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LIFE AND DEATH
KING RICHARD II.
King RICHARD THE SECOND.
LORD WILLOUGHBY. EDMUND OF LANGLEY,
LORD FITZWATER. Duke of York ;
BISHOP OF CARLISLE.
Uncles to the King. ABBOT OF WESTMINSTER. JOAN OF GAUNT, Duke of Lancaster;
LORD MARSHAL ; and another Lord. HENRY, surnamed Bolingbroke, Duke of Here- Sir PIERCE of Extos.
ford, Son to John of Gaunt; afterward King SIR STEPHEN SCROOP.
Captain of a band of Welshmen.
QUEEN to King Richard.
DUCHESS OF GLOSTER. EARL OF SALISBURY.
DUCAESS OF YORK. EARL BERKLEY.
LADY attending on the Queen. Busky, Bagot, Creatures to King Richard. Lords, Heralds, Officers, Soldiers, two GarGREEN,
deners, Keeper, Messenger, Groom, and EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND.
other Attendants. HENRY PERCY, his Son. LORD Ross.
SCENE, dispersedly in England and Wales.
Re-enter Attendants, with BOLINGBROKE and
NORFOLK. SCENEI.-London.-A Room in the Palace. Enter King RICHARD, attended ; JOHN of My gracious sovereign, my most loving liege !
Boling. May many years of happy days befall Gaunt, and other Nobles with him.
Nor. Each day still better other's happiness ; K. Rich. Old John of Gaunt, time-honour'd Until the heavens, en vying earth's good hap, Lancaster,
Add an immortal title to your crown! Hast thou, according to thy oath and band,* K. Rich. We thank you both : yet one but Brought hither Henry Hereford, thy bold son ;
flatters us, Here to make good the boisterous late appeal, As well appeareth by the cause you come; Which then our leisure would not let us hear, Namely, to appeal* each other of high treaAgainst the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray?
Cousin of Hereford, what dost thon object Gaunt. I have, my liege.
Against the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas MowK. Rich. Tell me, moreover, bast thou
bray ? sounded him, Boling. First, (heaven be the record of
my If he appeal the Duke on ancient malice; In the devotion of a subject's love, [speech :) Or worthily, as a good subject should, Tendering the precious safety of my prince, On some known ground of treachery in him? And free from other misbegotten hate, Gaunt. As near as I could sift him on that Come I appellant to this princely presence.argument,
Now, Thomas Mowbray, do I turn to thee, On some apparent danger seen in him, And mark my greeting well ; for what I speak, Aim'd at your highness, no inveterate malice. My body shall make good upon this earth, K. Rich. Then call them to our presence; Or my divine soul answer it in heaven. face to face,
[hear Thou art a traitor, and a miscreant; And frowning brow' to brow, ourselves will Too good to be so, and too bad to live ;, The accuser and the accused freely speak : Since, the more fair and crystal is the sky,
(Exeunt some Attendanls. The uglier seem the clouds that in it fly. High-stomach'd are they both, and full of ire, Once more, the more to aggravate the note, In rage deaf as the sea, hasty as fire.
With a foul traitor's name stuff I thy throat;
And wish, (30 please my sovereign,) ere I move, K. Rich. How high a pitch his resolution What my tongue speaks, my right-drawn sword
soars ! may prove.
