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various buildings. To the eastward expand the fertile plains that stretch to the confines of Hungary: and to the south the landscape comprises hill and dale, villas and fertile fields. Does the traveller wish to enjoy a general view of this brilliant scenery, let him mount the spire of St. Stephen's, or climb the Kah enberg
Geneva, at the head of its magnificent lake, has been compared to a medallion pendent to a green riband. Did we live in the age of parables, I should describe Vienna as a large brilliant set with emeralds, and an exteriour row of party coloured stones. The city, with its beautiful and regular fortifications, stands nearly in the centre of the suburbs. The Esplanade, between the latter and the city, is 400 yards broad with intersecting rows of chesnut trees. When we consider the immense extent of the suburbs, the population of which is estimated at 150,000, we are astonished at the almost incalculable number of buildings that have been erected since Vienna was besieged by the Turks, in 1683. Objections have been urged against the trivial names attached to some of these suburbs : on the contrary, all must admire those of Leopoldstadt, Josephstadt, &c. Hence I rather agree with old Shandy, who considered the name of his child as a matter of great importance. How interesting to posterity would be a Kaunitzstadt, a Lascy square, a Loudon place! Future ages would daily be reminded of those great men, who, either in the field or the cabinet, have increased the glory of Austria.
The climate is highly coquettish, as Mr. Burke says of our own. The city is exposed to the north and east winds; the air is very sharp, and more dry than humid. The dust is the great plague of Vienna ; its subtilty soon affects the eyes; it also causes pulmonary complaints of all kinds. Servants, running footmen, hair-dressers, soldiers, &c. are carried off in great numbers. A stranger can form but a faint idea of the dust. Sixteeri thousand coach wheels, with the necessary horses, and nearly a million of pedestrians, keep it in continual agitation. The whole city is buried in more than Egyptian darkness: and should you walk out of the gates, you must traversela column of dust half a mile in diameter.
The water is not of the best quality. Strangers are afflicted with diarrhea for some weeks after their arrival. In winter the thermometer is generally one or two degrees higher in the city, than in the suburbs and beyond the lines. The mean degree of heat at midsummer may be taken at 26, and in winter at 11 below zero. The area of the city and suburbs, within the lines, is estimated at 15,360,000 square yards. In Vienna they reckon from 47 to 52 persons to a house; in Paris 20; in Berlin 15 only. . The houses are built in a most substantial manner, and some of them have as many stories below as above ground. Such solidity of architecture offers no encouragement to fire-offices. In the memory of man there has been no instance in the city, of a single story having been destroyed by fire.
The witty observation of a writer, " that the emperour's horses are better lodged than their master,” may be true in regard to the external appearance of the palace ; but the interiour is worthy of a great monarch. In the first class of magnificent buildings may be enumerated the Imperial Chancery; the Imperial Library; the Belvidere ; the Schwarzenberg Palace; the Bohemian Chancery; the palaces of Prince Lichtenstein; the Hungarian Chancery ; the Church of St. Charles ; the Imperial Stables ; the Lobkowiz Palace, &c. The second class includes about two hundred, containing every thing that elegance and voluptuousness can require. The estimate for building Count Fries's new palace was 40,000l. the emperour's cabinet-maker made furniture to the amount of 6,0001, and the
pier glasses cost 1500l. The house of Count Trattner is worthy of note. The establishment consists of about 600 persons. The possessor came origi. nally from Hungary as an insignificant painter, and is now said to expend 30,000l. per annum.
Among the publick establishments, we shall just mention the six great barracks for infantry, cavalry, and artillery ; and the immense hospital that contains 3000 patients; also doctors, surgeons, attendants, cooks, midwives, lying-in women, foundlings, and lunaticks.
The mixture of national costume is an interesting sight to a stranger, on his first arrival in Vienna. The erect and stiff walking Hungarian wrapt up in his pelisse, with an immense long tail; the round head Pole, with his hair cut à la Brutus ; the Armenians, Wallachians, and Moldavians, in their half oriental dress; the Greeks in their white habits, and with long pipes; the bearded Mussulman with his broad dagger and yellow slippers; the scarecrow Polish Jews with their swollen cheeks, and filthy, uncombed hair; and the Hungarian and Transylvanian boors with their greasy sheep skins in the form of cloaks. To this we may add the confusion of at least sixteen different languages constantly clattering in his ears.
In Vienna, as in every other capital, many sacrifices are made to procure an equipage or a saddle horse. They reckon 30-0 gentlemen's carriages, 636 hackney coaches, 300 glass coaches, and about an equal number of publick vehicles. The amount of draught and riding horses, within the lines, may be taken at 10,000. Many a noble horse has been sold for 4001. and some of the princes keep 80 or 100 of them. The number of dogs, of all kinds, is estimated at 24,000.
