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Parliament—The Clergy disappear from Offices of Power-Review of the steps of
Secularisation-Decline of the Temporal Power of the Pope-Political Life acts pow
erfully on the Theological Habits-It diminishes the senso of the Importance of
Theology-It leads to a neglect of General Principles-Difference between the Politi-
cal and Philosophical Standing Point-Injurious effects now resulting from the as-
cendency of Political Modes of Thought-Important influence of Political Life in
promoting a True Method of Enquiry-Three phases of the Conflict between the Sec-
tarian and the Judicial Spirit in Politics—The Secularisation of the basis of Author.
ity-Passive Obedience-According to the Fathers all Rebellion sinful-Considering
the Anarchy and Worship of Force that was then general, this Teaching was favour-
able to Liberty—The Election of Bishops by Universal Suffrage--Conflict between
the Pope and Kings favourable to Liberty-Power of Deposition-Moral Authority
necessarily with the Pope-Public Penance-Power of Dispensation Scholasticism
favourable to liberty-St. Thomas Aquinas-Doctrine of the Mediate Character of the
Divine Right of Kings—The Reformation produces a Variety of Interests, and there
fore of Political Opinions—The Papal Party insists on the Right of Deposition-
Works of Bellarmine and Suarez burnt at Paris—The Jesuits proclaim the Social
Contract—Suarez de Fide-Mariana de Rege-Tyrannicide fascinates an Early Civili-
sation-Its Importance in the History of Liberal Opinions First maintained unequiv-
ocally by Jean Petit-Advocated by Gróvin, Toletus, Sa, Molina, Ayala, and Kelle-
rus–Murder of Henry III. eulogised in the League and by the Pope-Political Assas-
sination approved among Protestants—But the Jesuits were its Special Advocates-
Great Services of the Jesuits to Liberalism-Gallican Church represented Despotic
Interests-Reasons of this-Circumstances that made Patriotism in France antago-
nistic to Liberty-Slight fluctuation produced by the Attitude of the Protestants in
1615—Resolutions of 1665 and 1682--Bossuet-Protestantism being a Rebellion was
favourable to Democracy—The two compensatory parts of Primitive Church Govern-
ment revived but disseverod—Different Political Tendencies of Episcopalianism and
Presbyterianism-Different Political Tendencies resulting from the Relative Positions
assigned to the Old and New Testaments-Opinions of Huss and Wycliffe and of
the Leaders of the Reformation-The Scotch lead the van of Protestant Liberalism--
Knox-Buchanan—The Scotch Deputation to Elizabeth-English Dissenters assimi-
lated with the Scotch-Debt England owes to the Non-Episcopal Churches-Extreme
servility of Anglicanism—The Homilies—Taylor-Anglicanism supported every Re-
action-Exceptional Position of Hooker-Two Schools of Despotism in England-
Barclay, Filmer, Hobbes-Sidney, Locke-Parallel between the IIistory of Religious
and of Political Liberty in England-Greatest English Freethinkers inimical to Lib-
crty-Hobbes, Bolingbroke, Hume-Difference between the Growth of English and
French Liberty analogous to that between English and French tolerance-French
Protestants-Circumstances that dimirished their Influence-Sectarianism incom-
patible with Patriotism-Two currents of Opinion among the French Protestants
The Liberal Opinion dominated–The “Franco-Gallia' of Hotman-Tho Vindiciæ
contra Tyrannos -Montaigne notices the Subordination of Opinions to Interests in

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France-Revival of Classical Writings acted on Liberty-In the first place, by the

renewed Study of Roman Law-Opinions of Bodin, Gronovius, Noodt, etc.-Phases

of Jurisprudence—Principal effect of the Classics in altering the Type of Heroism-

Different Types resulting from the sense of Dignity and the Sense of Sin–La Boétie

-Circumstances that prepared the Democracy of the Eighteenth Century: First, the

Increase of Capital; Second, the Increase of Knowledge—Servitude and Superstition

the necessary lot of all great bodies of men before Printing-Third, Change in the