Thomas of Norfolk, what say'st thou to this? Nor. Let not my cold words bere accuse my Nor. O, let my sovereign turn away his face, 'Tis not the trial of a woman's war, [zeal; And bid his ears a little while be deal, The bitter clamour of two eager tougues,
Till I have told this slander of his blood Can arbitrate this cause betwixt us twain : How God and good men hate so foul a liar. The blood is hot that must be cool'd for this, K. Rich. Mowbray, impartial are our eyes Yet can I not of such tame patience boast,
and ears : As to be hush'd, and nought at all to say: Were he my rrother, nay, my kingdom's heir, First, the fair reverence of your highness curbs (As he is but my father's brother's son,)
Now by my sceptre's awe I make a vow, From giving reins and spurs to my free speech; Such neighbour nearness to our sacred blood Which else would post until it had return'd Should nothing privilege him, nor partialise These terms of treason doubled down his throat. The unstooping firmuess of my upright soul; Setting aside his high blood's royalty, He is our subject, Mowbray, so art thou ; And let him be po kinsman to my liege,
Free speech and fearless I to thee allow. I do defy him, and I spit at him;
Nor, Then, Boliogbroke, as low as to thy Call him a slanderous coward, and a villain :
[liest! Which to maintain, I would allow him odus ; Through the false passage of thy throat, thou And meet him, were I tied to run a-foot Three parts of that receipt I had for Calais, Even to the frozen ridges of the Alps, Disburs'd I duly to his highness' soldiers : Or any other ground inhabitable,*
The other part reserv'd l by consent; Wherever Euglishman durst set his foot. For that my sovereign liege was in my debt, Mean time, let this defend my loyalty,- Upon remainder of a dear account, By all my hopes, most falsely doth he lie. Since last I went to France to fetch his queen: Boling. Pale, trembling coward, there I Now swallow down that lie.For Gloster's throw my gage,
death, Disclaiming here the kindred of a king; I slew him not; but, to my own disgrace, And lay aside my high blood's royalty, Neglected my sworn duty in that case.Which fear, not reverence, makes thee to ex- For you, my noble lord of Lancaster, cept:
The honourable father to my foe, If guilty dread hath left thee so much strength Once did I lay in ambush for your life, As to take up mine honour's pawn, then stoop: A trespass that doth vex my grieved soul : By that, and all the rites of knighthood else, But, ere I last receiv'd the sacrament, Will I make good against thee, arm to arm, I did confess it; and exactly begg'd What I have spoke, or thou canst worst de- Your grace's pardon, and, I hope, I had it. vise.
This is my fault: As for the rest appeal'd,t Nor. I take it up; and, by that sword I It issues from the rancour of a villain, swear,
[der, A recreant and most degenerate traitor: Which gently laid my knighthood on my shoul- Which in myself I boldly will defend; I'll answer thee in any fair degree,
And interchangeably hurl down my gage Or chivalrous design of knightly trial : Upon this overweeningt traitor's foot, And, when I mount, alive may I not light, To prove myself a loyal gentleman If I be traitor, or unjustly fight!
Even in the best blood chamber'd in his bosom: K. Rich. What doth our cousio lay to Mow- In baste whereof, most heartily I pray bray's charge?
Your highness to assign our trial day. [by me; It must be great that can inheritt us
K. Rich. Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be rul'd So much as of a thought of ill in him. Let's purge this choler without letting blood : Boling. Look, what I speak my life shall This we prescribe, though no physician; prove it true;
(dobles, Deep malice makes too deep incision : That Mowbray bath receiv'd eight thousand Forget, forgive; conclude, and be agreed; In name of lendings for your highness' soldiers; Our doctors say this is no time to bleed.The which he hath detain'd for lewdi em- Good uncle, let this end where it begun; ployments,
We'll calm the duke of Norfolk, you your son. Like a false traitor, and injurious villain. Gaunt. To be a make-peace shall become Besides I say, and will in battle prove,
my age :
(gage. Or here, or elsewhere, to the furthest verge Throw down, my son, the duke of Norfolk's That ever was survey'd by English eye, K. Rich. And, Norfolk, throw down his. That all the treasons, for these eighteen years Gaunt. When, Harry? when? Complotted and contrived in this land, Obedience bids, I should not bid again. Fetch from false Mowbray their first head and R. Rich. Norfolk, throw down ; we bid; spring.
there is no boot. Further I say, -and further will maintain Nor. Myself I throw, dread sovereigo, at
thy foot; That he did plot the Duke of Gloster's death; My life thou shalt command, but not my shame; Suggestø his soon-believing adversaries; The one my duty owes; but my fair name, And, consequently, like a traitor coward, (Despite of death, that lives upon my grave,) Sluic'd out his innocent soul through streams To dark dishonour's use thou shalt not have. of blood :
I am disgrac'd, impeach'd, and baffled here; Which hlood, like sacrificing Abel's, cries, Pierc'd to the soul with slander's venom'd Even from the tongueless caverns of the earth,
spear; To me, for justice, and rough chastisement; The which no balm can cure, but his heartAnd, by the glorious worth of my descent,
Which breath'd this poison. This arm shall do it, or this life be spent. * Uninhabitable.
