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That we might, however, neglect no means of security which our circumstances allowed, we got another anchor from the hold, and stocked and bent to it the remainder of the other cable, still keeping up our fire of musketry, and occasionally discharging a great gun. When this second anchor was run out to the last inch of eable, all on board felt as the condemned malefactor who receives a reprieve when on the eve of execution. The fury and menaces of the savages on shore seemed to increase, and they continued to assail us with stones and fire arms without ceasing, their numbers by this time being considerably augmented.
As daylight was now approaching, we hoped to be enabled to dislodge them from their shelter; and menaced in our turn an effectual revenge. Of this, however, confident in the safety of their posts, they appeared to entertain no apprehension. Our threatenings seemed only to call forth fresh attacks and new defiance of our power. We now learned the truth of what we had before often heard from others, that the fury of savages in battle is incredible, and bears no resemblance to that of a civil. ized being under the same circumstances. They forcibly recall to the mind the fables of heathen mythology. They appear possessed. A fury more than human seems to flare in their eyes, and convulse their souls. But I will not attempt to describe what no words can convey. I will only observe, that if their courage and talent of mischief were equal to their fury, they would be invincible.
The Uliteans, in great crowds, and the deserters, were constant and fu. rious in their attacks. They had fourteen muskets; and with these and stones they greatly damaged the rigging, nettings, and boats. The shot from the ship did them little injury ; because they were sufficiently acquainted with the use of guns to watch the motions of those on board; and when the latter were ready to fire, they suddenly skulked behind the rocks or trees, which were in great numbers along the shore. The crew repeatedly attempted to weigh the anchor, and carry the vessel further out to sea; but the men who went into the boat for this purpose were always compelled by the fire of the enemy to abandon it, and return to the ship for protection. When the light failed, they expected a general onset :
It was now four in the afternoon, and we were all fully employed in making every preparation to repel the grand attack expected in the night. Each man was furnished with twelve rounds of ball cartridge, and twenty four pistol bullets. Our mus. kets, being thirty in number, were well cleaned and fresh Ainted; the great guns and swivels were double shotted and filled with old iron; and blunderbusses and cutlasses distributed on the deck, to be ready for service at a moment's notice. And, as much as possible to prevent the stones thrown by the natives from doing us injury, awnings were spread over the deck, and every other precaution taken to enable us to sell our lives at the dearest rate, and defend the ship to the last extremity. Dur. ing all these operations, our worthy captain was suffering most severe pain, from firing off an overloaded blunderbuss in the beginning of the affair, when the swivels were dismounted.
About half past six in the evening, the wind, which had hitherto blown from the sea, shifted gently round to a land breeze, furnishing
us with a most favourable opportunity for getting away unperceived in the night. That our operations might not be discovered, we muffied the pauls of the windlass, and began to heave away upon one anchor at a time. When this was done, we got the long boat ahead, hove short on the second anchor, and carried out the first to the last inch of cable. We then got up the second anchor, and carried it out to sea in the same manner; and in this way our hopes began to revive, having the prospect of getting well off the shore, or perhaps out to sea, before day light should discover our motions. So deeply were the minds of all on board impressed with a sense of our situation and danger, that in all this time not a whisper was heard in the ship. We were even in terrour lest the uncommon brilliancy of the stars should discover the passing and repassing of our boat, as it passed backwards and forwards in weighing and carrying out the anchors.
In all these transactions we received signal services from poor Pulpit, whom we had taken on board here; for he was an excellent marksman, and was well aware of what his fate would be, should he fall again into the hands of the Uliteans. He therefore fought like a lion, resolved never to yield but with his last breath. His young Olaheitan wife likewise behaved like a heroine, carrying powder to the men, and exerting herself to the utmost in every way in which she could be useful; at the YOL. I.
same time that she seemed to regret that so much ammunition should be expended, one half of which would have rendered her the wealthiest lady in all her native country.
Notwithstanding all our difficulties, by the blessing of Providence on our strenuous exertions, we succeeded in getting sojne sail set before our motions were discovered by the natives on shore. The wretches, seeing the ship under sail, hailed us with a mnost hideous and savage howling, mingled with mutual reproaches and upbraidings for not keeping a better look out, as the ship would now be for ever lost to them.
