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Lincoln, Edmands & Co., of Boston, will soon publish a memoir of Roger Williams, by Rev. James D. Knowles, of the Newton theological institution. It is supposed that this work will clearly illustrate the principles of religious freedom, of which Roger Williams is a well known assertor.-The same publishers have also in press, a biography of the Rev. Pres. Staughton, of the Columbian college, D. C., with a selection from his writings, by the Rev. Mr. Lynde, of Cincinnati.-Measures are in operation, to collect materials for publishing memoirs of Rev. Thomas Baldwin, D. D., Rev. Stephen Gano, M D., Rev. Richard Furman, D. D., and other Baptist divines. Two editions of Lowth's Isaiah are in press, one the 'variorum edition,' comprising the variations of Dodson and Stock, and perhaps those in the late edition of Mr. Noyes, noticed in this number of the Observer; the other edition, publishing by William Hilliard, is to contain simply the translation, dissertations, and notes, as left by bishop Lowth. Rosenmueller says, that Lowth understands and expresses the Hebrew poet better than any other writer. Of Dodson and Stock, we have no knowledge.-An excellent edition of Lowth's Lectures on Hebrew Poetry was published a few years since, by Prof. Stowe, of Cincinnati.-A new quarterly periodical publication is about to be commenced in New York city. It is to be partly literary, and partly theological. It will contain discussions on various points of controverted doctrine. We learn that an ample fund has been provided, for establishing the periodical on a sure foundation.-The Rev. Dr. Tyler, of Portland, will soon collect and publish, in a separate volume, with some additions, his articles on the New Haven controversy.—The first number of the Religious Magazine has just been issued, by William Peirce, of Boston. Messrs. Gorham D. and Jacob Abbott are to be jointly engaged in conducting it; the former to be the responsible editor. It is to be highly practical in its character, and familiar in its style, as it is designed to meet the wants of the great mass of society. It will embrace articles on the elementary principles of religion, unconnected with controversy; articles on the Bible, for Sabbath school scholars, teachers, and others; reviews of such religious books as are calculated to circulate widely through the community; essays on the practical duties and relations of life; narratives; occasional extracts; communications illustrating religious education; religious and literary enterprises of the day, &c. It will be published monthly, each number 48 pages, making an annual volume of 576 pages; the price $2 50 in advance. We see no reason why this publication may not become a very effective instrument in promoting the great cause of human happiness. One of the editors has just returned from Europe, where he has been engaged in making preparations for his labors.

Herder's Lectures on Hebrew Poetry, translated by professors Marsh and Torrey, of the university of Vermont, will soon appear.-George, Latimer & Co., of Philadelphia, have just published Hengstenberg's Christologie, a view of those prophecies and parts of the Old Testament which relate to the Messiah. The translator is Prof. Keith, of the theological institution at Alexandria, D. C. Hengstenberg is well known, as the editor of the Evangelical Church Journal, of Berlin.

Great Britain.

The British Association for the Advancement of Science commenced its third meeting at Cambridge, on the 24th of June last. Its first meeting was held at York, in 1831, and the second in Oxford, in 1832. The fourth is to be held at Edinburgh. This association was originally proposed by Sir David Brewster. Its objects are to "give a stronger impulse and more systematic direction to scientific inquiry, to promote the intercourse of those who cultivate science, in different parts of the British empire, with one another, and with foreign philosophers, and to obtain a greater degree of national attention to the objects of science, and a removal of any disadvan tages of a public nature which impede its progress." In the morning, meetings of the sections were held, composed of some of the most eminent members of the different branches of science, and general meetings of the society at 1 o'clock, and in the evening. The sections were, 1. mathematical and general physics, Mr. Brewster chairman; 2. chemistry, mineralogy, &c., Dr. Dalton chairman; 3. geology and geography, Mr. G. B. Greenough chairman; 4. natural history, Rev. W. L. P. Garnons chairman; 5. anatomy, &c., Dr. Haviland chairman. Some of the subjects discussed were the following: On the phenomena of aurora borealis; some account of isomorphism; on the pith of plants; shafts of mines; nervous system, &c. At the general meeting, Dr. Buckland, as president for the past year, addressed the assembly, in which he gave an account of the volume of reports just issued by the society. He then resigned his place to the Rev. Prof. Sedgwick, who also addressed the meeting. He was followed by the Rev. W. Whewell. When the meeting was opened on Monday, the number of members amounted to 688; before the close, it had reached 1,377. A great proportion of the men of science from Great Britain were present.