Reproach to his ancestry. Charge. † Possesg. Wicked,
[blood K. Rich. Rage must be withstood : Yet art thou slain in him: Thou dost consent* Give me his gage:-Lions make leopards tame. In some large measure to thy father's death, Nor. Yea, but not change their spots : take la that thou seest thy wretched brother die, but my shame,
No advaninge in delar.
Who was the model of thy father's lise. And I resign my gage. My dear dear lord, Call it not patience, Gaunt, it is despair : The purest treasure mortal times afford, In suffering thus thy brother to be slaughter'd, Is-spotless reputation ; that away,
Thou show'st the naked pathway to thy life, Men are but gilded loam, or painted clay. Teaching stern murder how to butcher thee : A jewel in a ten-times-barred-up chest That which in mean men we entitle-patience, Is-a bold spirit in a loyal breast.
Is pale cold cowardice in noble breasts. Mine honour is my life; both grow in one ; What shall I say? to safeguard thine own life, Take honour from me, and my life is done : The best way is to’venge my Gloster's death, Then, dear my liege, mine honour let me try; Gaunt. Heaven's is the quarrel; for heaven's so that I live, and for that will I die.
substitute, K. Rich. Cousin, throw down your gage ; His deputy anointed in his sight, [fully do you begio.
Hath caus'd his death : the which is wrongBoling. 0, God defend my soul froin such Let heaven revenge ; for I may never list foul sin !
An angry arm against his minister. Shall I seem crest-fallen in my father's sight? Duch. Where then, alas! may I complain Or with pale beggar-fear impeach my height myself? Before this out-dar'd dastard ! Ere my longue Gaunt. To heaven, the widow's champion Shall wound mine honour with such feeble and defence. wrong,
Duch. Why then, I will. Farewell, old Or sound so
se a parle, my teeth shall tear Gaunt. The slavish motive of recanting sear; Thou go'st to Coventry, there to behold And spit it bleeding in his high disgrace, Our cousin Hereford and fell Mowbray fight; Where shame doth harbour, even in Mow- 0, sit my husband's wrongs on Hereford's bray's face. (Exil Gaunt.
spear, K. Rich. We were not born to sue, but to that it may enter butcher Mowbray's breast ! command :
Or, if misfortune miss the first career, Which since we cannot do to make you friends, Be Mowbray's sins so heavy in his bosom, Be ready, as your lives shall answer it, That they may break his foaming courser's At Coventry, upou Saint Lambert's day;
back, There shall your swords and lances arbitrate And throw the rider headlong in the lists, The swelling difference of your settled hate; A caitifft recreant to my cousio Hereford ! Since we cannot atone* you, we shall see Farewell, old Gaunt; thy sometime brother's Justice desigot the victor's chivalry.-
wise, Marshal, command our officers at arms With her companion grief must end her life. Be ready to direct these home-alarms.
Gaunt. Sister, farewell; I must to Coventry:
[Ereunt. As much good stay with thee, as go with me! SCENE II.-The same.--A room in the Duke
Duch. Yet one word more;--Grief boundeth
where it falls, of LANCASTER's Palace.
Not with the empty hollowness, but weight: Enter Gaunt, and Duchess of GLOSTER. I take my leave before I have begun; Gaunt. Alas! the part I bad in Gloster's For sorrow ends not when it seemeth done. blood
Commend me to my brother, Edmund York. Doth more solicit me, than your exclaims, Lo, this is all :-Nay, yet depart not so ; To stir against the butchers of his life. Though this be all, do not so quickly go ; But since correction lieth in those bands, I shall remember more. Bid bim-0, what:-Which made the fault that we cannot correct, With all good speed at Plashyy visit me. Put we our quarrel to the will of heaven ; Alack, and what shall good old York there see, Who when he sees the hours ripe on earth, But empty lodgings and unfurnish'd walls, Will rain hot vengeance on offenders' heads. Unpeopled offices, untrodden stones? Duch. Finds brotherhood in thee no sharper And what cheer there for welcome, hut my spur?