By this time, nearly two in the morning, we had moved off far enough to be out of their reach; but the weather becoming thick and dark, we came to with both anchors, and stood on our guard until day light. We now thought it might be pos. sible to recover the anchors we had lost; but the chief mate coming to the quarter deck, brought a message from the ship's company, requesting they might be allowed to weigh the anchors and get under sail, lest we should be caught by the wind from the sea, and again be thrown into the hands of this treacherous and savage people. This proposal was agreed to; as it must have been extremely difficult, however desirable, to recover our anchors. When we had now fairly escaped without the harbour, and were about hoisting in the boat, one of the men, in hauling her from under the counter, perceived a long thick rope towing astern, which was fastened to the rudder five or six feet under water, and was most probably the very rope by which the natives had drawn the ship on shore, after they had cut her cables.
Our navigators now passed the island Bollabolla, without seeking any intercourse with the natives; but they stopped a short time and procured some hogs at Maura, an island about fifteen miles in circuit. Then leaving, for the present, the Society isles, they shaped their course to the Sandwich islands.
It is in this part of the voyage, especially, that the philosophical mind will derive abundant food for reflection, and that the thoughts which suge gest themselves are most pleasant. A new spectacle in these remote regions is presented to the eye; savage manners are rapidly fading away; and the arts of civilized life are gaining ground. In the Sandwich islands the land is beginning to be cultivated and enclosed ; commerce not incon. siderable is carried on; general industry and activity prevail; and the people have profited by the repeated visits and intercourse of Europeans. This machine must have a moving power; these efforts must have a soul that inspires them; and this soul is chiefly Tamahama, the king of Whahoo and of some of the adjacent islands. Ambitious despots are occasionally of some benefit. Through them in ancient times men were assembled together; great empires were founded; and the useful and ornamental arts of life were cultivated. In modern days, and in a savage region, we find a Tamahama indulging extensive schemes, which he directs with a mind far above that of a savage.
Those who, in the accounts of former navigators, have observed the simple and almost patriarchal manner in which the kings of the islands in these seas lived with their subjects, will no doubt be surprised to hear that Tanahama has regular body guards clothed in uniform, who go on duty and relieve each other, calling out at every half hour, “ All is well ;" that he has a palace built after the European style, of brick, and with glazed windows; that he has about him European and American artificers of almost every description, and that his own subjects have acquired a great knowledge of several of the mechanical arts; that he has a naval force of upwards of twenty vessels, from 25 to 50 tons burthen, some of them even copper bottomed ; that he has a considerable trading connexion with the western parts of America, and that he is about to open a commerce with China; in short, that he unremittingly spreads all knowledge which is useful, and perseveringly sets himself against abuses among his subjects. It scems, indeed, that his mind is always brooding over new designs; his
soul burns with ambition and the love of conquest; he excites in the islands and the kings around him a continual alarm; and he is darkly suspicious of his chiefs. In these respects, do we not behold a Buonaparte of the south, constantly awake himself and keeping others awake, feeling terrour and incessantly infusing it?
It must be obvious that the inhabitants of the Sandwich islands have, in improvement, left the Otaheitans, in whose favour we are naturally prejudiced, far behind them.-Among these islands our navigators spent some time, collecting salt, yams, and hogs They touched at Owhy hee, where captain Cook was unfortunately killed : the natives of which frequently spoke of him, and constantly lamented his untimely fate as if giving proof of their progress to a better life by their deep repentance. Their advancement, like that of the other inhabitants of the Sandwich islands, is become very considerable in many mechanical arts.
The voyagers now returned to Otaheite; and leaving there Mr. Turnbull and a few men, the captain went with the vessel to the windward islands in order to collect hogs. In this expedition the ship was unfortunately cast away on a reef; which occasioned Mr. Turnbull's stay to be greatly lengthened among the Otaheitans, and gave him abundant opportunity for obtaining the information which he imparts to his readers concerning this singular people In the second and third volumes, he minutely describes their usages and manners, and in many instances more satisface torily than former narrators. Time, together with a better comprehension of the language, unfolded many particulars. --He speaks of their supersti. tions; their festivities; their general contempt of old age; their food and mode of cooking; the exclusion of the women from eating with the men ; their courtesy to strangers, and generosity to one another; their indolence ; their propensity to theft ; their houses and furniture; their form of govern. ment; their wars; the influence of their priests; the situation of the Christian missionaries, &c.
