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upon vapours, and gross air, that are already Experiment solitary touching the condensing of very near in degree to water. The third is that, air in such sort as it may put on weight, and which may be searched into, but doth not yet yield nourishment. appear; which is, by mingling of moist vapours 29. Onions, as they hang, will many of them with air; and trying if they will not bring a re- shoot forth; and so will penny-royal; and so turn of more water than the water was at first: will an herb called orpin; with which they use for if so, that increase is a version of the air: in the country to trim their houses, binding it to a therefore put water in the bottom of a stillatory, lath or stick, and setting it against a wall. We with the neb stopped; weigh the water first; see it likewise more especially in the greater hang in the middle of the stillatory a large sempér-vive, which will put out branches, two or spunge; and see what quantity of water you can three years: but it is true, that commonly they crush out of it; and what it is more or less com- wrap the root in a cloth besmeared with oil, and pared with the water spent; for you must under-renew it once in half a year. The like is reported, stand, that if any version can be wrought, it will by some of the ancients, of the stalks of lilies. be easiliest done in small pores: and that is the The cause is; for that these plants have a strong, reason why we prescribe a spunge. The fourth dense, and succulent moisture, which is not apt way is probable also, though not appearing; to exhale; and so is able, from the old store, which is, by receiving the air into the small pores without drawing help from the earth, to suffice of bodies: for, as hath been said, every thing in the sprouting of the plant: and this sprouting is small quantity is more easy for version; and chiefly in the late spring or early summer; which tangible bodies have no pleasure in the consort are the times of putting forth. We see also, that of air, but endeavour to subact it into a more stumps of trees lying out of the ground, will put dense body; but in entire bodies it is checked; forth sprouts for a time. But it is a noble trial, because if the air should condense, there is and of very great consequence, to try whether nothing to succeed: therefore it must be in loose these things, in the sprouting, do increase weight; bodies, as sand, and powder; which we see, if which must be tried, by weighing them before they lie close, of themselves gather moisture. they be hanged up; and afterwards again, when

they are sprouted. For if they increase not in Experiment solitary touching helps towards the weight, then it is no more but this; that what

beauty and good features of persons. they send forth in the sprout, they lose in some 28. It is reported by some of the ancients; other part: for if they gather weight, then it is that whelps, or other creatures, if they be put magnale naturæ;" for it it showeth that air young into such a cage or box, as they cannot may be made so to be condensed as to be conrise to their stature, but may increase in breadth verted into a dense body; whereas the race and or length, will grow accordingly as they can get period of all things, here above the earth, is to room; which if it be true and feasible, and that extenuate and turn things to be more pneumatical the young creature so pressed and straitened, and rare; and not to be retrograde, from pneudoth not thereupon die, it is a means to produce matical to that which is dense. It showeth also, dwarf creatures, and in a very strange figure. that air can nourish; which is another great * This is certain, and noted long since, that the matter of consequence. Note, that to try this, pressure or forming of parts of creatures, when the experiment of the semper-vive must be made they are very young, doth alter the shape not a without oiling the cloth; for else, it may be, the little: as the stroking of the heads of infants, plant receiveth nourishment from the oil. between the hands, was noted of old, to make “ Macrocephali;" which shape of the head, at Experiment solitary touching the commixture of that time, was esteemed. And the raising gently flame and air, and the great force thereof. of the bridge of the nose, doth prevent the de- 30. Flame and air do not mingle, except it be formity of a saddle nose. Which observation in an instant; or in the vital spirits of vegetables well weighed, may teach means to make the and living creatures. In gunpowder, the force persons of men and women, in many kinds, of it hath been ascribed to rarefaction of the more comely and better featured than otherwise earthy substance into flame; and thus far it is they would be; by the forming and shaping of true: and then, forsooth, it is become another them in their infancy: as by stroking up the element; the form whereof occupieth more place; calves of the legs, to keep them from falling and so of necessity, followeth a dilatation; and down too low; and by stroking up the forehead, therefore, lest two bodies should be in one place, to keep them from being low-foreheaded. And there must needs also follow an expulsion of the it is a common practice to swathe infants, that pellet; or blowing up of the mine. But these they may grow more straight, and better shaped: are crude and ignorant speculations. For flame, and we see young women, by wearing strait if there were nothing else, except it were in very bodice, keep themselves from being gross and great quantity, will be suffocate with any hard corpulent.

