickness, and the natural disposition, do recess of the blood by sympathy. So it hath been second the one the other, the disease should be tried, that the part that bleedeth, being thrust into more forcible : and so, no doubt, it is, if you the body of a capon or sheep, new ript and bleedsuppose like quantity of matter. But that which ing, hath stanched blood, as it seemeth, sucking maketh good the aphorism is, because such dis- and drawing up, by similitude of substance, the eases do show a greater collection of matter, by blood it meeteth with, and so itself going back. that they are able to overcome those natural in- Fourthly, by custom and time; so the Prince of clinations to the contrary. And therefore in dis- Orange, in his first hurt by the Spanish boy, could eases of that kind, let the physician apply himself find no means to stanch the blood either by medimore to purgation than to alteration ; because the cine or ligament: but was fain to have the orifice offence is in the quantity; and the qualities are of the wound stopped by mens' thumbs, succeedrectified of themselves.

ing one another, for the space at the least of two

days; and at the last the blood by custom only Experiment solitary touching preparations before retired. There is a fifth way also in use, to let

purging, and settling of the body afterwards. blood in an adverse part, for a revulsion,

65. Physicians do wisely prescribe, that there be preparatives used before just purgations; for Experiment solitary touching change of aliments certain it is, that purgers do many times great

and medicines. hurt, if the body be not accommodated, both 67. It helpeth, both in medicine and aliment, before and after the purging. The hurt that they to change and not to continue the same medicine do, for want of preparation before purging, is by and aliment still. The cause is, for that nature, the sticking of the humours, and their not coming by continual use of any thing, groweth to a safair away, which causeth in the body great pertur- tiety and dullness, either of appetite or working. bations and ill accidents during the purging; And we see that assuetude of things hurtful doth and also the diminishing and dulling of the work- make them lose their force to hurt; as poison, ing of the medicine itself, that it purgeth not which with use some have brought themselves to sufficiently: therefore the work of preparation is brook. And therefore it is no marvel, though double; to make the humours fluid and mature, things helpful by custom lose their force to help: and to make the passages more open: for both I count intermission almost the same thing with those help to make the humours pass readily. change ; for that that hath been intermitted is And for the former of these, syrups are most after a sort new. profitable: and for the latter, apozemes, or preparing broths; clysters also help, lest the medicine Experiment solitary touching diets. stop in the guts, and work gripingly. But it is 68. It is found by experience, that in diets of true, that bodies abounding with humours, and guaiacum, sarza, and the like, especially if they fat bodies, and open weather, are preparatives in be strict, the patient is more troubled in the beginthemselves; because they make the humours ning than after continuance; which hath made more fluid. But let a physician beware, how he some of the more delicate sort of patients give purge after hard frosty weather, and in a lean them over in the midst; supposing that if those body, without preparation. For the hurt that diets trouble them so much at first, they shall not they may do after purging, it is caused by the be able to endure them to the end. But the cause lodging of some humours in ill places: for it is is, for that all those diets do dry up humours, certain, that there be humours, which somewhere rheums, and the like; and they cannot dry up placed in the body are quiet, and do little hurt; until they have first attenuated; and while the in other places, especially passages, do much humour is attenuated, it is more fluid than it was mischief. Therefore it is good, after purging, to before, and troubleth the body a great deal more, use apozemes and broths, not so much opening until it be dried up and consumed. And thereas those used before purging; but abstersive and fore patients must expect a due time, and not kick mundifying clysters also are good to conclude at them at the first. with, to draw away the relics of the humours, that may have descended to the lower region of the body. Experiments in consort touching the production of

cold. Experiment solitary touching stanching of blood. The producing of cold is a thing very worthy

66. Blood is stanched divers ways. First, by the inquisition; both for use and disclosure of astringents, and repercussive medicines. Second causes. For heat and cold are nature's two hands, ly, by drawing of the spirits and blood inwards, whereby she chiefly worketh; and heat we have which is done by cold, as iron or a stone laid to in readiness, in respect of the fire; but for cold the neck doth stanch the bleeding of the nose; we must stay till it cometh, or seek it in deep also it hath been tried, that the testicles being put caves, or high mountains: and when all is done, we cannot obtain it in any great degree: for driving away of spirits such as have some degree furnaces of fire are far hotter than a summer's of heat: for the banishing of the heat must needs sun; but vaults or hills are not much colder than leave any body cold. This we see in the operaa winter's frost.