The national blood has been so blerded and intermixed with that of other nations, that the only characteristick feature now remaining to a real Vienna man, is the long sharp chin. He is of a middle size, slim, and long-limbed. The females are well grown, fresh coloured, lively, and fine skinned. Their beauty fades rather early. But who can paint their vivacity ; what pen is swift enough to catch all that thousand variations; to trace on paper all those little nothings that constitute the essentiality of female attraction, and are continually fluttering on the wings of frivolity?
The citizens are courteous, open hearted, ready to oblige, docile, ingenuous, and good patriots. In their transactions they are upright and conscientious, condescending to their neighbours, and generous towards their friends. Their fundamental maxim is : "Live and let live." They are very fond of feasting, dancing, and of the theatres ; but, as they seldom become bankrupts, on the contrary are in easy circumstances, we may conclude that their pleasures do not exceed their economical means.
" There is only one Vienna,” they exclaim in the fulness of joy. Were they singular in this delusion, there might be some reason for rallying them on the subject; but what nation do we hear of, whose capital is not the best? The Parisian says the same; the Portuguese exclaims : “ He who has not seen Lisbon, has seen nothing." A Spaniard, on his death bed, begged his son for once in his life to see Madrid. The Neapolitan, in his horrible jarn, calls out : “ See Naples, and then die." And what says John Bull? Have not the Viennese, then, as much right as others to consider their capital as a paradise ?
Who can reckon up the number of princes, barons, and counts, in Vienta, who constitute the three classes of high nobility? It is very natural that a great nobility should be collected in such a capital. The throne, publick affairs, the great world, ambition, family connexions, pleasure,
&c. are the grand attractions. Old parchments and fine clothes no longer procure the favour of the monarch, the esteem of the publick or honoura: ble posts. A dashing young man may spend his income as he pleases ; may drive six horses ; keep open house; and boast of his pedigree; but if he considers these only as sufficient to render him a person of consequence, he will never acquire it. The most ancient families have long been distinguished for their publick services, their wealth, and their personal qualifications.
The society of the female nobility, also, is as instructive as it is delight. ful. In their circles, time is not wasted at the card table. Musical parties, friendly converse, literary information, observations on books, travels, works of art, the theatre, &c. beguile the hours of a long winter's evening
When the poor man has been working for days together, in a garret, to muster up a few pence, he comes down in the evening, stands a few minutes at the house door to consider the passing multitude, and then descends thirty steps under ground into a wine cellar. The atmosphere of these places is saturated with vinous exhalations, to such a degree that intoxication soon takes place. Here the workman takes his evening's meal ; the vintners sell wine from two pence to six pence the measure ; they furnish also cheese, cold fish, sausages, &c The most noted wine cellar, of the common sort, formerly belonged to a convent, and is filled with immense butts of red and white wine. The cellar men very seldom see the sun ; and in this one cellar they are said to burn 18,000 wax lights annually. The fashionable ones particularly the Hungarian cellar, are fitted up with a display of taste ; and in that you may order wine from one shilling a bottle, up to imperial Tokay at half a guinea a pint.
Institution of the Deaf and Dumb. Joseph II. who observed every thing in his travels that merited the attention of a thinking mind, having visited the school of the Abbé l'Epée at Paris, determined on erecting a similar one in his own capital. The number to be maintained gratis was fixed by his majesty at thirty ; but not exactly confined to it. Whoever wishes to introduce a deaf and dumb person, above that number, pays the moderate annual sum of 101. for board, clothing, instruction, &c. They are taught language, religion, physicks, and arithmetick. A printing office has also been erected, the operation of which appears to be well adapted to their capacities. The girls learn common houschold affairs. There is also a riband manufactory to employ other girls, as well as those boys who cannot be engaged in printing. At seven in the morning they have prayers, and then proceed to church to hear
According to the first regulations, they were allowed to walk out every day; but now they are confined to three times a week. Every Sunday evening the institution is open to the publick.
The Oriental Academy Contains twelve scholars, who are particularly instructed in the Oriental languages, as well as in the living ones of Europe, and other necessary sciences. When duly qualified, they are sent to the Austrian embassy at Constantinople; and either recalled when a vacancy takes place, to the chancery for Oriental affairs, or are appointed as consuls to Moldavia, Wallachia, and the islands of the Archipelago. When there is war with the Porte, they are attached to the army as interpreters.
No person can be buried at Vienna without having been previously in. spected by the Visitation Office. Every physician, on the death of a patient,
must draw up in writing the cause of his death, which is delivered to the above office. The object of this regulation is of great importance. If the deceased died of any suspicious disorder, the bed is carried away and burnt, or else thoroughly cleansed. Persons who die suddenly are examined whether they have been poisoned, or been killed by any violent means. In short, it is similar to our coroner's inquest. A daily list is published, specifying the name, age, condition, quarter of the city, and even the number of the house, and the disorder of the deceased. The smallest number of deaths per day is seven, the greatest thirty-six.
