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would generally be the same, and much labour would be saved. But as prejudices and idle habits remain, long after the advantages of a change are demonstrated, we must wait patiently, and hope that the exertions of this society, and the enterprise of many private gentlemen, will soon raise our husbandry to the rank it ought to hold among the improvements of the country.

The statistical account of the Schuylkill Permanent Bridge, is very acceptable, because it furnishes an interesting account of American ingenuity and enterprise. This branch of hydraulick architecture has been usefully practised by Mr. Palmer, whose models of wooden bridges, in many parts of the union, bear unequivocal testimony of his genius. Whoever desires to be acquainted with such works, will read the paper with attention. He will be led to admire not only the architect who planned, but the indefatigable and persevering spirit of the proprietors who undertook, unremittingly prosecuted, and completed this beautiful structure. We do not recollect any work of this kind, which has required such a depth of solid masonry below the surface of the water, as was indispensable in constructing the western pier. The masonry is laid forty-one feet below the surface of the tide, a depth unequalled in any bridge in Europe. There are many useful obser. vations in the account, and the history of the work as it advanced, under the most embarrassing circumstances, is extremely interesting. The bridge is covered, and plastered with a very durable composition, which should be applied, in every instance, to similar works. We shall close our review with the inscription on the eastern tablet, because we readily assent to the justness of the sentiments therein expressed.

THE BRIDGE

is, in itself,
the most grateful

Reward
expected from its

Institution.

A Recompense
the most honourable to those,

who, by liberal advances,
and long privations of profit,
unassisted by publick pecuniary aid,
Encouraged and Supported;

And a Memorial,
the most acceptable to those,
who, by enterprising, arduous,
and presevering exertions,

ACHIEVED,
This extensively beneficial

Improvement.

The editors of the Select Reviews have, at the request of a member of the Agri

cultural society, subjoined the following outlines of a plan for the establishment of the Society

1. THE legislature to be applied to for an act of incorporation of the society, which is to consist of citizens of the state, as generally dispersed throughout the same as possible. In the first instance, the society to be

These outlines were written several years since, at the request of a committee of the society, and furnished to them by Richard Peters, Esq. the now president, who laboured in the legislature of that day to effectuate the plan. But the most unaccountable and deplorable prejudices then existing, defeated every endeavour. During the present session of the legislature a charter has been granted to the societya 1809.

composed of such persons as may be named, and these to be vested with authority to make rules for admission of other members, and by-laws for the government of the society, as usual in similar cases. Honorary members to be admitted according to rules to be established, and these may be of any state or country.

2. The organization of the society shall be so formed, that the business thereof may be done by a few, who will be responsible to the body of the society, in such manner as their by-laws shall direct.

3. The governour of the state, the speakers of the houses of the legislature, and the chief justice, for the time being, to be the visiters of the corporation. The transactions of the active members, i. e. those intrusted with the monies and affairs of the society, by whatever name or description they may be designated, and all by-laws and regulations, to be submitted to the risiters; to the end that the same may be so conducted and established as not to prejudice the interests of the corporation, or interfere with or oppose the constitution or laws of the state. The visiters will also judge of the objects of the society, and perceive whether or not they are calculated to promote the ends of its institutions. Reports may by them be made annually to the legislature. These will be useful, as they will exhibit, in a comprehensive view, the state of agriculture throughout the commonwealth, and give an opportunity to the legislature of being informed on a subject so important to the prosperity of the country, both as it relates to political econoiny, and the individual happiness of the people. The legislature will per. ceive from their reports, when, and in what manner, they may lend their assistance to forward this primary object: Whether by endowing professorships, to be annexed to the university of Pennsylvania and the college of Carlisle, and other seminaries of learning, for the purpose of teaching the chymical, philosophical, and elementary parts of the theory of agriculture : or by adding to the funds of the society, increase their ability to propagate a knowledge of the subject, and stimulate, by premiums and other incentives, the exertions of the agricultural citizens: or whether, by a combination of these means, the welfare of the state may be more effectually promoted.