tion of opium and stupefactives upon the spirits 69. The first means of producing cold, is that of living creatures: and it were not amiss to try which nature presenteth us withal : namely, the opium, by laying it upon the top of a weatherexpiring of cold out of the inward parts of the glass, to see whether it will contract the air; but earth in winter, when the sun hath no power to I doubt it will not succeed; for besides that the overcome it; the earth being, as hath been noted virtue of opium will hardly penetrate through by some, “primum frigidum.”' This hath been such a body as glass, I conceive that opium, and asserted, as well by ancient as by modern philoso- the like, make the spirits fly rather by malignity, phers: it was the tenet of Parmenides. It was than by cold. the opinion of the author of the discourse in Plu- 75. Seventhly, the same effect must follow tarch, for I take it that book was not Plutarch's upon the exhaling or drawing out of the warm own, “ De primo frigido.” It was the opinion of spirits, that doth upon the flight of the spirits. Telesius, who hath renewed the philosophy of There is an opinion that the moon is magnetical Parmenides, and is the best of the novelists. of heat, as the sun is of cold and moisture: it

70. The second cause of cold is the contact of were not amiss therefore to try it, with warm cold bodies; for cold is active and transitive into waters; the one exposed to the beams of the bodies adjacent, as well as heat: which is seen moon, the other with some screen betwixt the in those things that are touched with snow or beams of the moon and the water, as we use to cold water. And therefore, whosoever will be an the sun for shade: and to see whether the former inquirer into nature, let him resort to a conserva- will cool sooner. And it were also good to tory of snow and ice, such as they use for delicacy inquire, what other means there may be to draw to cool wine in summer; which is a poor and forth the exile heat which is in the air; for that contemptible use, in respect of other uses, that may be a secret of great power to produce cold may be made of such conservatories.

weather. 71. The third cause is the primary nature of all tangible bodies: for it is well to be noted, that Experiments in consort, touching the version and all things whatsoever, tangible, are of themselves transmutation of air into water. cold; except they have an accessary heat by fire, We have formerly set down the means of turnlife, or motion : for even the spirit of wine, or ing air into water, in the experiment 27. But chemical oils, which are so hot in operation, are because it is ó magnale naturæ,” and tendeth to to the first touch cold; and air itself compressed, the subduing of a very great effect, and is also and condensed a little by blowing, is cold. of manifold use, we will add some instances in

72. The fourth cause is the density of the body; consort that give light thereunto. for all dense bodies are colder than most other 76. It is reported by some of the ancients, that bodies, as metals, stone, glass, and they are longer sailors have used, every night, to hang fleeces of in heating than softer bodies. And it is certain, wool on the sides of their ships, the wool towards that earth, dense, tangible, hold all of the nature the water; and that they have crushed fresh of cold. The cause is, for that all matters tangi- water out of them, in the morning for their use. ble being cold, it must needs follow, that where and thus much we have tried, that a quantity of the matter is most congregate, the cold is the wool tied loose together, being let down into a greater.

deep well, and hanging in the middle, some three 73. The fifth cause of cold, or rather of increase fathom from the water, for a night, in the winter and vehemency of cold, is a quick spirit enclosed time; increased in weight, as I now remember, in a cold body: as will appear to any that shall to a fifth part. attentively consider of nature in many instances. 77. It is reported by one of the ancients, that We see nitre, which hath a quick spirit, is cold; in Lydia, near Pergamus, there were certain more cold to the tongue than a stone; so water workmen in time of wars fled into caves; and is colder than oil, because it hath a quicker spirit: the mouth of the caves being stopped by the for all oil, though it hath the tangible parts bet- enemies, they were famished. But long time ter digested than water, yet hath it a duller spirit: after the dead bones were found; and some 80 snow is colder than water, because it hath vessels which they had carried with them; and more spirit within it: so we see that salt put to the vessels full of water; and that water thicker, ice, as in the producing of artificial ice, increaseth and more towards ice, than common water: which the activity of cold: so some “insecta,” which is a notable instance of condensation and indurahave spirit of life, as snakes and silk-worms, are tion by burial under earth, in caves, for long time: to the touch cold: so quicksilver is the coldest and of version also, as it should seem, of air into of metals, because it is fullest of spirit.

water; if any of those vessels were empty. Trv 74. The sixth cause of cold is the chasing and therefore a small bladder hung in snow, and the

