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that our readers, will probably not of France by those of former times, be displeased by seeing it translated : we think that the publication before
"The mixture of rustick manners and us exhibits a similar approximation maritime toils gives to this village a sin- to the ancien regime on the subject of gular and striking aspect. might find there in families a wonderson religion. Every opportunity is taken store of knowledge gained from experi. monasteries, and to deny the existe
to justify the system of convents and ence and tradition, united to all the prejudices of ignorance and all the simplic ence of those enormities with which city of a country village. The interiour of they have been often charged. The almost all the houses was adorned with worship of images is mentioned with the productions of India or the ocean; and a degree of awe and veneration, greatthey were at once decorations and trophies, which attested long voyages and
er, we apprehend, than any judicious perilous navigations. There the same
catholick divine of the present day bands were often employed in construct.
would express on the subject; and ing vessels and fabricating ploughs; and the fervent prayers of Clara are more the men, divided into two classes, offered, than once rewarded by distinct revein their mode of life, on the one hand lations from heaven. We have also the picture of temerity, boldness, and all the agitations produced by ambition and
too many providential interferences, curiosity ; on the other, the affecting and too many quotations from the image of innocence and peace, the happy scriptures. A romance is the worst fruits of moderation and a tranquil life.” possible vehicle for onction ;-a word
If we were right in the conjecture of extensive and mysterious signifiwhich we threw out, on a late occasion, cation, which has been very imperrespecting Madame De Genlis's fectly rendered by our common term, wish to remodel the present manners
IROM THE EDINBURGH REVIEW.
Lettre aux Espagnols-Americains. Par un de leurs Compatriotes. A Philadelphie. 8vo. pp. 42.
THIS curious and interesting try, and took refuge in the dominions address is the production of Don of the pope in Italy. At the time Juan Pablo Viscardo y Gusman, a when the dispute about Nootka Sound native of Arequipa in Peru, and an threatened to produce a war between ecclesiastick of the Order of Jesus. Great Britain and Spain, and when When the Jesuits were banished Mr. Pitt, in the view of that event, from all the territories of Spain, had adopted the scherne of revoluhe, with the rest of his order, who, tionizing the Spanish colonies in whatever may have been their deme- America, he invited, at the sugges. rits in other parts of the world, had tion of general Miranda, a certain been the chief benefactors of Spanish number of the ex-Jesuits of South America,* was deprived of his coun. America from Italy, for the purpose
of using their influence in disposing Dr. Robertson, when treating of the the minds of their countrymen for rapacious, oppressive, and licentious lives
the meditated changes. Of this of the ecclesiasticks of that country, says:
number was the author of the present " It is remarkable that all the authors, who censure the licentiousness of the
appeal, in which the inhabitants of Spanish regulars with the greatest severity, concur in vindicating the conduct of takes such full possession of every memthe Jesuits. Formed under a discipline ber of the order, the Jesuits, both in more perfect than that of the other mo. Mexico and Peru, it is allowed, maintain. nastick orders, or animated by that con- ed a most irreproachable decency of mancern for the honour of the society, which ners."--History of America, vol. iv. note 19.
South America are called upon, by subjected ; and, after enlarging oa every consideration interesting to the galling restraints in respect to human kind, to take the manage- personal liberty, and the ruinous efment of their own affairs into their fects of the exorbitant, commercial own hands, and to establish a just and monopoly to which they have been beneficent government, which may condemned, he alludes to their exat once ensure their own happiness, clusion from all offices of profit and and open a liberal intercourse of be- trust, even in their own country, in nefits with the rest of mankind. a strain of patriotick indignation. This uncommon person, who evinces After this picture of slavery, the a share of knowledge, of thought, author proceeds to demonstrate the and of liberality, worthy of the most foundations of liberty; and, consienlightened countries, died in Lon- dering the education be had received, don in the month of February 1798, the country where he was reared, and and left the present tract, in manu. the society to which he belonged, the script, together with several other beneficence and justness of his views papers, in the hands of Mr. King, at are worthy of no ordinary approbathat time minister in this country tion. He then displays the solid from the United States. It was af- principles of liberty which were oriterwards printed by means of general ginally interwoven in the constitution Miranda, for the purpose of being of Spain, and assisted by the spirit circulated among his countrymen. of the people ; and, in the following
At a moment like the present, we short passage, states, with muck doubt not it will appear of importance discernment, the miserable, but deto our readers to contemplate the lusive causes of its loss. sentiments of a man who may, to so “ The reunion of the kingdoms of Cas. great a degree, be considered as the tile and Aragon, together with the great representative of the leading classes states which at that time came to the
kings of Spain, and the treasures of the of his countrymen, on a question at East Indies, gave the crown of Spain an all times highly interesting to Great unexpected preponderance, which grew Britain, but which, in the present so powerful that in a very short time it situation of Europe, assumes an in- overthrew all the barriers erected by the calculable importance.
prudence of our ancestors to secure the
liberty of their posterity. Regal power, In presenting to his country men like the sea breaking over its limits, a short sketch of their history, he overflowed the whole monarchy, and the tells them, after Herrera, that their will of the king and of his ministers be. progenitors won the country by their came the universal law. own enterprise, and established them
“ Despotick power, once so strongly selves in it at their own charges, cient cortes no longer existed. There re.
