every moment, fraught with spiritual life, will dilate itself along the scale of immortality; so that we shall have accomplished much for God, and attained to a ripe old age, and be in readiness to die, when the sluggish man, of the same number of years, is, as it were, in the very infancy of his being."

The force of the following paragraph will be appreciated by those who have read the narratives of Humboldt, Bonpland, or Franklin.

"Whatever be the result of this mission in respect to yourself, let it be remembered, that the sacrifices made by you and your friends, the privations and hardships to which you will be subjected, and the dangers you will have to encounter, and which appear so formidable to many, are extraordinary only in the history of missions. In the history of commerce and of science, they are common and familiar scenes. Almost a century since, de la Condamine and Bouguer spent six months in a desert of South America, near the equator, contending day and night with incessant rains, that they might measure an arc of the meridian; while Maupertuis, in pursuit of the same object, thought nothing of the bleak and snowy precipices of Norway. What contempt of sufferings and danger has been evinced by the explorers of a north-western passage! How many privations, and sufferings unto death, have been cheerfully endured in Africa itself, to solve the problems of the Nile, and of the Niger! From what part of the world, and by what amount of privation and peril, is commerce deterred from sending her missionaries for exploration and for traffic? From none. All along the coast of Guinea you will find them, and plying to and fro in steam vessels upon the Niger. Commerce has no difficulty in procuring her missionaries for any portion of the earth; and even now they are going forth into all the world. Let the missionary of the cross go where he will, he will find that they have preceded him. Let him experience any amount of bodily sufferings; and it may probably be found that they have already experienced the same or greater sufferings, among the same people. It is lamentable that the church should make so much of personal sacrifices, endured for the glory of Christ and the salvation of men, when the world accounts them so little, endured for the sake of wealth or fame."

The Colonization Society of the State of Maryland, is about to establish a new colony on the coast of Africa, at cape Palmas. This cape is on the western coast, in north latitude 4° 30', being four degrees south of Sierra Leone, and nearly two degrees south of Liberia. The cape is included in the windward coast. This coast the English seamen have divided into three coasts, the Grain, Ivory,

and Kakoo. The Grain coast comprehends all the region between cape Mount, near Liberia, and cape Palmas. This coast produces abundance of rice, yams, and manioc. The cotton and indigo of the country are of the first quality. The articles for which Europeans have hitherto visited it, are malaguette, pepper, redwood, and ivory. The inhabitants are said to be excellent boatmen. Dr. Hall, who is to take charge of the emigrants, has visited the cape for the recovery of his health, and speaks in high terms of its salubriousness and other advantages. The first emigrants will be from twenty to thirty in number, all pledged to total abstinence in respect to the use or traffic in ardent spirits. They will devote themselves almost exclusively to agriculture. It is intended to use the utmost precaution in respect to the admission of improper emigrants. It is obvious that the colony will be established under very favorable auspices, having for its use, all the experience of the Liberian colony. If the latter should accomplish no other purpose than to show the practicability of the scheme, its title to our gratitude would be very great. We are happy to say that the board of managers of the Maryland society seem to be animated by an excellent spirit. Some of them, particularly Messrs. Harper, Latrobe, and Sheppard, have long been interested in the subject. It will be recollected that the ultimate abolition of slavery in Maryland is the design of these efforts.

A convention of the friends of temperance has been lately held in Worcester, Mass. Every part of the State was fully represented, about 500 delegates being present. The governor of the State, Levi Lincoln, presided. The same course in general was taken which was adopted by the late national convention, and which has been attended by such salutary consequences. One of the most prominent difficulties in the way of the temperance reformation in Massachusetts, is the license-system. A board of county commissioners, formed principally for the regulation of roads and highways, have a supervisory power over the selectmen or government of a town; and if the latter body refuse to grant licenses, or do not license so many persons as "the public good" seems to require, the commissioners kindly set the matter right by granting the required indulgence. The law evidently needs a reform in this particular. If we must yet be cursed with a system, which is the cause of three fourths of our pauper-taxes, lawsuits, strifes, and horrid crimes, let every town have full power to keep its own borders pure; let no county commissioners nullify the acts of a town. We are cheered with the hope that the day is not far distant, when the statute laws of Massachusetts shall have nothing to do with 'regulating murder,' as Burke

said of the slave-trade. A masterly examination of this subject will be found in the sixth report of the American Temperance Society.

We learn that petitions will be presented to the next congress for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia. The number of slaves in this territory in 1830 was 6,060, and of free colored persons, 6,163. The number of free white persons was 27,635. The number of slaves in 1820, was 6,377; so it seems that there has been a diminution of more than 200 in ten years. It was stated two or three years since, we do not know on what authority, that a majority of the white inhabitants of the District, including some of the judges of the courts, were in favor of the passage of a law, fixing a time when slavery should cease. It is a notorious fact, that the jails of the District have been burdened with slaves, brought there as into safe receptacles, till they could be satisfactorily disposed of in the market. We are not aware than any impediments to abolition exist in the conditions on which the cession of the district was made by the States of Maryland and Virginia to the United States. The principal objection, which arises in our minds to the measure, is the aspect which it may assume in respect to the abolition of slavery in the States over which neither congress nor the free States have any control. Notwithstanding, we think the measure is eminently desirable. That District, of all other places on earth, should be pure from the contamination of slavery. The whole country have an interest in its prosperity, and through congress, have the entire business of its legislation intrusted to their keeping.