As wood is very dear, and an immense quantity is consumed in coffins, Joseph II. issued an edict in 1784, that for the future, all bodies should be merely sewed up in a sack, and put into the ground. This created gencral disgust. The Greeks first began, by representing the edict as contrary to their ritual. Those provincial families who had relations in Vienna were greatly alarmed. At last the emperour was obliged to issue a contra-edict, stating, that " as the living set such a value on their carcases, and wished them to be longer in rotting, he did not care how they were buried; and that in regard to the coffins, every man might do what he chose with his own corpse.”
FROM THE LONDON ATHENÆUM.
Patent of Mr. Allan Pollock of Paisley, for a Stove on a new construction. Dated
June, 1807. IN Mr. Pollock's stove, the fireplace occupies but a small part of its cavity much nearer the back part than the front and is in fact a small grate, like a common chamber grate, surrounded with a stove, or case of cast iron, containing the following parts.
The grate is enclosed at the sides and back with brick, or fire-stone, Behind the brick work is placed an apparatus of metal for heating the external air as it passes into the room, which consists of a case containing Several parallel shelves, arranged one over the other, each having an aperture at the opposite end to the one adjoining to it. To admit the air to pass from the bottom of this case, a pipe proceeds beneath the floor to the outward air; and from its top, another, about five inches in diameter, passes upwards through the middle of the stove, to an ornamental vase at top, perforated with apertures through which it enters into the apartments, after becoming well heated in its passage through such a length of tubes ; which are placed so as to obtain a due temperature, without any danger of their heat increasing so far as to produce bad vapours, or vitiate its respirability ; from which they are defended by the interposition of the brick work at the part next the fire.
Above the fireplace a hollow column rises about three feet, divided into three or four chambers by horizontal partitions. These chambers have also vertical partitions which pass from the circumference to the centre of each ; an aperture is made in each horizontal partition, through which the smoke passes, but so placed that it is at the contrary side of the vertical partie tion from the aperture in the adjoining one By this means the smoke circulates near the sides of the column, and communicates heat to it, till it rises to the top, from whence it is conveyed by a pipe into the chim. ney.
At the bottom of the stove is placed a door, for removing the ashes, in which is fixed a register to regulate the admission of the air to the fire,
and, of course, the degree of rapidity with which the air of the apartment is changed In the front of the stove, which is several inches before the grate, is another door, through which coals are co veyed to the fire. This door, and two other apertures at each side of it, are furnished with plates of transparent talc, through which the fire is visible ; which circumstance forms the most conspicuous distinction between this stove and those in common use.
Mr. Pollock mentions in his specification, that all the air tubes of the stove are lined with a sort of glazing, to prevent any bad effect on the air from the heated iron The general appearance of the stove is elegant ; the view of the fire through the windows has a pleasing effect, though from their smallness, the radiant heat which passes through them can be but very little, and it diffuses a very equable temperature over the chamber where it is used, the thermometers placed in various parts of it, for trial, having all uniformly indicated 60 degrees of Fahrenheit.
The contrivance used in this stove, for heating the air, is the same as that of the Philadelphia stove described many years ago in a publication of Dr Franklin's. The brick work interposed between this part and the fire, will certainly prevent the tubes from acquiring heat enough to decompose the air; but the possibility of glazing them, by merely coating the cores of the moulds in which they are cast, with lime, sand, &c. as mentioned in the specification, seems extremely doubtful.
The appearance of the stove, as well as its effect, would be much im· proved by increasing the size of the glazed apertures. The diminutive dimensions of those in that exhibited, makes them too much resemble the glasses of a raree show-box, though in other respects the stove forms a pleasing ornament to the chamber, and seems fully to answer the objects for which it was intended, of producing much heat with little fuel, and of admitting at the same time a due circulation of warm, fresh, and wholesome air.
NOCTURNAL AERIAL ASCENSION.
Letter from M. Garnerin to the editors of the Journal de Paris. GENTLEMEN,
BEFORE I undertake the second nocturnal aërial voyage, which will take place at Tivoli on Saturday, the 19th of September, I ought to give some account of that which I performed in the night between the fourth and fifth of August last. My balloon was lighted by twenty lamps. Many persons felt some alarm from the number of these lights, and their proximity to the balloon, in case a diminution of the pressure in the upper regions should oblige me to let out the hydrogen gas by the lower orifices. They feared lest, in this case, the gas should find its way to the lights, take fire, and communicate the flames to the balloon. I had foreseen this inconvenience. In the first place, the balloon), which was the same in which I ascended at Milan, was only two-thirds filled, that I might defer the emission of the gas as long as possible. In the next, the nearest lamps to the balloon were fourteen feei distant from it: and lastly, conduciors were placed in such a manner, as to convey the gas away in a