established, the shadow even of the an. without a farthing of expense to the mained for the natural, civil, and religious mother country; that, of their own rights of the Spaniards no other protecfree accord, they made to her the tion than the good will of the ministers, donation of their vast and opulent or the ancient formalities of justice, call. acquisitions; that, instead of a pa. have sometimes opposed the oppression
ed juridical proceedings. These may ternal and protecting government, of innocence without, however, preventthey had experienced, at her hands, ing the proverb from being always true : the most galling effects of a jealous, The king's will makes the law.” rapacious, and oppressive administra When he at last comes to call upon tion ; and that, for the long period his countrymen, from a united view of three centuries, their attachment of the nature of things, and of their to her had triumphed over the strong- own particular circumstances, to a. est causes of resentment. He then dopt the resolution of becoming their draws a picture of the oppression to own masters, he cites, for their exwhich the colonies of Spain have been ample, the celebrated revolt of the
provinces of Holland, which all the commercial intercourse. To the peworld admires, against the tyranny riod, too, which may elapse before and oppression of Spain ; that of the affairs of Europe assume a conPortugal against the same country; dition more favourable to human nathe recent acquisition of indepen. ture, or even to our security, foredence by their neighbours in North sight can assign no definite boundary, America,-an event which had made even hope can hardly anticipate a upon them, as might be expected, the very speedy termination. In this deepest impression; and concludes
new and portentous condition of Eu. in a strain of sublime piety, and ge- rope, we are called upon to look nuine philanthropy, which cannot be more widely around us, and to inquire too much admired—including every whether, in the rest of the world, nation upon earth, and even the Spa. barriers can be found to resist the niards themselves, in his generous torrent whose pressure we must conview of the blessings to be derived tinue to dread, and resources to supfrom the prosperity and freedom of ply those, the channel of which is that vast portion of the world. closed against us.
The brilliant prospects which seem In taking this important survey, to be opened up for our species in the every cye, we believe, will ultimatenew world, and the cloud which still ly rest on South America. A coun: thickens over the fortunes of the try far surpassing the whole of Euold, present, at the present hour, a rope in extent, and still more, persubject of contemplation to the haps, in natural fertility, which has thinking part of the British people ; been hitherto unfortunately excluded than which, excepting the great
from the beneficent intercourse of question of slavery or freedom, we nations, is, after a few prudent steps know not if one more interesting on our part, ready to open to us the can be imagined. We seize with immense resources of her territory, avidity the present opportunity of of a population at present great, and communicating to them such infor likely to increase with most extraormation on this grand topick as we dinary celerity, and of a position have been able to collect; and doubt unparalleled on the face of the globe not that our readers will partake with for the astonishing combination of us in the deep interest with which it commercial advantages which it aphas inspired us.
pears to unite. From the maturity After a tremendous struggle, to of some beneficent change, which which the world has seen, perhaps, circumstances and events have for no parallel, the power of the despot a series of years been working in of France now extends uncontrolled those magnificent regions, and from over almost every part of the conti the mighty effects they are capable nent of Europe. The hopes of the of yielding for the consolation of af. instability of that power, which so flicted humanity, it seems as if that Jong continued to flatter the multi- Providence, which is continually tude, who draw their conclusions not bringing good out of evil, were about from reason, but feeling, have given to open a career of happiness in the new way to the fears which a series of world, at the very moment when, by tremendous success has irresistibly the mysterious laws of its administraengendered; and we are now placed tion, it appears to have decreeda period in the hazardous and most critical of injustice and calamity in the olde situation, of neighbour to a power For the mighty benefits to be ex. which combines against us all the pected from a just and wise arrangeresources of Europe, and cuts off ment of the affairs of Spanish Ame. from us that important branch of rica, we are not left to the results of dur own, which we drew from her speculation, clear and unambiguous
as they are. We can appeal to expe- ment as were those of North Ameririence and to fact. We have the ca. Their industry has been crampgrand experiment of North America ed ; their minds have been held in before us, which the inhabitants of ignorance, by a bad government; the south are so ambitious to imitate. hence are they indolent and superThe states of North America were stitious. But remove the cause, and our own colonies, and they had been the effects will cease to follow. Se always beneficently administered ; sweet are the fruits of labour, whereyet has their independence been farver the labourer enjoys them unimmore profitable to us than their sub- paired, that the motives to it are irjection. What is the result with re resistible,—and his activity may be gard to commerce alone ?—The very counted upon with the certainty of extraordinary fact,that for several past a law of nature. The deduction, years we have exported more goods therefore, is so very small, which, on of British growth and manufacture this score, it will be requisite to to the United States of America, than make, that a very subordinate pro to the whole of Europe taken toge- portion of the superiour advantages ther. If such are the benefits re in soil and climate, which the South sulting from the prosperity of the American enjoys, will suffice to comUnited States, how many times great pensate the better habits with which er will be those which must necessa the inhabitant of the United States rily flow from the prosperity of commenced his career. South America ? How many times In respect to wants, the two coun. more extensive is the country which tries eminently resemble one anothe Spanish Americans possess? That ther. From the immense extent of country, from enjoying a much greato uncultivated soil, which it will reer diversity of climate compared with quire many ages to occupy, the Europe, than North America, is whole bent of the population will be much more richly provided with turned to agriculture; and it will be those commodities for which Europe their interest, and their desire, to presents the most eager demand. Of draw almost the whole of the manu. the soil of South America, a great factured goods, which their riches part is much more favourable to cul- will enable them to consume, from iivation, much more fruitful, and other countries.
