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ardent spirits as a beverage. Nearly 1,500,000 tracts on temperance have been issued in London alone.
A late number of the London Quarterly Journal contains an interesting article on Hebrew grammars and lexicons. “ The grammar by which Reuchlinus, more than 300 years ago, first introduced the study of Hebrew to the more general notice of Christian divines, is by far more useful and intelligible than this (Noble's grammar) and similar modern publications. It was owing to the deadening influence of such incoherent systems, that the knowledge of Hebrew was nearly extinguished in Great Britain, until it was revived during the last ten years, by the general desire of examining thoroughly the correctness of the interpretations advanced by some great agitators in the religious world, and by the light of German philologists reflected from America upon Great Britain. Moses Stuart, the associate professor of sacred literature in the institution at Andover, in the United States of North America, alluding to the German neologists, exhorted his pupils' to spoil these Egyptians of their jewels of learning;' and he set them a good example by rendering the results of Gesenius's investigations accessible to English readers, in a grammar which by far surpasses in value, all those elementary publications, of which Great Britain has been even more productive than Germany itself.” “Dr. Nicol, the late regius pro: fessor of Hebrew at Oxford, recommended Stuart's grammar to his pupils, and in consequence of the recommendations of the present regius professor, the European reprint has been undertaken. The grammars of professor Stuart are not mere translations from the German originals, but rather eclectic imitations, by which he has given a new impulse to the study of Hebrew among the Anglo-Germanic tribes on both sides of the Atlantic. The chief defect of professor Stuart's grammar consists in the attempt to avoid every defect, and in the consequent admission of lexicographical materials, by which the grammatical rules are obscured." “ We conclude by expressing our respect for the learning of the author, who has reflected the rays of German biblical knowledge from America upon Britain." Professor Gibbs's lexicon and manual are said to be not mere vocabularies, but judicious condensations of the works of Gesenius. Rev. Dr. Edward Hincks's Hebrew grammar, used in the college at Belfast in Ireland, is said to be a pleasing proof that in Ireland the study of Hebrew is now cultivated on better principles. Mr. Synge's Easy Introduction to the Hebrew Language on the principles of Pestalozzi, is well spoken of. The work originated in the convictions of a parent, that if a dead language be the proper material for training the early powers of the human intellect, Hebrew ought to be the first dead language presented to the mind of a Christian child.
A theological prize at Oxford, on the subject of the analogy of God's dealings with men, would not lead us to expect a perpetual reversion of miraculous powers in the church,' has been awarded to Henry William Wilberforce, M. A. of Oriel college. The subject for the prize in 1834, is 'the sanctifying influence of the Holy Ghost indispensable to human salvation.'--Mountford Longford, LL. D. has been appointed the first professor of political economy on the foundation of archbishop Whateley, in the uni
versity of Dublin.-Rev. M. S. Alexander has been named as professor of Hebrew and Rabbinical literature in King's college, London; and Rev. R. Jones, professor of political economy, in place of N. W. Senior, Esq. resigned.
France. Paris was the tenth town in Europe, in which a printing press was established. It was set up by Ulrich Gering, a native of the canton of Luzerne, in the house of the Sorbonne, in 1469. Strasburg was the next town which had the advantage of a press, and soon afterwards, Lyons. In 1830, there were 233 towns in France, which had altogether 620 printing houses, and 259 towns in which 1,142 booksellers were established. Paris alone had 80 presses; Lyons, 12 presses and 24 booksellers. The average result is, that there is one press in France to every 51,327 inhabitants, and one bookseller to every 27,769. In Prussia there are 280 printing houses and 693 presses, or one printing establishment to every 46,213 souls. Weimar has a printing office to 19,166 souls. Leipzig alone, employs 120 presses. Switzerland, with a population of 2,000,000, possesses between 145 and 150 presses, attached to 46 printing establishments.—The Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of the French Institute has elected, as foreign associates, lord Brougham and M. Ancillon, of Berlin.-M. Tessier, a distinguished architect and geologist, has announced to the Academy of Sciences his approaching departure for the East, whither he is sent by government for the purpose of inquiring into the ancient architecture of these countries. It is his intention to make a trigonometrical survey of the lakes of Asia. He will also inquire into the state of the principal libraries.—Coray, the celebrated Greek author, who did so much to revive, among his countrymen, a love of the literature of their illustrious ancestors, and who died in Paris, in April last, in his 85th year, was born in Chios, in 1748, and went to Montpellier in 1782, for the purpose of studying medicine and natural history. He has left his valuable library to his country, which he had the consolation to see in the enjoyment of that independence for which she had fought with such heroism.—The 19th volume of the collections of the great French historians has just made its appearance. It is divided into three series, the first comprising the historians of the wars against the Albigenses. The first part of the first volume of the long announced Encyclopedie des gens du Monde, to be completed in about twelve volumes, or twenty-four parts, has made its appearance at Paris. It is designed for readers of all nations, and will be written with a spirit of moderation and tolerance.
