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learned Fathers called Sacraments, and yet are not held as Sacraments.
St. Bernard calls the Washing of the Apostles Feet a Sacrament, (a) “ The Wafhing of Feet is the Sacrament “ of daily Sins.” So Leo calls the Cross of Christ a Sacrament, (b) 66 The Cross of Christ which was given “ to save the faithful, is both a Sacrament and allo an “ Example."
Tertullian calls the whole State of Christian Faith a Sa. crament, (c) “ The Sacrament of Christian Religion." St. Hillary, in many Places, faith, “ The Sacrament of
Prayer, the Sacrament of Fafting, the Sacrament of “ Christ, the Sacrament of Washing, the Sacrament of “ the Scriptures."
But by the Institution of Christ, there are but iwo Sacraments, and fo Cardinal Bessarian confesses, (d) “ read that these two only Sacraments were delivered us
plainly in the Gospel.". These two only Sacraments, that is to say, Baptism and the Lord's Supper, the Son of God when he left the Earth thought fit to give to the Christian World, to be Witness of their Union and Com. munion, and Scals of his Grace.
We shall therefore proceed to speak against the Abuses of the Papists, in Relation to these two Sacraments,
As to Baptism.
It is most groly abused by the Papists, in their
baptizing of Things, without Reason, Lite, or Sense. Thus the great Bell (e) of St. John de Lateran, at Rome, was baptized by Pope John the 14th who named it John, atter himself. And the Duke of Alva's chief Standard, which he used in the Low-Countries, was baptized by
(a.) Ser. de Cæna Domini. (b) Ser. 2. de Refur. Domini. (c) Lib. 4. Cont.- Marcion. (d) Beffar. Sacr. Euchar. (e) Cypr. Valera, of the Popes, donc. p. 55.
Pius Quintus, in the Year 1568, and called Margaret, by the said Pope. And of this Sort, many, and many stances might be given of their daily perverting the Ordinance of Christ in this Sacrament.
As to the Lord's Supper.
The Errors and Abuses of the modern Church of Rome, in this most material Article of Christian Doctrine, in Relation to the Sacrifice of the Mass; her denying the Cup to the Laity; and the Adoration and Worshipping of the Host; have been already laid before you, in the foregoing Chapters, under tbose Heads. We are now to attack the Foundation of that Antichristian Fabrick, on which all those Errors are built: Her late invented Doctrine of Transubftantiation, which was unknown to the primitive Church, not eyen heard of in the Church of Rome, 'till the Year of our Lord, 1112, when Stephen, Bishop of Auton, first invented it: Confirm'd by Pope Innocent the third, in the Lateran Council, in the Year of Christ, 1215. And afterwards establish'd as an Article of Faith by the pack'd Council of Trent.
But because this point is become so main a Bulwark in the Popish Babel, and that for the Denial thereof, vast Numbers of innocent pious Christians have at several Times, and in many countries, been barbarously murdered ; it will be requisite we shou'd handle the same, somewhat accurately, and as fully as our propos'd Brevity will admit. Wherein we shall endeavour, First, To expound these Words of our Saviour,
“ This is my Body : And this is my Blood of the “ New Testament, that is shed for many, for the Re. “ mission of Sins.”
(2) Matt. 26.
Secondly, To Thew, that in this Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, we do truly, and indeed, eat the Body of Chrift, and drink his Blood, that is to lay, fpiritually and by Faith.
Thirdly, To disprove the Conceit of Tranfubftantiation, and lay before you the borrid Consequences of this false Doctrine.
Fourthly, To Thew the Difference there is between the Body of Christ, and the Sacrament of the Body of Christ.
First, We are to expound these Words of our Saviour, This is my Body, oc."
As the End of the Passover under the Law, was to put the Fews in Mind of the destroying Angels pafsiog by the Houses of the Ifraelites in Egypt, to save them! from Destruction; so the Bread in this Ordinance, puts us in Mind how Christ loved us, and proved, and commended his Love by dying for us; how he died to make us happy, and denied himself all the Contentments of Life, to make us blessed for ever; and was a Sacrifice, that we may have Hopes of Pardon thro' his Blood; and submitted to the Grave, to purchase our glorious Refurrection. The Institution of this Sacrament, being immediately after the Celebration of the Passover, the Dilciples of our Lord, being acquainted with that Way of speaking, cou'd not wonder at Christ's saying, “ This is
my Body :" For when the Jews used to say of the Paschal Lamb, (a) “ This is the Passover," There was not any so rude among them, but underfood by this Phrase, that by eating of that Lamb, they were to remember their Deliverance from the Egyptian Bondage. And when the Father instructed his Children, he told
(a) Exod. 12. 11. 27.