Relative Position of the Cavalry and Infantry in War—The English Archers-Rise

of the Flemish Infantry—The Italian Condottieri—The Invention of Gunpowder and

of the Bayonet—Fourth, Influence of Political Economy on Democracy—The French

Revolution inevitable; Importance of the Question into whose guidance it would

fall-Reasons why Catholicism was incompetent for the Task-Early Freethinkers

not favourable to Political Liberty-Opinions of Socinus, Montaigne, Charron, and

Bayle-Change in their Attitude in the Eighteenth Century-Wide Influence of the

Revolution-Rousseau–His Power over French Society-Dress, Theatre, Gardens-

The Stream of Self-Sacrifice passing from Theology to Politics—The Democratic

Ideal consists of Two Parts-The Doctrine of Nationalities-Theories of Interna-

tional Arrangements, of Hildebrand, Dante, Grotius, and Diplomacy-Causes that

rendered it possible in the Nineteenth Century-Synthesis of the Moral Principles

of Christianity and Paganism-Democracy an Aspect of the Christian Spirit,

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The Industrial System of Antiquity rested upon Slavery—Effects of this Institution on

National Character-Decline of Industry in Rome-Comparison between Ancient
and Modern Slavery-Atrocious Excesses to which the Empire arrived-Christianity
undertook the Abolition of Slavery–First Movement in favour of the Slaves due to
Seneca and his followers-Invasion of Barbarians favourable to Slaves—But Chris-
tianity the most efficient opponent of the evil–Review of the Measures for abolish-
ing Slavery-And for alleviating the condition of those who still continued enslaved-
Anglo-Saxon measures-Services of the Fathers and the Bencdictines in making La-
bour honourable—The Ferocity of Manners corrected by the Creation of Charity-
Long period that elapsed before the preöminent services of Christianity were in this
respect appreciated-Great Development of Self-sacrifice-Deficiency of the Indus-
trial Theory of the Church-Long continuance of Serfdom-Emancipation of the
Towns begins Modern Industrial History-Effects of the Crusades on Industry, The
System of Corporations politically useful though economically bad-Points of Con-
tact of Industrial and Theclogical Enterprises—First ground of collision was Usury
-The Principles that regulate Interest altogether unknown to the Ancients—Position
of Money-lenders in Greece and Gaul-And in the Roman Empire—The Early and
Medieval Church condemned all Interest—On the twofold ground of the Law of Na-
ture and of Authority-Money-lending first monopolised by Jews,Rise of the In-

dustrial Republics of Italy, makes it popular among Christians-Council of the Lat-
eran-Reformation shakes the Old Superstition-Saumaise-Change in the meaning
of the word Usury in the Sixteenth Century-Casuistry of the Jesuits-Decree of
Benedict XIV.-Laws upon Usury based on Theological grounds, disappear–Tho
Economical Question discussed by Locke, Adam Smith, Hume, Turgot, and Bentham-
The Russian Raskol the last Representative of the Ancient Doctrine-Importance of
this Controversy in producing an Antagonism between Industry and Theology-Com-
merce produces a New Principle of Federation--Foundation of Consulships--Organi-
sation of Diplomacy-Commerce leads to Intercourse with Men of different Religions,
and therefore to Tolerance-First class who benefited by this Tolerance, the Jews-
Sketch of the different Persecutions of which they were the Object—Their Services
to Literature-And to Commerce-Tolerated at Leghorn, Venice, Pisa, and Genoa-
Industrial Habits of Thought make Men estimate lowly the Influence of Dogma-
Injury Persecution has done to Industry-Spain, France, Bruges, and Amsterdam-
Decline of the Ideal of Poverty produced by the Industrial Civilisation–Luxury of
the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries-Sumptuary Laws-Infuence of the Black
Death-Economical effects of Luxury-It is substituted for Monasticisri ns a Check
upon Population-Its Influence on Intellectual Development-Decadence of Monastic
Spirit-Alliance of the Clergy with the Aristocracy—Increase of Commerce—The
Navigation Laws–First Mercantile Societies in England-Wealth of Belgium-Rapid
growth of Diplomacy—The Hanseatic League represses Piracy-The Venetians found
Political Economy, and the Medici give an Intellectual Ascendency to Industry-
Manner in which all this combined with the Revival of Classic Learning-And with
the Influence of Moorish Civilisation-Change of Tastes resulting from increased
Wealth revives the Theatre-Importance of this Amusement as an Intellectual In-
fluence-And as an Index of the Condition of Civilisation-Its great Corruption in
Pagan Roine-Denounced by the Fathers—The Last Refuge of Paganism-Not en-
couraged by Julian-Disappeared with the Dissolution of the Roman Civilisation,
New Types of Amusement-The · Histriones' of St. Thomas Aquinas–Rise of the
Religious Plays—Hroswitha—The Religious Plays pass from the Churches to the
Theatres—Their Immorality-Position assigned to Satan—Effect in bringing the
Church into Contempt—Faint Signs of Secular Plays—Impromptus—Pantomimes,
etc.-The Farces—The higher Drama reappears in Italy-First Plays—Examples of
its encouragement by Ecclesiastics—Contrast between the Italian and French Drama
in their Relation to the Church—The Secularisation of Music, its successive stages
Influence of Gothic Architecture upon the Stage—The Religious Struggle produces &
Revulsion in the Sentiments with which the Theatre was regarded-Fierce Opposition
in France-Sacraments denied to Actors–Molière, Racine, Lully, Huerne de la
Motho-Advance of Theatre in France, Spain, and Italy-Voltaire—The Revolution
removes Disqualifications from Actors—Triumph of the Theatre at Romie-Impor-
tant effects of this Contest—The Creation of the Theatre the last Service of the In-
dustrial Civilisation of Italy—The Reformation-Importance of the Question to
which Religion the Sceptro of Industry would fall-It seemed at first in the grasp of