The country to cleared by nations who had made which the greater part of this prodi. some progress in civilisation. Of all gious demand will come, is unquesthe countries in the world, South tionably Great Britain. So far beAmerica possesses the most im- fore all other countries, in respect to portant advantages in respect to in- manufacturing advantages, does she ternal navigation, being intersected stand, that were the circumstances in all directions by mighty rivers, of Europe much more likely to enwhich will bear, at litile cost, the courage industry than unhappily they produce of her extensive provinces are, we could meet with no rival; to the ocean. If the population of and as we supply North America, so the United States, amounting, per- could we South, on terms which haps, to 6,000,000 souls, affords so ex would infallibly draw to us the greattraordinary a demand for British er part of her custom. With this commodities, what may not the po- magnificent source of industry and pulation of South America, extending wealth, the channels which Buonaalready to no less than 16,000,000, parte can shut against us hardly debe expected to afford ? It is no doubt serve to be named ; since that even true, that the moral and intellectual of the United States surpasses them habits of the people of South Ameri. all. With South America, then, ca are not so favourable to improve. under a free and beneficent govern
ment,-though we might weep for dertaking. The ground 'has been the calamities heaped upon our bre. surveyed; and not the practicability thren of Europe by an insatiable des- only, but the facility of the work, pot, who, with the words liberty and completely ascertained. In the next good of mankind on his lips, would place, the important requisite of safe rivet his chains on the whole human harbours, at the two extremities of race, and expend their blood and the canal, is here supplied to the exsweat for his own momentary plea- tent of our utmost wishes. At the
sure or caprice,- we might laugh mouth of the Chagré is a fine bay, 1. the destroyer to scorn, and enjoy a which received the British 74 gun
prosperity which the utmost efforts ships, in 1740, when captain Knowles its of his power and his rage could never bombarded the castle of St. Lorenzo ; disturb.
—and at the other extremity is the In enumerating, however, the ad-famous harbour of Panama.* Nor rantages of a commercial nature, is this the only expedient for opening which would assuredly spring from the important navigation between the the emancipation of South America, Pacifick and Atlantick Oceans. Furwe have not yet noticed the greatest, ther north is the grand lake of Nicaraperhaps, of all,—the mightiest event, guay, which, by itself, almost extends probably, in favour of the peaceful the navigation from sea to sea. Into intercourse of nations, which the phy. the Atlantick Ocean it falls by a nasical circumstances of the globe pre- vigable river, and reaches to within sent to the enterprise of man :-we three leagues of the Gulf of Papamean the formation of a navigable gayo in the Pacifick.t Mr. Jefferys passage across the isthmus of Pana. tells us, it was the instruction of the ma,—the junction of the Atlantick king of Spain to the governour of St. and Pacifick Oceans. It is remarka. John's Castle, not to permit any Brible, that this magnificent undertak- tish subject to pass either up or down ing, pregnant with consequences so this lake ; " for, if ever the English important to mankind, and about came to a knowledge of its impor. which so little is known in this coun. try, is so far from being a romantick For the accuracy of these statements, and chimerical project, that it is not may be consulted a curious and instruconly practicable, but easy: The river 1762, by Thomas Jefferys, geographer to Chagré, which falls into the Atlantick his majesty; from the draughts and surat the town of the same name, about veys found on board the Spanish prizes ; eighteen leagues to the westward of from other accessible documents, and the Porto Bello, is navigable as far as
statements of eyewitnesses. The title of Cruzes, within five leagues of Pana- the book, as it is now but little known, it
may be worth while to transcribe. “A ma. But though the formation of a
Description of the Spanish Islands and Canal from this place to Panama, fa- Settlements on the Coast of the West Incilitated by the valley through which dies ; compiled from authentick Memoirs ; the present road passes, appears to revised by Gentlemen who have resided present no very formidable obstacles, many years in the Spanish Settlements : there is still a better expedient. At Plans, chiefly from original Drawings
and illustrated with Thirty-two Maps and the distance of about five leagues taken from the Spaniards in the last War, from the mouth of the Chagré, it re and engraved by Thomas Jefferys," &c. ceives the river Trinidad, which is + The reader may consult, on the faci. navigable to Embarcadero; and from lity and importance of effecting a navigáthat place to Panama is a distance of tion from sea to sea, by this extraordinary about thirty miles, through a level lake, a curious memoir by M. Martin de country, with a fine river to supply compte de Broglio, published in the sea
la Bastide, ancien secretaire de M. le water for the canal, and no difficulty cond volume of " Histoire Abregée de la whatever to counteract the noble un- mer du Sud, par M. de Laborde."