body, such as a pellet is; or the barrel of a gun;




so as the flame would not expel the hard body; It appeareth also, that the form of a pyramis in but the hard body would kill the flame, and not flame, which we usually see, is merely by accisuffer it to kindle or spread. But the cause of dent, and that the air about, by quenching the this so potent a motion, is the nitre, which we call sides of the flame, crusheth it, and extenuateth otherwise saltpetre, which having in it a notable it into that form; for of itself it would be round; crude and windy spirit, first by the heat of the and therefore smoke is in the figure of a pyramis fire suddenly dilateth itself; and we know that reversed; for the air quencheth the flame, and simple air, being preternaturally attenuated by receiveth the smoke. Note also, that the flame heat, will make itself room, and break and of the candle, within the flame of the spirit of blow up that which resisteth it; and secondly, wine, is troubled ; and doth not only open and when the nitre hath dilated itself, it bloweth move upwards, but moveth waving, and to and abroad the flame, as an inward bellows. And fro; as if flame of its own nature, if it were not therefore we see that brimstone, pitch, camphire, quenched, would roll and turn, as well as move wild-fire, and divers other inflammable matters, upwards. By all which it should seem, that the though they burn cruelly, and are hard to quench, celestial bodies, most of them, are true fires or yet they make no such fiery wind as gunpowder flames, as the Stoics held; more fine, perhaps, doth; and on the other side, we see that quick- and rarified than our flame is. For they are all silver, which is a most crude and watery body, globular and determinate; they have rotation; heated, and pent in, hath the like force with gun- and they have the colour and splendour of flame: powder. As for living creatures, it is certain, so that flame above is durable, and consistent, and their vital spirits are a substance compounded of in its natural place; but with us it is a stranger, an airy and flamy matter; and though air and and momentary, and impure: like Vulcan that flame being free, will not well mingle; yet bound halted with his fall. in by a body that hath some fixing, they will. For that you may best see in those two bodics, Experiment solitary touching the different force of which are their aliments, water and oil; for they flame in the midst and on the sides. likewise will not well mingle of themselves; but 32. Take an arrow, and hold it in flame for the in the bodies of plants, and living creatures, they space of ten pulses, and when it cometh forth, will. It is no marvel therefore, that a small you shall find those parts of the arrow which quantity of spirits, in the cells of the brain, and were on the outsides of the flame more burned, canals of the sinews, are able to move the whole blacked, and turned almost into a coal, whereas body, which is of so great mass, both with so that in the midst of the flame will be as if the great force, as in wrestling, leaping; and with fire had scarce touched it. This is an instance so great swiftness, as in playing division upon of great consequence for the discovery of the the lute. Such is the force of these two natures, nature of flame; and showeth manifestly, that air and flame, when they incorporate.

flame burneth more violently towards the sides

than in the midst: and which is more, that heat Experiment solitary touching the secret nature of or fire is not violent or furious, but where it is flame.

checked and pent. And therefore the Peripate-, 31. Take a small wax candle, and put it in a tics, howsoever their opinion of an element of fire socket of brass or iron; then set it upright in a above the air is justly exploded, in that point porringer full of spirit of wine heated : then set they acquit themselves well: for being opposed, both the candle and spirit of wine on fire, and you that if there were a sphere of fire, that encomshall see the flame of the candle open itself, and passed the earth so near hand, it were in possible become four or five times bigger than otherwise but all things should be burnt up; they answer, it would have been; and appear in figure globu- that the pure elemental fire, in its own place, and lar, and not in pyramis. You shall see also, that not irritated, is but of a moderate heat. the inward flame of the candle keepeth colour, and doth not wax any whit blue towards the Experiment solitary touching the decrease of the colour of the outward flame of the spirit of wine. natural motion of gravity, in great distance from This is a noble instance; wherein two things the earth; or within some depth of the earth. are most remarkable: the one, that one flame 33. It is affirmed constantly by many, as a within another quencheth not; but is a fixed usual experiment, that a lump of ore in the botbody, and continueth as air or water do. And tom of a mine will be tumbled and stirred by therefore flame would still ascend upwards in one two men's strength, which, if you bring it to the greatness, if it were not quenched on the sides : top of the earth, will ask six men's strength at and the greater the flame is at the bottom, the the least to stir it. It is a noble instance, and is higher is the rise. The other, that flame doth fit to be tried to the full; for it is very probable, not mingle with flame, as air doth with air, or that the motion of gravity worketh weakly, both water with water, but only remaineth contiguous; far from the earth, and also within the earth : the as it cometh to pass betwixt consisting bodies. former, because the appetite of union of dense


bodies with the earth, in respect of the distance, the medicine, or by the quantity. The qualities is more dull: the latter, because the body hath are three; extreme bitter, as in aloes, coloquintiin part attained its nature when it is in some da, &c. loathsome and of horrible taste, as in depth in the earth. For as for the moving to a agaric, black hellebore, &c. and of secret maligpoint or place, which was the opinion of the an- nity, and disagreement towards man's body, many cients, it is a mere vanity.