Iona Club.-A society has been projected in Edinburgh, by some enthusiastic admirers of Gaelic literature, to be called the Iona Club, in commemoration of the monastery of Iona, the ancient seat of Scottish learning. Its objects are to investigate and illustrate the history, antiquities, and early literature of the Highlands of Scotland. It will print a half-yearly miscellany, comprehending copies and abstracts of interesting historical documents, English, Latin, and Gaelic, and the transactions of the club. It offers medals. The number of members is 100.

A newly invented microscope, of great power, has lately been shown in London. A united stream of oxygen and hydrogen gas, directed against a piece of lime, produces a light of such vivid force, as effectually answers all the purposes of the strong solar illumination. With all the powers of the solar microscope, it can represent objects five hundred thousand times as large as they really are. The external integument of a fly's eye, filled with thousands of lenses, appears in the dimensions of a lady's veil.-In the United Kingdom, more than 700 temperance societies have been established; the members in England and Wales are 53,000; in Scotland, about the same number; and in Ireland, upwards of 15,000; these, added to the numbers who have associated in the British colonies, form a total of about 150,000 British subjects, who have associated to banish the ruinous use of

ardent spirits as a beverage. Nearly 1,500,000 tracts on temperance have been issued in London alone.

A late number of the London Quarterly Journal contains an interesting article on Hebrew grammars and lexicons. "The grammar by which Reuchlinus, more than 300 years ago, first introduced the study of Hebrew to the more general notice of Christian divines, is by far more useful and intelligible than this (Noble's grammar) and similar modern publications. It was owing to the deadening influence of such incoherent systems, that the knowledge of Hebrew was nearly extinguished in Great Britain, until it was revived during the last ten years, by the general desire of examining thoroughly the correctness of the interpretations advanced by some great agitators in the religious world, and by the light of German philologists reflected from America upon Great Britain. Moses Stuart, the associate professor of sacred literature in the institution at Andover, in the United States of North America, alluding to the German neologists, exhorted his pupils' to spoil these Egyptians of their jewels of learning;' and he set them a good example by rendering the results of Gesenius's investigations accessible to English readers, in a grammar which by far surpasses in value, all those elementary publications, of which Great Britain has been even more productive than Germany itself." "Dr. Nicol, the late regius professor of Hebrew at Oxford, recommended Stuart's grammar to his pupils, and in consequence of the recommendations of the present regius professor, the European reprint has been undertaken. The grammars of professor Stuart are not mere translations from the German originals, but rather eclectic imitations, by which he has given a new impulse to the study of Hebrew among the Anglo-Germanic tribes on both sides of the Atlantic. The chief defect of professor Stuart's grammar consists in the attempt to avoid every defect, and in the consequent admission of lexicographical materials, by which the grammatical rules are obscured." "We conclude by expressing our respect for the learning of the author, who has reflected the rays of German biblical knowledge from America upon Britain." Professor Gibbs's lexicon and manual are said to be not mere vocabularies, but judicious condensations of the works of Gesenius. Rev. Dr. Edward Hincks's Hebrew grammar, used in the college at Belfast in Ireland, is said to be a pleasing proof that in Ireland the study of Hebrew is now cultivated on better principles. Mr. Synge's Easy Introduction to the Hebrew Language on the principles of Pestalozzi, is well spoken of. The work originated in the convictions of a parent, that if a dead language be the proper material for training the early powers of the human intellect, Hebrew ought to be the first dead language presented to the mind of a Christian child.

A theological prize at Oxford, on the subject of 'the analogy of God's dealings with men, would not lead us to expect a perpetual reversion of miraculous powers in the church,' has been awarded to Henry William Wilberforce, M. A. of Oriel college. The subject for the prize in 1834, is 'the sanctifying influence of the Holy Ghost indispensable to human salvation.'-Mountford Longford, LL. D. has been appointed the first professor of political economy on the foundation of archbishop Whateley, in the uni

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versity of Dublin.-Rev. M. S. Alexander has been named as professor of Hebrew and Rabbinical literature in King's college, London; and Rev. R. Jones, professor of political economy, in place of N. W. Senior, Esq. resigned.