One feature is very repulsive, and such as we should not expect to find in so mild a people, whatever influence we might suppose superstition to have among them ; we mean the existence of human sacrifices. On this. subject, Mr. Turnbull observes :
The human sacrifices are not put to death by their priests, as many have been lcd to imagine. The executioner is usually one of the miscreants about the person of the king, and generally adds treachery to the horrour of his murder. He calls upon the victim under the pretext of a visit of friendship, and seizing his opportunity when the poor fellow is off his guard, knocks him down and kills him on the spot. An instance of this treachery and murder occurred whilst I resided amongst them.
One of the confidants of Otoo, upon our return from the Sandwich islands, a fellow who visited us daily previous to our voyage thither, was advanced to the command of a district at some distance from Matavai. This man had been often imporluned for a human victim, and as often excused himself by the difficulty of finding any suitable object within his district. This passed for a time; but the king, or rather Pomarrie, at length insisted on bis compliance. The wretch, now put to his shifts, and apprehensive of losing the smiles of his benefactor, found he could defer it no longer.* 'lle therefore sent a message requesting the immediate visit of a near relation. The unsuspicious man obeyed, and was received with the greatest friend. ship and cordiality by the treacherous clief, so that he departed enraptured with his reception. But he had no sooner left the house than the villain gave orders that one of his trusty agents should follow him, and, watching his opportunity, should kill him when off his guard. This was accordingly done one day when the unsuspicious man was walking down the beach. The body was then laid out in a long basket made of cocoa nut leares, and conveyed past our door. The natives in our yard be
held it with the most perfect apathy and indifference, and requested me to look at it : as it påssed; but I expressed my abhorrence at such an outrage to humanity, and re
fused to go out of my doors till it had proceeded beyond my siglt.
When the sacrifices arrive at the moreas, the eye is scooped out, and presented on a bread fruit leaf. The king holds his mouth open as if to receive it. They imagine that he thereby receives an addition to his strength and cunning.
Upon great solemnities the chiefs of every district bring one or more of these hu. man sacrifices. was supposed that not less than from twelve to fifteen would be offered at the inauguration of Otoo. The bodies, after the ceremony of the sacrifice, are removed to the moreas, and there interred.
When upbraided with this most horrible practice they never want an excuse. They allege that the victims were bad men, and men to whose crimes their lives were just forfeits. But in my opinion this is only one of those excuses which, on every occasion that requires an excuse, these people have ready made for the purpose.
Mr. Turnbull speaks with good sense of the small success which allended the very assiduous labours of the missionaries :
The Otaheitans consider the missionaries as very good men, and love and esteem them accordingly; but they do not comprehend, and therefore do not believe, the ar. ticles of their religion.
It is perhaps expecting too much of them in their present state, to expect any thing of Christian faith from a people so rude and barbarous. Perhaps the missionaries, ac, cording to a trite proverb, have begun at the wrong end, preaching the mysteries of their religion, before they have laid a foundation by instructing them in its simple elements. It is doubtless wrong to temporize or falsify, in any of the slightest of its points of faith, the religion of truth; but there is room, ample room, for the exercise of discretion, in adapting their lessons to the natural capacities of their pupils. It is not necessary to teach them all, in circumstances under which they cannot comprehend one half. The doctrines of the Trinity and the Incarnation are not for Otaheitan understandings.
He adds, “ There are many mysteries in Christianity beneath which an Otaheitan understanding must sink confounded. It is not till the lapse of many years, that, in the true sense of the word at least, the Otaheitans can become Christians. The first converts of the apostles were the citizens of the most learned and polite nations of the ancient world."
After a long stay, the unfortunate voyagers were conveyed to Port Jackson, New South Wales, by a British vessel which accidentally tonched at Otaheite.
It is sometimes amusing to contemplate people when they first go from home. Three Otaheitan boys, eagerly desirous of seeing England, of which they had heard so much, had come off with the ship :
Upon touching at Norfolk island in our way to Port Jackson, these boys were very eager for permission to go on shore. They all entreated that they might be allowed to see the Englishmen's fenowa or land. permission was granted to one of the most intelligent of them, in the expectation of deriving some amusement from his curious remarks. This expectation was not disappointed. Nothing, in fact, escaped his observation. The military guard being under arms at the time of his landing, he was transported with a kind of ecstacy of astonishment and admiration. Twice or thrice he exclaimed in his country language : Aralie my tye the tata poo pooey! Noble man, the man of the musket! He doubtless supposed from the appearance of the soldiers that they were superiour to the rest of mankind.