times not appearing much in the taste, as in

scammony, mechoachan, antimony, &c. And Experiment solitary touching the contraction of note well, that if there be any medicine that purg

bodies in bulk, by the mixture of the more liquid eth, and hath neither of the first two manifest body with the more solid.

qualities, it is to be held suspected as a kind of 34. It is strange how the ancients took up ex- poison; for that it worketh either by corrosion, periments upon credit, and yet did build great or by a secret malignity, and enmity to nature; matters upon them. The observation of some of and therefore such medicines are warily to be the best of them, delivered confidently, is, that a prepared and used. The quantity of that which vessel filled with ashes will receive the like is taken doth also cause purging; as we see in a quantity of water that it would have done if it great quantity of new milk from the cow; yea had been empty. But this is utterly untrue, for and a great quantity of meat; for surfeits many the water will not go in by a fifth part. And I times turn to purges, both upwards and downsuppose, that that fifth part is the difference of the wards. Therefore we see generally, that the lying close, or open, of the ashes; as we see working of purging medicines cometh two or that ashes alone, if they be hard pressed, will lie three hours after the medicines taken: for that in less room : and so the ashes with air between, the stomach first maketh a proof whether it can lie looser; and with water closer. For I have concoct them. And the like happeneth after surnot yet found certainly, that the water itself, by feits, or milk in too great quantity. mixture of ashes or dust, will shrink or draw 37. A second cause is mordication of the orifices into less room.

of the parts; especially of the mesentery veins;

as it is seen, that salt, or any such thing that is Experiment solitary touching the making vines sharp and biting, put in the fundament, doth promore fruitful.

voke the part to expel; and mustard provoketh 35. It is reported of credit, that if you lay sneezing: and any sharp thing to the eyes progood store of kernels of grapes about the root of voketh tears. And therefore we see that almost a vine, it will make the vine come earlier and all purgers have a kind of twitching and vellicaprosper better.

It may be tried with other ker- tion, besides the griping which cometh of wind. nels laid about the root of a plant of the same And if this mordication be in an over-high degree, kind; as figs, kernels of apples, &c. The cause it is little better than the corrosion of poison; may be, for that the kernels draw out of the earth and it cometh to pass sometimes in antimony, juice fit to nourish the tree, as those that would especially if it be given to bodies not replete with be trees of themselves, though there were no humours; for where humours abound, the huroot; but the root being of greater strength rob- mours save the parts. beth and devoureth the nourishment, when they 38. The third cause is attraction: for I do not have drawn it: as great fishes devour little. deny, but that purging medicines have in them

a direct force of attraction: as drawing plaisters Experiments in consort touching purging medi- have in surgery: and we see sage or betony cines.

bruised, sneezing powder, and other powders, or 36. The operation of purging medicines and liquors, which the physicians call “errhines," the causes thereof, have been thought to be a put into the nose, draw phlegm and water from great secret; and so according to the slothful the head; and so it is in apophlegmatisms and manner of men, it is referred to a hidden proprie- gargarisms, that draw the rheum down by the ty, a specifical virtue, and a fourth quality, and palate. And by this virtue, no doubt, some purthe like shifts of ignorance. The causes of purg- gers draw more one humour, and some another, ing are divers: all plain and perspicuous, and according to the opinion received: as rhubarb thoroughly maintained by experience. The first draweth choler; sena melancholy; agaric phlegm, is, that whatsoever cannot be overcome and di- &c. but yet, more or less, they draw promiscugested by the stomach, is by the stomach either ously. And note also, that besides sympathy put up by vomit, or put down to the guts; and between the purger and the humour, there is also by that motion of expulsion in the stomach and another cause why some medicines draw some guts, other parts of the body, as the orifices of the humour more than another. And it is, for that reins, and the like, are inoved to expel by con- some medicines work quicker than others: and sent. For nothing is more frequent than motion they that draw quick, draw only the lighter and of consent in the body of man. This surcharge more fluid humours; and they that draw slow, o the stomach is caused either by the quality of work upon the more tough and viscous humours.