4. Though it will be most convenient to make the repository of the information of the society, and the office or place of transacting its business at Philadelphia, yet it is intended that the society shall be rendered active in every part of the state. To effect this, there should be county societies established, organized as each shall think proper. In union with, or as parts thereof, there may be agricultural meetings or establishments, at the will of those who compose them, in one or more townships of a county. These may correspond with the county societies, and the latter may annually inform the society of the state (of which the less societies may be considered as branches) of all the material transactions of their respective societies. Societies already formed may remain as they are. They may, at their option, correspond directly with the state society, or through the society of the county in which they meet, as shall be found most convenient and agreeable 10 them. They will thus collect all the information and business relating to the subject, and will give an opportunity to the society of the state to see where their assistance is most necessary, and afford a facility of diffusing agricultural knowledge. The premiums, books, and other articles at the disposal of the society, may pass through the hands of the county or other societies, for many purposes; and they can judge on the spot of the pretensions of the claimants. The country schoolmasters may be secretaries of the county societies, and the schoolhouses the places of meeting, and the

repositories of their transactions, models, &c. The legislature may enjoin on these schoolmasters, the combination of the subject of agriculture with the other parts of education. This may be easily effected, by introducing as schoolbooks, those on this subject, and thereby 'making it familiar to their pupils. These will be gaining a knowledge of the business they are destined to follow, while they are taught the elementary parts of their education. Books thus profitable to them in the common affairs of life, may be substituted for some of those now used; and they can easily be obtained. Selections from the best writers on husbandry may be made by the society. The essays of our own experimentalists or theorists, and the proceedings of the society will also afford information; and, as many of these will, no doubt, be good models of composition, they may form a part of the selection for the use of the county schools. And thus the youth in our country will effectually, and at a cheap rate, be grounded in the knowledge of this important subject. They will be easily inspired with a thirst for inquiry and experiment, and either never acquire, or soon banish attachments to bad systems, originating in the ignorance and bigotry of their forefathers, which, in all countries, have been the bane of good huse bandry. It will also be the business of the society to recommend the collection of useful books on agriculture and rural affairs in every county. The citizens of the country should be drawn into a spirit of inquiry by the establishment of small, but well chosen libraries, on various subjects. This would not only promote the interests of agriculture, but it would diffuse knowledge among the people, and assist good government, which is never in danger while a free people are well informed.

5. The general meetings of this society, consisting of such members as may choose to attend, and particularly those charged with communications or information from the county and other societies, should be held at Philadelphia, at a time, in the winter sessions of the legislature, when citi, zens who may be members thereof, or have other business, can, with most

convenience, attend. At these meetings, the general business of the society can be arranged, its funds and transactions examined, and its laws and rules reported, discussed, and rendered generally serviceable and agreeable to the whole.

6. It will be necessary that a contribution be made by each member, annually, for a fund. But this should be small, that it may not be too heavy a tax. The funds will, no doubt, inc ased by donations frcoj individuals ; and if the state should find the institution as useful as it is contemplated to be, the patriotism of the members of the government will be exercised, by affording assistance out of the monies of the state. They will perceive that it is vain to give facility to transportation, unless the products of the country are increased by good husbandry : and though these facilities are important to the objects of this society, yet an increased knowledge of agriculture is the foundation of their extensive utility. The subjects of both are intimately connected, and mutually depend on each other.

7. When the funds of the society increase sufficiently to embrace the object, it will perfect all its efforts, by establishing Pattern Farms in different and convenient parts of the state. Let the beginning of this plan be with one establishment, under the direction of the society, and committed to the care of a complete farmer and gardener. In this, all foreign and domestick trees, shrubs, plants, seeds, or grains may be cultivated, and if approved as useful, disseminated, with directions for their culture, through the state. The most approved implements may be used on this farm, and

1

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either improved by additions, or simplified to advantage. Inventions may be brought to trial, and the best selected. Models thereof may be made and transmitted to the county and other societies. Those who are sent to, or occasionally visit the farm, will gain more knowledge, in all its operations, from a short inspection, than can be acquired, in a long time, by reading on the use and construction of instruments, or the modes of cultivation. The cheapest, best and most commodious style of rural architecture-the most proper and permanent live fences-improvements in the breed of horses, cattle, and sheep-remedies for occasional and unforeseen visitations of vermin-the times and seasons for sowing particular crops—the adapt. ing foreign products to our climate--and preventives against all the evils attendant on our local situation, or arising from accidental causes—may here be practically introduced. The thoughts and suggestions of ingenious men may here be put in practice ; and, being brought to the test of experiment, their utility may be proved, or their fallacy detected. This farm need not be large. On it the best systems now known may be carried through, and further experiments made. Promising youths may be sent from different parts of the state to learn, practically, the art of husbandry. Manures, and the best mode of collecting them, may be tried. Native mapures should be sought after, and premiums given for their discovery. Their efficacy may be proved by small experiments on this farm, which should, in epitome, embrace the whole circle of practical husbandry. Simi. lar farms may be added, as the funds increase ; and thus practical agricul. tural schools be instituted throughout the state.