them, that by thefe Words, (a) • This Lamb is the “ Passover," was meant nothing else, but this Lamb is the Memorial, or puts us in mind of the Palover; for fo God himself hath expressed it. So that our Saviour, in saying of the Bread which he broke, This is my Bo“'dy,” introduc'd no new Way of speaking, but what the Disciples, and all the fews, were already fufficiently acquainted with in facramental Discourses, which makes Christ add immediately, to fhew that he meant no more by it but a Memorial. (b) “ Do this in Remembrance « of me.” Therefore it being very usual in Scripture, to meet with Things delivered and expressed by Parables, Tropes, and Figures; thefe Words must be understood in a figurative Maoner.
Thus we read, that the Rock was Christ, yet we must not believe the Rock to be our Saviour. Our Lord was called a (c) “ Lamb, a Lyon, a Worm, a Way, a Bride“ groom, a Head, a Door, a Vinc, the Light, Bread, “ Water, a Garment;" yet, no body can be fo grofly ignorant to understand these Words, as literally to be spoken of him.
'Tis faid, (d) This Cup is the New Testament: And this Cup is my Blood: Yet no Man can be so senseless as therefore to believe, thatthe Cup which our Saviour then held in his Hand, was either the New Testament or Christ's Blood. Christ said to his Disciples, (e) " You “ are the Salt of the Earth, you are the Light of the " World :" Yet the Apostles were neither actual Light, nor material Salt.
St. Paul faith, (f) He hath made him to be Sin for us, who knew no Sin; yet Christ never sioned. So that if we were to understand these Things literally, we may as reasonably conclude, that all the Saints are Bread, and but one Lump; because it is faid, (g) We being many, are one“ Bread, and one Body;"and fancy the People of Israel of old to be only a Plantation of Vines, because they are called, (h) “ The Vineyard of the Lord of Hofts."
(a) Exod. 12.11.27. (b) Luke 22, 19. (c) 1 Cor. 10. (J) Luke 22.20. Matt. 26. 28. (e) Matt. 6. Matt. 5. (f) 2 Cor.5.21. (g) 1 Cor. 10 17.(h) 1/2. 5.7. Where
Wherefore, fince the literal Interpretation does so plainly contradict the cleareft Conviction of our Reason, and is attended with so many Impossibilities, we cannot ima. gine, tbat the Words of our Saviour, “ This is my Bo**dy,” are literally true ; and consequently mult understand them, as spoken figuratively.
Besides, there are not any Tropes, or Figures in the Institution of the Lord's-supper, but such as are, and always were usual in Sacraments, and familiarly known to the Jewish Church. For Sacraments must be expounded Sacramentally. And this is the Opinion of the old Catholick Fathers, and particularly agrees with St. Austin's Rule. (a) “ This Rule, says he, is to be kept “ in every Allegory : That which is spoken by Simili"tude, be weighed by the meaning of the present Place.” And faith, (b) - Sacraments are ligns which often do “ take the Names of those things which they do fig. " nify and represent.
Tertullian, an Antient Father, who lived about fixteen hundred Years ago, expounding thele Words of our Saviour, faith. (c) " Christ taking the Bread, and “ diftributing it to his Disciples, made it his Body," 6 saying,
“This is my Body, that is, This is a Figure “ of my Body, but a Figure it cou'd not be unless there
were a true Body; for a void thing, as a Fancy can « receive no Figure.
St. Auflin, () against the Heretick Adimantus, writes thus:' Our Lord doubted not to say,
" This is “ my Body, when he gave a Token of his Body.” And in another place; (e) “ Christ took Judas unto his Ta“ ble, whereat he gave unto his Disciples the Figure of « his Body, that is to say, Bread.
And this interpretation is so easy, so intelligible, and so agreeable to the Phrase of Holy Scripture, that cne wou'd think it shou'd be impossible for Men to contra
(a) Aug. in Pfal. 8. (b) Tom. 2. Ep. 23. ad Bon. (c) Lib. 4. contra Marion. (d) Aug. contr. Adim. Cap. 12. (e) In Psal. 3.