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And therefore men must beware how they take | are well digested of the stomach, and well rerhubarb, and the like, alone familiarly; for it ceived also of the mesentery veins; so they come taketh only the lightest part of the humour away, as far as the liver, which sendeth urine to the and leaveth the mass of humours more obstinate. bladder, as the whey of blood : and those mediAnd the like may be said of wormwood, which cines being opening and piercing do fortify the is so much magnified.

operation of the liver, in sending down the wheyey 39. The fourth cause is flatuosity; for wind part of the blood to the reins. For medicines stirred moveth to expel: and we find that in ef- urinative do not work by rejection and indigestion, fect all purgers have in them a raw spirit or wind; as solutive do. which is the principal cause of tortion in the sto- 44. There be divers medicines, which in greater mach and belly. And therefore purgers lose, quantity move stool, and in smaller urine: and most of them, the virtue by decoction upon the so contrariwise, some that in greater quantity fire; and for that cause are given chiefly in in- move urine, and in smaller stool. Of the former fusion, juice, or powder.

sort is rhubarb, and some others. The cause is, 40. The fifth cause is compression or crushing; for that rhubarb is a medicine which the stomach as when water is crushed out of a sponge: so in a small quantity doth digest and overcome, we see that taking cold moveth looseness by being not flatuous nor loathsome, and so sendeth contraction of the skin and outward parts; and it to the mesentery veins; and so being opening, so doth cold likewise cause rheums, and deflux- it helpeth down urine: but in a greater quantity, ions from the head; and some astringent plaisters the stomach cannot overcome it, and so it goeth crush out purulent matter. This kind of opera- to the guts. Pepper by some of the ancients is tion is not found in many medicines; myrobolanes noted to be of the second sort; which being in have it ; and it may be the barks of peaches; small quantity, moveth wind in the stomach and for this virtue requireth an astriction ; but such guts, and so expelleth by stool; but being in an astriction as is not grateful to the body; for a greater quantity, dissipateth the wind; and itself pleasing astriction doth rather bind in the hu- getteth to the mesentery veins, and so to the liver mours than expel them: and therefore, such as- and reins; where, by heating and opening, it triction is found in things of a harsh taste. sendeth down urine more plentifully.

41. The sixth cause is lubrefaction and relaxation. As we see in medicines emollient; such Experiments in consort touching meats and drinks as are milk, honey, mallows, lettuce, mercurial,

that are most nourishing. pellitory of the wall, and others. There is also 45. We have spoken of evacuating of the body: a secret virtue of relaxation in cold : for the heat we will now speak something of the filling of it, of the body bindeth the parts and humours to- by restoratives in consumptions and emaciating gether, which cold relaxeth : as it is seen in urine, diseases. In vegetables, there is one part that is blood, pottage, or the like; which, if they be more nourishing than another; as grains and roots cold, break and dissolve. And by this kind of nourish more than the leaves; insomuch as the relaxation, fear looseneth the belly: because the order of the Foliatanes was put down by the pope, heat retiring inwards towards the heart, the guts, as finding leaves unable to nourish man's body. and other parts are relaxed; in the same manner Whether there be that difference in the flesh of as fear also causeth trembling in the creatures is not well inquired, as whether And of this kind of purgers are some medicines livers, and other entrails be not more nourishing made of mercury.

than the outward flesh. We find that amongst 42. The seventh cause is abstersion; which the Romans, a goose's liver was a great delicacy; is plainly a scouring off, or incision of the more insomuch as they had artificial means to make it viscous humours, and making the humours more fair and great; but whether it were more nourishfluid; and cutting between them and the part; ing appeareth not. It is certain, that marrow is as is found in nitrous water, which scoureth linen more nourishing than fat. And I conceive that cloth speedily from the foulness. But this incision some decoction of bones and sinews, stamped and must be by a sharpness, without astriction : which' well strained, would be a very nourishing broth: we find in salt, wormwood, oxymel, and the like. we find also that Scotch skinck, which is a pot

43. There be medicines that move stools, and tage of strong nourishment, is made with the not urine; some other, urine, and not stools. knees and sinews of beef, but long boiled : jelly Those that purge by stool are such as enter not also, which they use for a restorative, is chiefly at all, or little, into the mesentery vein: but made of knuckles of veal. The pulp that is witheither at the first are not digestible by the stomach, in the crawfish or crab, which they spice and and therefore move immediately downwards to butter, is more nourishing than the flesh of the the guts; or else are afterwards rejected by the crab or crawfish. The yolks of eggs are clearly mesentery veins, and so turn likewise downwards more nourishing than the whites. So that it to the guts; and of these two kinds are most should seem, that the parts of living creatures that purgers. But those that move urine are such as lie more inwards, nourish more than the outward

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flesh; except it be the brain: which the spirits 50. Pistachoes, so they be good, and not musty, prey too much upon, to leave it any great virtue joined with almonds in almond milk; or made of nourishing. It seemeth for the nourishing of into a niilk of themselves, like unto almond milk, aged men, or men in consumptions, some such but more green, are an excellent nourisher: but thing should be devised, as should be half chylus, you shall do well to add a little ginger, scraped, before it be put into the stomach.