We are sorry to say that the ravages of the cholera have been very melancholy in the western States. Some of the most valuable members of society have been swept into eternity. We are happy to add that the pestilence has now nearly ceased. We have seen no attempt to account for its reappearance, and its indiscriminating virulence. New Orleans, in addition to the cholera, has been laid waste with the yellow fever. That is truly a city of death. Cannot some decided measures be taken to investigate thoroughly the causes of the maladies, which are constantly sending a thrill of sorrow into every portion of the Union. It seems to us that some determined effort ought to be adopted by the authorities more especially interested, to give the city and surrounding country a general lustration, physical and moral. The climate must operate as a serious embarrassment to the commercial prosperity of the city.

West Endies.

In connection with these islands, we may appropriately introduce the following condensed statement of the labors of the United

Brethren for the conversion of the heathen. The 21st of August, 1832, was celebrated throughout the church of the Brethren; a century having been then completed from the day of their first effort in behalf of the pagans. Their missions were commenced in the West Indies.

"The missionary spirit manifested itself as early as the year 1727, and every opportunity was gladly embraced of yielding to its blessed influence.

"Thus, on the 21st of August, 1732, the first two missionaries of the Brethren's church-Leonard Dober and David Nitschman-set out for the island of St. Thomas: on the 19th of January, 1733, three brethren-Matt. Stach, Christian Stach, and Christian David-burning with like zeal, took their departure for Greenland: John Töltschig and Anthony Seiffarth proceeded, in 1734, to North America; others, in 1735, to Surinam and Berbice, Lewis Chr. Dehne and J. Güttner, forming the first settlement in Berbice in 1738: in 1736, George Schmidt proceeded to the Cape of Good Hope.

"During the ten years which followed the period now alluded to, the missionary spirit lost much of its energy. Another period of ten years now succeeded of a different complexion.

"The mission in Jamaica was begun in 1754, by Zach. George Caries; and that in Antigua in 1756, by Samuel Isles: both these missions were, in the sequel, crowned with the most encouraging success. Neither was the wild and inhospitable coast of Labrador forgotten at that time, though the establishment of a mission among the predatory and murderous Esquimaux could not be effected till 1770, by the Brn. Jens Haven, Lawrence Drachart, and Stephen Jensen.

"In the year 1765, the mission in Barbadoes took its rise; and the first settlement was formed in 1767, by Benjamin Brookshaw—in 1775, that in St. Kitt's, by the Brn. Birkby and Gottwald-and in 1790, that in Tobago, by Br. J. Montgomery: this was afterwards suspended, but was renewed in 1827.

"In the year 1792, the mission at the Cape of Good Hope was renewed by the Brn. H. Marsveld, D. Schwinn, and J. Kühnel; and, in subsequent years, was greatly enlarged. The inspection of the leper hospital was also committed by government to the Brethren. In 1828, our missionaries in South Africa ventured to go beyond the boundary of the Cape Colony, into the country of the Tambookies, a Caffree tribe, and the settlement of Shiloh has, in a short time, obtained an unexpected increase from the surrounding population.

"On this festive day, we see 209 brethren and sisters diligently employed on 41 missionary stations, in sowing the gospel seed; and 49


count upwards of 40,000 Greenlanders, Esquimaux, Indians, Negroes, Hottentots, and Caffres, including about 17,000 communicants, whom we are favored to call our brethren and sisters in the Lord. And how many thousands are already standing before the throne of the Lamb, who, while here below, were turned by the ministry of our brethren from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God!

"It is on this day a subject of thankfulness and joy, that the Lord has hitherto raised up brethren and sisters, who were willing to give up their worldly prospects, their native land and connections, their personal comforts, yea, their health and life, to engage in that missionary work, which He himself has graciously intrusted to our church. During the past century, 1,199 persons (740 brethren, and 459 sisters, have been employed in the same.

"At the present time, there are 57 superannuated or retired missionaries (viz. 24 brethren and 33 sisters), who reside in our German, English, and American congregations, and are either wholly or partially supported by our mission fund; constituting a charge on this fund of about £1,200, on an average of several years past. The allowance to a married missionary in retirement does not therefore exceed £35, and to a widow £12—an economical provision, to which it would be impracticable to adhere, were it not for the peculiar advantages afforded for this purpose by the settlements of the brethren, especially on the continent of Europe.

"Not a few of those who were born in our missionary stations have blessedly followed the footsteps of their parents. In the year 1830, there were twelve brethren and sisters employed in various stations, who were themselves the children of missionaries."


Egypt, under the enlightened policy of Mohammed Ali, seems about to re-appear in her former glory. This celebrated chieftain is of Turkish origin, and was born at Cavala, in Macedonia, in 1769. From his youth, he exhibited extraordinary penetration, dexterity, and ambition. The Turkish governor at Cavala, gave him a common education, and then an office, and a rich wife. He learned reading and writing after he became a pacha. A merchant of Marseilles, named Lion, inspired him with friendly feelings towards the French, and with religious toleration. On this account, the residence of strangers in Egypt has been facilitated. His first campaign was in Egypt, against the French in 1800. He established his reputation as a soldier in the contest of the pachas with the mamelukes, after the French had abandoned Egypt, in 1802. In April, 1806, the Porte

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