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like in nitre, and the like in quicksilver: and if the vapour, and so turneth it back, and thickeneth you find the bladders fallen or shrunk, you may it into dew. We see also, that breathing upon a be sure the air is condensed by the cold of those glass, or smooth body, giveth a dew; and in bodies, as it would be in a cave under earth. frosty mornings, such as we call rime frosts,

78. It is reported of very good credit, that in you shall find drops of dew upon the inside of the East Indies, if you set a tub of water open glass windows; and the frost itself upon the in a room where cloves are kept, it will be drawn ground is but a version or condensation of the dry in twenty-four hours; though it stand at some moist vapours of the night, into a watery subdistance from the cloves. In the country, they stance: dews likewise, and rain, are but the reuse many times in deceit, when their wool is new turns of moist vapours condensed; the dew, by shorn, to set some pails of water by in the same the cold only of the sun's departure, which is room, to increase the weight of the wool. But the gentler cold; rains, by the cold of that which it may be, that the heat of the wool, remaining they call the middle region of the air; which is from the body of the sheep, or the heat gathered the more violent cold. by the lying close of the wool, helpeth to draw the 82. It is very probable, as hath been touched, watery vapour: but that is nothing to the version. that that which will turn water into ice, will like

79. It is reported also credibly, that wool new wise turn air some degree nearer unto water. shorn, being laid casually upon a vessel of ver- Therefore try the experiment of the artificial juice, after some time, had drunk up a great part turning water into ice, whereof we shall speak of the verjuice, though the vessel were whole in another place, with air in place of water, and without any flaw, and had not the bung-hole the ice about it. And although it be a greater open. In this instance, there is upon the by, to alteration to turn air into water, than water into be noted, the percolation or suing of the verjuice ice; yet there is this hope, that by continuing through the wood; for verjuice of itself would the air longer time, the effect will follow: for never have passed through the wood: so as, it that artificial conversion of water into ice is the seemeth, it must be first in a kind of vapour be work of a few hours; and this of air may be

tried by a month's space or the like. 80. It is especially to be noted, that the cause that doth facilitate the version of air into water, Experiments in consort touching induration of when the air is not in gross, but subtilly mingled

bodies. with tangible bodies, is, as hath been partly Induration, or lapidification of substances more touched before, for that tangible bodies have an soft, is likewise another degree of condensation; antipathy with air; and if they find any liquid and is a great alteration in nature. The effecting body that is more dense near them, they will and accelerating thereof is very worthy to be draw it: and after they have drawn it, they will inquired. It is effected by three means. The condense it more, and in effect incorporate it; for first is by cold; whose property is to condense we see that a sponge, or wool, or sugar, or a and constipate, as hath been said. The second woollen cloth, being put but in part in water or is by heat; which is not proper but by consewine, will draw the liquor higher, and beyond quence; for the heat doth attenuate; and by the place where the water or wine cometh. We attenuation doth send forth the spirit and moister see also, that wood, lute strings, and the like, do part of a body; and upon that, the more gross of swell in moist seasons; as appeareth by the the tangible parts do contract and sear themselves breaking of the strings, the hard turning of the together; both to avoid - vacuum," as they call pegs, and the hard drawing forth of boxes, and it, and also to munite themselves against the opening of wainscot doors: which is a kind of force of the fire, which they have suffered. And infusion: and is much like to an infusion in the third is by assimilation; when a hard body water, which will make wood to swell; as we assimilateth a soft, being contiguous to it. see in the filling of the chops of bowls, by laying The examples of induration, taking them prothem in water. But for that part of these experi- miscuously, are many: as the generation of stones ments which concerneth attraction, we will within the earth, which at the first are but rude reserve it to the proper title of attraction. earth or clay: and so of minerals, which come,

81. There is also a version of air into water no doubt, at first of juices concrete, which afterseen in the sweating of marbles and other stones; wards indurate : and so of porcelain, which is an and of wainscot before, and in moist weather. artificial cement, buried in the earth a long time; This must be, either by some moisture the body and so the making of brick and tile: also the yieldeth, or else by the moist air thickened against making of glass of a certain sand and brakethe hard body. But it is plain, that it is the roots, and some other matters; also the exudalatter; for that we see wood painted with oil- tions of rock-diamonds and crystal, which harden colour, will sooner gather drops in a moist night, with time; also the induration of bead-amber, than wood alone, which is caused by the smooth- which at first is a soft substance; as appeareth ness and closeness, which letteth in no part of by the flies and spiders which are found in it,

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