because they are not without some subtile windi. 46. Take two large capons; parboil them upon ness. a soft fire, by the space of an hour or more, till in 51. Milk warm from the cow is found to be a effect all the blood is gone. Add in the decoction great nourisher, and a good remedy in consumpthe pill of a sweet lemon, or a good part of the pill tions: but then you must put into it, when you of a citron, and a little mace. Cut off the shanks, inilk the cow, two little bags; the one of powder and throw them away. Then with a good strong of mint, the other of powder of red roses; for they chopping-knife mince the two capons, bones and keep the milk somewhat from turning or curdling all, as small as ordinary minced meat; put them in the stomach; and put sugar also, for the into a large neat boulter; then take a kilderkin same cause, and hardly for the taste's sake; sweet and well seasoned, of four gallons of beer, but you must drink a good draught, that it of 8s. strength, new as it cometh from the tun- may stay less time in the stomach, lest it ning: make in the kilderkin a great bung-hole of curdle: and let the cup into which you milk the purpose: then thrust into it the boulter, in which cow, be set in a greater cup of hot water, that the capons are, drawn out in length; let it steep you may take it warm. And cow milk thus prein it three days and three nights, the bung-hole pared, I judge to be better for a consumption than open to work, then close the bung-hole, and so let ass milk, which, it is true, turneth not so easily, it continue a day and half; then draw it into bot- but it is a little harsh; marry it is more proper tles, and you may drink it well after three days for sharpness of urine, and exulceration of the bottling; and it will last six weeks: approved. bladder, and all manner of lenifying. Woman's It drinketh fresh, flowereth and mantleth exceed- milk likewise is prescribed, when all fail; but I ingly; it drinketh not newish at all; it is an ex-commend it not, as being a little too near the cellent drink for a consumption, to be drunk either juice of man's body, to be a good nourisher; exalone, or carded with some other beer. It quench- cept it be in infants, to whom it is natural. eth thirst, and hath no whit of windiness. Note, 52. Oil of sweet almonds, newly drawn, with that it is not possible, that meat and bread, either sugar and a little spice, spread upon bread toasted, in broths, or taken with drink, as is used, should is an excellent nourisher: but then to keep the get forth into the veins and outward parts so finely oil from frying in the stomach, you must drink a and easily as when it is thus incorporate, and good draught of mild beer after it; and to keep it made almost a chylus aforehand.

from relaxing the stomach too much, you must 47. Trial would be made of the like brew with put in a little powder of cinnamon. potatoe roots, or burr roots, or the pith of arti- 53. The yolks of eggs are of themselves so well chokes, which are nourishing meats: it may be prepared by nature for nourishment, as, so they be tried also with other flesh; as pheasant, partridge, poached, or reare boiled, they need no other prepayoung pork, pig, venison, especially of young deer, ration or mixture; yet they may be taken also &c.

raw, when they are new laid, with Malmsey, or 48. A mortress made with the brawn of capons, sweet wine : you shall do well to put in some few stamped and strained, and mingled, after it is slices of eryngium roots, and a little ambergrice; made, with like quantity, at the least, of almond for by this means, besides the immediate faculty butter, is an excellent meat to nourish those that of nourishment, such drink will strengthen the are weak; better than blanckmanger, or jelly: back, so that it will not draw down the urine too and so is the cullice of cocks, boiled thick with fast; for too much urine doth always hinder the like mixture of almond butter; for the mort- nourishment. ress or cullice, of itself, is more savoury and 54. Mincing of meat, as in pies, and buttered strong, and not so fit for nourishing of weak minced meat, saveth the grinding of the teeth ; bodies; but the almonds, that are not of so high and therefore, no doubt, it is more nourishing, a taste as flesh, do excellently qualify it. especially in age, or to them that have weak teeth ;

49. Indian maiz hath, of certain, an excellent but the butter is not so proper for weak bodies; spirit of nourishment; but it must be throughly and therefore it were good to moisten it with a boiled, and made into a maiz-cream like a barley- little claret wine, pill of lemon or orange, cut cream. I judge the same of rice, made into a small, sugar, and a very little cinnamon or nutcream ; for rice is in Turkey, and other countries meg. As for chuets, which are likewise minced of the east, most fed upon; but it must be meat, instead of butter and fat, it were good to thoroughly boiled in respect of the hardness of moisten them, partly with cream, or almond, or it, and also because otherwise it bindeth the body pistacho milk: or barley, or maiz-cream; adding too much.

a little coriander seed and caraway seed, and a


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