Germany. A new Conversations-Lexicon, in ten volumes, is announced for publication, by a learned society of Leipzig.-Dr. E. G. Graff announces for publication, a Dictionary of the Old High German language.-A new edition of Suidas's Greek Lexicon is announced for publication, in two volumes, under the editorship of professor Bernhardy. The text will be the editio princeps of Milan.--The Prussian monarchy represented in its topographi. cal, statistical, and economical state,' by Dr. Leopold Krug, is now in a course of publication.-A new portrait of Goëthe has just been published by Schwerdgeburth, which, in point of characteristic resemblance, is said to be superior to any that have yet appeared of that extraordinary man.
1.—The board of curators of the university of Göttingen have recently determined to construct a building, into the materials of which no iron is to enter, for the purpose of making magnetic observations. Von Humboldt has set the example, by erecting a similar structure, at his own expense, at Berlin, and providing it with a valuable set of instruments, made by Gambey, of Paris, A series of hourly observations is intended to be instituted at Göttingen.
Spain. A number of the treatises of the British Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge have been translated into Spanish. The works are neatly printed, with well executed lithographic illustrations. They are published at Barcelona, but there are regularly appointed agents in thirtytwo other cities and towns in Spain.
Molland, Societies were formed in Holland at the close of the 14th century, one of whose objects was to multiply and circulate copies of the Holy Scriptures; and the benefit of placing them in the hands of the laity was eloquently enforced by Zerbolt, a Roman Catholic priest. These societies spread with rapidity through the low countries and the adjacent states of Germany.
Switzerland. The opening of the university of Zurich took place on the 29th of April, when the inaugural oration was delivered by professor Oken, the first rector of the university. In the canton of Neuchâtel, containing 50,000 inhabitants, the number of national schools is 221 ; of scholars, 7,766.
Pungary. The Protestants in this country have several excellent gymnasia, as well as three seminaries of a higher order; the colleges of Debreczin, Sáros Patak and Pápa, containing in all 2,000 students.
Russia. The Corpus Juris, or new code of the Russian empire, which has been recently published, is composed of a collection of laws, promulgated between 1649 and 1827. It is arranged in a systematic order, and in a clear, . concise, and comprehensive manner. It is of pure Russian origin from beginning to end. It is to go into operation on the first of January, 1835. It is composed of eight divisions, in fifteen volumes: 1. The organization of the various departments of law; 2. Orders touching personal service; 3. Orders touching the administration of the public revenues; 4. Laws concerning the various classes of society; 5. Civil laws and registries ; 6. Ordinances touching the economy of the state ; 7. Ordinances affecting matters of police; 8. Criminal laws.
The Armenians. Sir Alexander Johnstone, in a late meeting of the Asiatic Society, stated some interesting facts in regard to the Armenians. The nation numbers not less than 10 or 12,000,000 in Asia. The literary character of the people is not less remarkable than their close application to trade. Their colleges at Echmiadzin and St. Lazarus possess excellent libraries, and effect a great deal for the promotion of literature among the people in general. At Constantinople, they contemplate erecting an hospital and school, for which they have received the sanction of the sultan, and one of their priests, the Rev. Nerses Lazarien, is now in London to endeavor to secure the cooperation of the liberal in this project. It is hoped that the sum of £30,000, left for the promotion of education among the Armenians, by Mr. Raphael, may be assigned to this object by the court of chancery, in whose hands it now is. Among the Armenians, who are now exerting an extraordinary influence, are M. Albro, the prime minister of the páshá of Egypt; his cousin, who has had a mail coach with complete harness sent out to him, and intends it to travel on the road between Cairo, Alexandria, Damietta, and Rosetta ; and Syeed Khan, the agent of the prince royal of Persia, who has taken out English miners, for the purpose of exploring the mines of that country, and had recently freighted a ship, direct from London, to the port of Trebizond, being the first instance of such a voyage.