On making the land about Port Jackson, the Otaheitans were again in raptures, probably thinking this was England. But seeing the barrenness of the country as they entered the harbour, and the scragginess of the trees, their spirits evidently sunk. Here again they looked at the trees for food, and seeing none, exclaimed in their country language : Very bad land, very bad country!
On coming to an anchor in Sydney Cove, there was a coach and four horses standing almost opposite the ship. This astonished them beyond measure. Every one inquired of the other their opinion of this wonderful phenomenon. They concluded that it must be a travelling house ; but they could find no names for the horses, har. ing in their country no larger animals than hogs. Some of these indeed were mmcommonly large. The Otaheitans therefore called them by the name of mighty hogs. A short time after this, the coach setting off at a good round trot, they exclaimed in ecstacy to each other, Oh! how they fly. It was impossible to recall their attention to any part of the ship's duty at this time. On the following morning, seeing the New South Wales corps under arms, they were in the most extravagant raptures
imaginable ; but when the band began to play, they began to leap about, their very eyes dancing in their heads with the vivacity of their sympathy. “So enchanted were they with this sight, that had the governour made his appearance, I am persuaded they would have regarded him only as a secondary character.
Having again made some stay in this colony, in which various improvements are noticed, Mr. Turnbull and the captain took their passage to England, where they arrived in safety after an absence of more than four years.
The hopes which were once entertained of Otaheite are by this voyage considerably sunk. By disease and wars, by want of care, and by practices altogether hostile to population, the inhabitants have dwindled away to an extent scarcely credible. The other Society isles, also, as well as the Friendly islands, do not promise much. Botany Bay convicts have found their way to many of them; and perhaps future times may unfortunately see these delicious islands, instead of being stations for trade and resting places for refreshment, become nests of pirates, and the dens of banditti, who shall there revenge the injuries which they imagine they received in Bow street and at the Old Bailey.
On the whole, we have perused these three volumes with much pleasure, and do not hesitate to recommend them to our readers. They are written with neatness and interest, though not always with correctness, and promise to maintain their station among voyages which lie in the parlour, of which every one takes a spell when he can.
We have, however, one sin of omission to charge on Mr. Turnbull. He is a seaman by profession, and he visited many islands in the south sea, some of which were not previously known, or at least, before his voyage, were not inserted in the charts. He had thus great opportunities of making geographical remarks ; and he must have been aware that information of this kind would be expected from him. Yet he has given no latitudes, no longitudes, nor any charts !
FROM THE BRITISH CRITICK.
The Theory of Dreams, in which an Inquiry is made into the Powers and Paculties
of the human Mind, as they are illustrated in the most remarkable Dreams record. ed in sacred and profane History. 12mo. 2 vols. 88. London. 1808.
THESE are two very curious, interesting, and learned little volumes. They demonstrate much diligence of research, much acuteness of remark, and no inconsiderable learning. Indeed they are evidently the production of a man of grave deliberation, and very extensive reading.
The general theory inculcated is this; that no dreams, excepting those involved in the history of Revelation, have any necessary connexion with or can afford any assistance towards discovering the scenes of futurity.
Every more remarkable dream recorded in sacred and profane history, in ancient as well as in more modern times, is introduced with sensible and pertinent remarks. Distinctions are very sagaciously made between them all, and many, at first sight mysterious and perplexing, are satisfactorily accounted for from particular habits of life ; from feelings of superstition ; from peculiarity of constitution ; or from local circumstances. The references throughout are very circumstantial and very accurate. The pious mind can no where be offended; the wayward and petulant no where provoked to ridicule ; and above all the licentious no where be encouraged. The impression left upon every ingenuous mind from the perusal of these volumes, must necessarily be that they were composed and compiled entirely from a love of truth ; from a desire to encourage a due investigation of recorded incidents; and to distinguish, as far as possible, between the delusions of fanaticism and the momentous warnings of the God of Truth