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France. Paris was the tenth town in Europe, in which a printing press was established. It was set up by Ulrich Gering, a native of the canton of Luzerne, in the house of the Sorbonne, in 1469. Strasburg was the next town which had the advantage of a press, and soon afterwards, Lyons. In 1830, there were 233 towns in France, which had altogether 620 printing houses, and 259 towns in which 1,142 booksellers were established. Paris alone had 80 presses; Lyons, 12 presses and 24 booksellers. The average result is, that there is one press in France to every 51,327 inhabitants, and one bookseller to every 27,763. In Prussia there are 280 printing houses and 693 presses, or one printing establishment to every 46,213 souls. Weimar has a printing office to 19,166 souls. Leipzig alone, employs 120 presses. Switzerland, with a population of 2,000,000, possesses between 145 and 150 presses, attached to 46 printing establishments.—The Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of the French Institute has elected, as foreign associates, lord Brougham and M. Ancillon, of Berlin.-M. Tessier, a distinguished architect and geologist, has announced to the Academy of Sciences his approaching departure for the East, whither he is sent by government for the purpose of inquiring into the ancient architecture of these countries. It is his in. tention to make a trigonometrical survey of the lakes of Asia. He will also inquire into the state of the principal libraries.—Coray, the celebrated Greek author, who did so much to revive, among his countrymen, a love of the literature of their illustrious ancestors, and who died in Paris, in April last, in his 85th year, was born in Chios, in 1748, and went to Montpellier in 1782, for the purpose of studying medicine and natural history. He has left his valuable library to his country, which he had the consolation to see in the enjoyment of that independence for which she had fought with such heroism.-The 19th volume of the collections of the great French historians has just made its appearance. It is divided into three series, the first comprising the historians of the wars against the Albigenses. The first part of the first volume of the long announced Encyclopedie des gens du Monde, to be completed in about twelve volumes, or twenty-four parts, has made its appearance at Paris. It is designed for readers of all nations, and will be written with a spirit of moderation and tolerance.

Germany. A new Conversations-Lexicon, in ten volumes, is announced for publication, by a learned society of Leipzig.-Dr. E. G. Graff announces for publication, a Dictionary of the Old High German language. A new edition of Suidas's Greek Lexicon is announced for publication, in two volumes, under the editorship of professor Bernhardy. The text will be the editio princeps of Milan.--- The Prussian monarchy represented in its topographie cal, statistical, and economical state,' by Dr. Leopold Krug, is now in a course of publication.-A new portrait of Goëthe has just been published by Schwerdgeburth, which, in point of characteristic resemblance, is said to be superior to any that have yet appeared of that extraordinary man.

an.-The board of curators of the university of Göttingen have recently determined to construct a building, into the materials of which no iron is to enter, for the purpose of making magnetic observations. Von Humboldt has set the example, by erecting a similar structure, at his own expense, at Berlin, and providing it with a valuable set of instruments, made by Gambey, of Paris, A series of hourly observations is intended to be instituted at Göttingen.

Spain. A number of the treatises of the British Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge have been translated to Spanish. The works are neatly printed, with well executed lithographic illustrations. They are published at Barcelona, but there are regularly appointed agents in thirtytwo other cities and towns in Spain.

Volland, Societies were formed in Holland at the close of the 14th century, one of whose objects was to multiply and circulate copies of the Holy Scriptures ; and the benefit of placing them in the hands of the laity was eloquently enforced by Zerbolt, a Roman Catholic priest. These societies spread with rapidity through the low countries and the adjacent states of Germany.

Switzerland. The opening of the university of Zurich took place on the 29th of April, when the inaugural oration was delivered by professor Oken, the first rector of the university. In the canton of Neuchâtel, containing 50,000 inhabitants, the number of national schools is 221 ; of scholars, 7,766.

Hungary. The Protestants in this country have several excellent gymnasia, as well as three seminaries of a higher order; the colleges of Debreczin, Sáros Patak and Pápa, containing in all 2,000 students.

Russia. The Corpus Juris, or new code of the Russian empire, which has been recently published, is composed of a collection of laws, promulgated between 1649 and 1827. It is arranged in a systematic order, and in a clear, . concise, and comprehensive manner. It is of pure Russian origin from beginning to end. It is to go into operation on the first of January, 1835. It is composed of eight divisions, in fifteen volumes: 1. The organization of the various departments of law; 2. Orders touching personal service; 3. Orders touching the administration of the public revenues; 4. Laws concerning the various classes of society; 5. Civil laws and registries; 6. Ordinances touching the economy of the state ; 7. Ordinances affecting matters of police ; 8. Criminal laws.

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