8. When the pecuniary affairs of the society become adequate, it will highly contribute to the interest of agriculture, if, at the expense of the society, some ingenious person or persons were se to Europe for the purposes of agricultural inquiries. It would be well, too, if a few young persons of promising abilities were sent thither to be instructed in the arts of husbandry, the breeding of cattle, &c. and to gain a practical knowledge on all subjects connected with this interesting, delightful, and important business, on which the existence, wealth, and permanent prosperity of our country so materially depend.

9. Although it would seem that a great portion of this plan has reference to the older settlements of the state, yet, in fact, many of its most useful arrangements will apply to new settlements in an eminent degree. These Sattlements are, for the most part, first established by people little acquainted with a good style of husbandry. The earth, in its prime, throws up abundant vegetation, and for a short period rewards the most careless husbandman. Fertility is antecedent to his efforts ; and he has it not to recreate by artificial means. But he is ignorant of the most beneficial modes whereby he can take advantage of this youthful vigour with which his soil is blessed. He wastes its strength, and suffers its riches to flee away. A bad style of cropping increases the tendency of fresh lands to throw up weeds, and other noxious herbage; and that luxuriance, which with care and system might be perpetuated, is induly ed in its own destruction. It is discovered, when it is too late, that what was the foundation of the support and wealth of the improvident possessor, has been, by his ignorance and neglect, like the patrimony of a spendthrift, permitted, and even stimulated rapidly to pass from him in wild extravagance.

The products of nature, in our new countries, seldom have been turned to account. The timber is deemed an incumbrance, and at present is, perhaps, too much so. The labour and expense of preparing for ullage are enormous; and, when the sole object is that of cultivation, very discoura

ging." European books give us no lessons in these operations. But when the experience of our people is aided and brought to a point, by a union of facts and the ingenuity of intelligent men, now too much dispersed to be drawn into system, it is to be expected, with the surest prospects of success, that our difficulties on this head will be abated, if not overcome. The manufacture of potash, and the products of the sugar maple, may be objects of the attention of the society. More profitable modes of applying labour will hereby be promoted, and returns for expense, in the preparation for culture be obtained. Facilities for clearing lands may be discovered. Minerals, earths, and fossils, now either unknown or neglected, may be brought into use, or become objects of commerce. In fine, no adequate calculation can be formed of the effects which may be produced by a consolidation of the efforts, and even speculations, of our citizens, whose interests will stimulate them to exertion. Channels of communication will be established, and the whole will receive the benefits arising from a collection of the thoughts and labours of individuals, whose minds will be turned to a subject so engaging and profitable, as well to themselves as to their country.

FROM THE ERITISH CRITICK.

The Dramatick Mirrour, containing the History of the Stage, from the earliest Period to the present Time; including a Biographical and Critical Account of all the Dramatick Writers, from 1600, and also of the most distinguished Performers, from the Days of Shakspeare to 1807; and a History of the Country Theatres in England, Ireland, and Scotland, embellished with seventeen elegant Engravings. By Thomas Gilliland, Author of Dramatick Synopsis. 8vo. 2. Vols.

A WORK that would properly satisfy the promise of this title page, instead of being comprised in two moderate octavo volumes, might be extended to the number of the mighty production of Grævius and Gronovius, which are hardly complete in twenty ponderous folios. This work, however, may be probably both convenient and useful to the frequenters of the modern theatre, now so changed from what even we ourselves remember it, that could the shades of Betterton, Quin, and Garrick, rise from their elysium, it may fairly be questioned whether, with one or two exceptions, they kould acknowledge their brethren of the sock. They might be apt to exclaim: Call ye this a play, or that an actor? In this respect at least we confess ourselves laudatores temporis acti. Some very neatly executed heads of various performers are introduced, of the resemblance of which we are not able to judge.

The Duties of Religion and Morality as inculcated in the Holy Scriptures, with pre

liminary and occasional Observations. By Henry Tuke. 12mo. THE preliminary observations in this excellent little book are on the importance of religion and morality ; on religion as the basis of morality; on the love of God, the holy scriptures, and the divine attributes. The author then proceeds to the discussion of religious duties, and moral duties general and particular. The general duties are those of justice, charity, temperance, industry, &c. The particular duties, those of husbands and wives, parents and children, masters and servants, &c. &c.

This is an unexceptionable book for young persons, and indeed for adults, and is highly creditable to the duly tempered zeal of the amiable author.

• At the present time [1808] the expense of clearing land is much lessened, owing to the great influx of population in our new countries. For five dollars per acre, tind may be completely cleared of timber.

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