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CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME

Spain, Magnificent Position of Spain under Charles V.—The Economical Error that
Gold alone is Wealth-The Italians in a great measure escaped this—First conse-
quence of this error in Spain, was that Manufactures were neglected, and all the na-
tional energies were concentrated upon the Gold Mines—Second consequence, that
the Colonies were ruined by Restrictive Laws-Third consequence, a Convulsion of
Prices resulting indeed from the Excessive Supply of Gold, but aggravated by Laws
prohibiting its Export—These Economical Causes aggravated by the vast Develop-
ment of the Monastic Systen-Its Incompatibility with Industry-And by the Revi-
val of Slavery--Las Casas--And by four great acts of Religious Intolerance–The
Downfall of Spain an almost unmingled Benefit to Mankind-Introduction of Ilot
Drinks into Europe, their Moral and Social Effects-On the Downfall of Spain the
Sceptre of Industry passes to Protestantism, but the Influence of the two Religions
ceased to be involved in the Contest-Antagonism of Intellectual Tendency between
Town and Country-Changes that have been effected in their Relative Importance-
Mediæval preference for Agriculture-School of Sully-Superseded by the Mercan-
tile Theory which was more favourable to Manufactures--Colbert-The School of
Quesnay which followed was theoretically extremely unfavourable to Manufactures,
but practically favourable to it-Modification of this School by Raynal-Adam Smith
proves Manufactures to be a Source of Wealth-But maintains the superior Produc-
tivity of Agriculture-Refuted on this last point by Ricardo—Movement in favour
of Manufactures stimulated by the Invention of Credit-And by the Development
of Machinery-Economical effects of Machines—Special Force of their Influence in
England—The Intellectual Expression of an Industrial Civilisation is Political Econ-
omy-Its Pacific Influence—Theological Agencies not pacific-And Philosophical
ones inefficient-Effects of Political Economy in uniting different countries—And
different Classes—Effects of the Principle of Interest upon the Affections—The Phi-
losophy of Mortification and the Philosophy of Development represented respectively
by Asceticism and Industrialism-Asceticism supreme till the Fourteenth Century-
The History of Monasteries shows its steady Decline-Position assigned by Industrial-
ism to Wealth-the Destruction of Asceticism among the Ancient Greeks due to art;
among the Moderns, to Industry—Intellectual Influences favourable to Industrialism

- Utilitarianism the Philosophical Expression of Industrialism-Evils resulting
from this Philosophy-Decline of the Spirit of Self-Sacrifice-Tendency to Material-
ism-Conclusion,

Page 222

RATIONALISM IN EUROPE.

CHAPTER IV.

(continued).

ON PERSECUTION.

PART II.

THE HISTORY OF PERSECUTION.

THE considerations I have adduced in the first part of this chapter will be sufficient to show how injurious have been the effects of the doctrine of exclusive salvation. We have still, however, one consequence to examine, before which all others fade into insignificance. I mean, of course, religious persecution. This, which is perhaps the most fearful of all the evils that men have inflicted upon their fellows, is the direct practical result of the principles we have hitherto considered in their speculative aspect. If men believe with an intense and realising faith that their own view of a disputed question is true beyond all possibility of mistake, if they further believe that those who adopt other views will be doomed by the Almighty to an eternity of misery which, with the same moral disposition but with a different belief, they would have escaped, these men will, sooner or later,

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