[there, Hath love in thy old blood po living fire ? Therefore commend me; let him not come Edward's seven sons, whereof thyself art one, To seek out sorrow that dwells every where: Were as seven phials of bis sacred blood, Desolate, desolate, will I hence, and die ; Or seven fair branches springing from one root : The last leave of thee takes my weeping eye. Some of those seven are dried by nature's
SCENE III.-Gosford Green, near Corentry. Some of those branches by the destinies cut: But Thomas, my dear lord, my life, my Glos- Lists set out, and a Throne. HERALDS, &c. ter,
attending. One phial full of Edward's sacred blood, Enter the Lord MARSHAL, and AUMERLE. One flourishing branch of his most royal root, - Mar. My lord'Aumerle, is Harry Hereford Is crack'd, and all the precious liquor spilt;
arm'd? 1: back'd down, and his summer leaves all Aum. Yea, at all points; and longs to enterin. faded,
Mar. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and By envy's band, and murder's bloody axe.
(pet. Ah, Gaunt! bis blood was thine; that bed, Stays but the summons of the appellant's trumthat womb,
(thee, Aum. Why then, the champions are prepar'd That mettle, that self-mould, that fashion'd
and stay Iade him a man; and though thou liv'st, and For nothing but his majesty's approach. breath'st,
A base villain. Recoprile
ller botten in Frony
Flourish of trumpets.Enter King RICHARD, My loving lord, [TO Lord Marshal.] I take
who takes his seat on his throne; Gaunt, and my leave of you ;sereral Noblemen, who take their places. A Of you, my noble cousin, lord Aumerle :Trumpet is sounded, and answered by another Not, sick, although I have to do with death; Trumpet within. Then enter NORFOLK in But lusty, young, and cheerly drawing armour, preceded by a Herald.
breath. K. Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder cham- Lo, as at English feasts, so I regreet The cause of his arrival here in arms: (pion The daintiest last, to make the end most sweet. Ask him his name; and orderly proceed
O thou, the earthly author of my blood, To swear him in the justice of his cause.
(To GAUNT. Mar. In God's pame, and the king's, say who Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate, thou art,
arms: Doth with a two-fold vigour lift me up And why thou com’st, thus knightly clad in To reach at victory above my head, Agaiust what man thou com'st, and what thy Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers; quarrel:
And with thy blessings steel my lance's point, Speak truly, on thy knighthood, and thy oath ; That it may enter Mowbray's waxen* coat, And so defend thee heaven, and thy valour!
And furbisht new the name of John of Gaunt, Nor. My name is Thomas Mowbray, duke Even in the lusty 'haviour of his son. of Norfolk;
Gaunt. Heaven in thy good cause make thee Who hither come engaged by my oath,
prosperous ! (Which, heaven defend, a knight should vio- Be swift like lightning in the execution ; Both to defend my loyalty and truth, [late!) And let thy blows, doubly redoubled, To God, my king, and my succeeding issue,
Fall like amazing thunder on the casquet Against the duke of Hereford that appeals me; of thy advérse pernicious enemy : [live. And, by the grace of God, and this mine arm, Rouse up thy youthful blood, be raliant and To prove him, in defending of himself,
Boling. Mine innocency, and Saint George
to thrive! A traitor to my God, my king, and me:
[He takes his seat. And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven ! Nor. (Rising.) However bearen, or fortune, (He takes his seal. cast my lot,
There lives or dies, true to king Richard's Trumpet sounds.- Enter BOLINGBROKE, in
A loyal, just, and upright gentleman: armour ; preceded by a Herald.