Píndoostan. The British Dominions in Asia have some peculiar advantages for the purposes of scientific and philosophical research. The surface of the country presents a difference of elevation above the level of the sea, varying from six miles to 26,000 feet. The phenomena of the atınosphere can nowhere be studied with greater facility and accuracy, while the vast range of its natural productions affords ample scope for observation and experiment; and above all, a population of 100,000,000 of persons, presents an equally fertile subject of moral investigation. In the new charter of the East India company, the following ecclesiastical provisions are proposed to be inserted : that the archdeaconries of Bombay and Madras be abolished, and that in lieu of them a suffragan or assistant bishop be appointed for each of those presidencies, on a salary exceeding only by £500 that of the archdeacon, which is £2,000 per annum. To assist the suffragan bishops, it is proposed, that the senior chaplain at Bombay and Madras be respectively made commissaries, with an allowance of £200 or £230 per annum, in addition to their salaries as chaplains. The suffragan bishops, proceeding in that capacity from England to India, are to be allowed £500 for outfit. The allowance for the purpose to the bishop of Calcutta is £1,200. The assistant bishops are to be competent to perform all the duties, within their respective dioceses, which now devolve upon the bishop of Calcutta. An appeal will lie, however, to the metropolitan at Calcutta, from the decisions of his suffragans. In pursuance of this arrangement, archdeacon Robinson of Madras, (a son of the excellent Mr. Robinson of Leicester,) is appointed to the bishopric of Madras. The see of Bombay will probably be supplied from England. The bishop of Calcutta has under his jurisdiction, in addition to the presidency of Calcutta, Van Diemen's Land, New South Wales, Ceylon, the Cape of Good Hope, and the Mauritius.—The committee of the Asiatic Society have taken measures for procuring a list of the principal manuscripts employed in the schools, and " it is hoped that through the medium of the missionaries residing in Jaffna, Ceylon, (the American,) translations of them may be obtained, and their real style and tendency made known."
Abolition of slavery in Ceylon.-In 1816, 748 slave-holders, proprietors of more than 15,000 slaves, agreed that the children of slaves, born after the 12th of August of that year, should be free. Domestic slavery having been put an end to, the same measures were adopted for the benefit of the allodial (feudal slaves) and of between 24,000 and 25,000 of this class, the greater portion have become free. The relinquishment of the right to demand compulsory labor from the natives on the part of the government, has at length taken place, much to its credit, under the administration of the present governor, Sir R. W. Horton.-Cutch. It seems that infanticide is still practised in this territory. The male Rajput population still predominates over the female, in the proportion of nearly six to one. It is probable that the Rajputs do not restrict themselves solely to destroying the females of a family, considering the small number of male children; a chief rarely having more than one boy.-Native vessels of the coasts of Coromandel, Malabar, and of Ceylon : the catamarans of Ceylon, Malabar, and Coromandel ; canoes of Point de Galle, and the Malabar coast; the jungar of the Malabar coast, for the navigation of rivers; the hamban manché, or snake boat of Cochin; the bunder manché, or boat used to load ships and carry goods on the Malabar coast; the masula boats, chiefly employed at Madras; the Mangalore, the Calicut, and Ponane manché, different descriptions of coasting boats; patamars, vessels employed in the coasting trade from Ceylon to Bombay; Arab dows, vessels employed in the trade between the Red sea, the Arabian coast, the Persian gulf, &c., used also for purposes of war and piracy, always manned by Arabs; budgerous, trading vessels, carrying on commercial intercourse between the same limits as the preceding Indian vessels, and manned with Indian seamen, called lascars ; doni, a vessel trading along the coast of Coromandel to Ceylon, and the gulf of Manar; the boatila manché, employed in the gulf of Manar, and southern part of Ceylon.