Never did captive with a freer heart K. Rich. Marshal, ask yonder knight in Cast off his chains of bondage, and embrace arms,
His golden uncontroll'd enfranchisement, Both who he is, and why he cometh hither
More than my dancing soul doth celebrate 'Phus plated in habiliments of war;
This feast of battle with mine adversary.And formally according to our law
Most mighty liege, and my companion peers, Depose him in the justice of bis cause. Take from my mouth the wish of happy years. Mar. What is thy name? and wherefore As gentle and as jocund, as to jest, com'st thou hither,
Go I to fight ; Truth hath a quiet breast. Before King Richard in his royal lists?
K. Rich. Farewell, my lord: securely I espy Against whom comest thou; and what's thy Virtue with valour couched in thine eye. quarrel ?
(yen! Order the trial, marshal, and begin. Speak like a true knight, so defend thee hea [The King and the Lords return to their seats. Boling. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and
Mar. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
Derby, Am I; who ready here do stand in arms,
Receive thy lance; and God defend the right! To prove, by heaven's grace, and my body's
Boling. [Rising.) Strong as a tower in hope. valour,
I cry-Amen. In lists, on Thomas Mowbray duke of Norfolk,
Mar. Go bear this lance [To an Oficer.] to That he's a traitor, foul and dangerous,
Thomas duke of Norfolk. To God of heaven, king Richard, and to me!
1 Her. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven!
[sell, Mar. On pain of death, no person be so bold, Stands here for God, bis sovereign, and himOr daring-hardy, as to touch the lists;
On pain to be found false and recreant, Except the marshal, and such officers
To prove the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowe Appointed to direct these fair designs.
bray, Boling. Lord Marshal, let me kiss my sove- A traitor to his God, his king, and him, reign's hand,
And dares him to set forward to the fight. And bow my knee before his majesty:
2 Her. Here standeth Thomas Mowbray, For Mowbray, and myself, are like iwo men
duke of Norfolk, That vow a long and weary pilgrimage; On pain to be found false and recreant, Then let us take a ceremonious leave, Both to defend himself, and to approve And loving farewell, of our several friends. Mar. The appellant in all duty greets your To God, his sovereign, and to him, disloyal;
Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, highness,
[leave. Courageously, and with a free desire, And craves to kiss your hand, and take his Attending but the signal to begin. K. Rich. We will descend, and sold him in
Mar. Sound, trumpets; and set forward,
combatants. Cousin of Hereford, as thy cause is right,
[.A Charge sounded.
Stay, the king hath thrown his warder|| down. So be thy fortune in this royal fight!
K. Rich. Let them lay by their helmets and Farewell, my blood; which is to-day thou shed, Lament we may but not revenge thee dead. And both return back to their chairs again :
Boling. O, let no noble eye profane a tear Withdraw with us :-and let the trumpets For me, if I be gored with Mowbray's spear; sound, As confident, as is the falcon's flight
Arrainot a bi
While we return these dukes what we de- Embrace each other's love in banishment;
(A long flourish. Nor never look upon each other's face ; Draw near,
[To the Combatants. Nor never write, regreet, nor reconcile And list, what with our council we have done. This lowering tempest of your home-bred hate; For that our kingdom's earth should not be Nor never by advised* purpose meet, soil'd
To plot, contrive, or complot any ill, With that dear blood which it hath fostered;* 'Gainst us, our state, our subjects, or our land. And for our eyes do hate the dire aspect Boling. I swear. Of civil wounds plough'd up with neighbours' Nor. And I, to keep all this. swords ;
Boling. Norfolk, so far as to mine enemy;-[And for we think the eagle-winged pride By this time, had the king permitted us, Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts, One of our souls had wander'd in the air, With rival-hating envy, set you on [cradle Banish'd this frail sepulchre of our flesh, To wake our peace, which in our country's As now our flesh is banish'd from this land : Draws the sweet infant breath of gentle sleep;] Confess thy treasons, ere thou fly the realm ; Which so rous'd up with boisterous untudú Since thou hast far to go, bear not along drums,
[bray, The clogging burden of a guilty soul. With harsh resounding trumpets' dreadful Nor. No, Bolingbroke; if ever I were traiAnd grating sbock of wrathsul iron arms, My name be blotted from the book of life, [lor, Might from ourquiet confines frightfair peace, And I from Heaven banish'd, as from hence ! And make us wade even in our kindred's But what thou art, heaven, thou, and I do
know; Therefore, we banish you our territories : And all too soon, I fear, the king shall rue.-You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of death, Farewell, my liege:-Now, no way can I stray; Till twice five summers have enrich'd our Save back to England, all the world's my way. Sball not regreet our fair dominions, [fields,
[Eril. But tread the stranger paths of banishment. K. Rich. Uncle, even in the glasses of thine Boling. Your will be done : This must my I see thy grieved heart: thy sad aspéct [eyes comfort be,
[me; Hath from the number of his banish'd years That sun, that warms you here, shall shine on Pluck'd four away ;-Six frozen winters spent, And those his golden beams, to you here lent, Return [To Boling.] with welcome home from Shall point on me, and gild my banishment.
(word ! K. Rich. Norfolk, for thee remains a hea- Boling. How long a time lies in one little vier doom,
Four lagging winters, and four wanton springs, Which I with some unwillingness pronounce: End in a word; Such is the breath of kings. The fly-slow hours shall not determinate Gaunt. I thank my liege, that, in regard of The dateless limit of thy dear exile ;
He shortens four years of my son's exile : [ine, The hopeless word of--never to return But little 'vantage shall I reap thereby ; Breathe I against thee, upon pain of life. For, ere the six years that he hath to spend, Nor. A heavy sentence, my most sovereign Can change their moons, and bring their times liege,
about, And all unlook”d for from your highness' My oil-dried lamp, and time-bewasted light, A dearer merit, not so deep a maim Shall be extinct with age, and endless night; As to be cast forth in the common air, My inch of taper will be burnt and done, Have I deserved at your highness' hand.
And blindfold death not let me see my son, The language I have learn'd these forty years, K. Rich. Why, uncle, thou hast many years My native English, now I must forego :
to live. And now my tongue's use is to me no more Gaunt. But not a minute, kids, that thou Than an unstringed viol or a harp;
canst give : Or like a cunning instrument cas'd up, Shorten my days thou canst with sullen sorrow, Or, being open, put into his hands
And pluck nights from me, but not lend a morThat knows no touch to tune the harmony. Within my mouth you have enjail'd my tongue, Thou canst help time to furrow me with age, Doubly portcullis'd, t with my teeth and lips; But stop no wrinkle in his pilgrimage ; And duli, unfeeling, barren ignorance Thy word is current with him for my death; Is made my jailer to attend on me.
But, dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath. I am too old to fawn upon a nurse,
K. Rich. Thy son is banish'd upon good Too far in years to be a pupil now; [death,
advice, What is thy sentence then, but speechless Whereto thy tongue a partyř verdict gave : Which robs my tongue from breathing native Why at our justice seem'st thou then to lower? breath?
Gaunt. Things sweet to taste prove in diK. Rich. It boots thee not to be compas
gestion sour. sionate ;
You urg'd me as a judge: but I had rather After our sentence 'plaining comes too late. You would have bid me argue like a father.--Nor. Then thus I turn me from my coun- O, had it been a stranger, not my child, try's light,
To smooth his fault I should have been more To dwell in solemn shades of endless night. A partial slanderý sought I to avoid, (mild :
[Retiring. And in the sentence my own lise destroy'd. K. Rich. Return again, and take an oath Alas, I look'd, when some of you should say, with thee,
I was too strict, to make mine own away ; Lay on our royal sword your banish'd hands; But you gave leave to my unwilling tongue, Swear by the duty that you owe to heaven, Against my will, to do myself this wrong. (Our part therein we banish with yourselves,) K. Rich. Cousin, farewell:-and, uncle, bid To keep the oath that we administer: You never shall (so help you truth and heaven!)
* Concerted. Consideration. Had a part or share.