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vegetable kingdoms, to be to him for sustenance. moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you ; even as the green herb have I given you all things." Gen. ix. 3. With this provision for his wants, there is also given to the body the capacity to receive, and the property to convert these bounties to the restoration of its wasting powers. But with the extensive field spread out before his view, from which he may partake, and the propensity of bis erring nature to pervert the bounties of Providence, there would be danger that man would dishonor the Giver of all good, by a cruel destruction of animal life, or by a wanton waste of the bounties of the field. There is therefore implanted in the constitution a check to his desires, in the limited power which the body has of converting to its renewal the various aliments provided. It is also in conformity with the features of God's government, tempered every where by gentleness and mercy, that this limit of man should be greatly contracted—that is, that his actual wants should be very few, and the required amount of sustenance should be very small. Experience shows that such is the law of the animal economy; and revelation has founded on all these principles, those precepts which are enjoined upon him, as a recipient of God's bounties. The corner stone laid on the foundation, is temperance.

Over this is raised the whole edifice of Christian perfectness, with all its garniture of spiritual beauty and moral ornament. The precepts which recognise this necessary duty of self-denial and moderation, are such as these.—1 Pet. ii. 11. “Dearly beloved, I beseech you, as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul." 1 Pet. iv. 2. “ That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God.” Luke xxi. 34. “Take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting and drunkenness." Rom. viii. 13. “For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die; but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.” Rom. xiii. 14. “But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof." 2 Cor. vii. 1. “ Let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit.” Gal. v. 16. “Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfill the lust of the flesh.” 24. "They that are Christ's, have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.” Matt. vi. 25. “ Take no thought

Gal. v.

for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on.”' 1 Cor. ix. 25. “ And every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things.” 1 Cor. ix. 27.“ But I keep under my body, and bring it into subjection.” Gal. v. 22, 23. “ But the fruit of the Spirit is — temperance.' “ Be temperate in all things.”

In accordance with these precepts of the gospel, experience brings in its testimony to the fact that but little is required to sustain the body in health and vigor. The aged Venetian Cornaro reduced the quantity to the small amount of twelve ounces of solid food,* and fourteen of liquid, a day.t Our own Franklin, when in penury, supported bodily labor and mental effort on a limited supply of bread with water, and after his fare became less frugal, he for some years abstained from meat. These are extreme cases, and do not furnish a standard for ordinary men. The results of the investigations of intelligent and humane men, who have pursued the subject with the single desire of benefiting mankind, are such as these :

A gentleman in the 64th year of his age, arrived at the conclusion, after long experiment, that his bodily and mental vigor was best maintained by thirty-eight ounces of liquid, and eighteen and an half of solid food—in all, three pounds and ten and an half ounces a day.

A learned physicians found that it required about twenty ounces of bread and four pounds of water to sustain him in strength.

Another accurate observery recommends for a man of common stature, without a laborious occupation, “ Eight ounces of flesh meat, and twelve of bread or of vegetable food, and about two pints of liquid in the twenty-four hours. The valetudinary, or those employed in sedentary professions, or intellectual pursuits, must lessen this quantity of solid food, if they wish to preserve their health, and the freedom of their spirits.”

Sir John Sinclair, in his code of health, arrives generally at this conclusion. “For sedentary people, the following quantities may be recommended. For breakfast, four ounces of bread and eight ounces of liquid ; for dinner, four ounces of bread, eight ounces of meat, and twenty ounces of liquid ; and for supper, eight ounces liquid food; making in all fifty-two ounces. Those, however, who take moderate exercise, will require fuller diet; the amount of which must greatly depend upon the quantity of exercise they take. When moderate exercise is taken, an addition of one third, or about seventeen ounces, may be allowed; but when violent, it may require one half additional, or twenty-six ounces. With a life of much personal labor, a great quantity of food is necessary to recruit the exhausted frame. Those who are employed in common labor may be satisfied with double the quantity allotted to the sedentary, or in all, six and an half pounds, or with great labor even eight pounds of solid and of liquid food, one third of which should be solid and the other two thirds, liquid nourishment.” The results of this learned gentleman were obtained by an examination of the quantity actually consumed by individuals who were then in apparent health, and not by an observation of what the system required to preserve its powers for future usefulness. He consulted facts only, as they appeared at the time, and not principles and practice, which would abide the test of time and experience. His allowance is therefore altogether too large for the long preservation of the freedom of action of the body or the mind.

* Venetian weight-equal to about fourteen English. + Equal to about sixteen English, Dr. William Stark.

f Dr. Cheyne,

The result of such an inquiry might be more nearly like this : For the sedentary, at breakfast, four ounces of bread and eight ounces of liquid; for dinner, four ounces of farinaceous and four of animal food, with eight ounces of liquid ; for supper, eight ounces of liquid food ; in all, thirtysix ounces of nourishment. This amount may be increased under exercise, from ten to fifteen ounces. Under labor, according to its severity, it may extend from this to six pounds, and perhaps even to seven. The proportions of solid and liquid nourishment remaining always the same.

About one third of the former and two thirds of the latter. *

In the liquid to be allowed for sustenance, no place is given to stimulating drinks. The deep attention which has been given to this subject by modern physicians, should serve to confirm their universal result-That stimulants are always not only unnecessary to human life, but highly injurious to the human constitution. Experience speaks on this subject the language of the wise man-Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging.”

* A different arrangement would be directed by the author of this essay for the studious, who desire to push their minds to the utmost in intellectual efforts.

Among the solids to be taken, but a small place seems to be designed by Providence for animal food. It is found that life is endangered in fourteen days by the use of meat alone, while man inay be, and in many places, actually is, sustained in health and strength on farinaceous food.

It is probable that the great mass of mankind consume twice as much as is required to invigorate the system and prolong life. Indeed, it is not improbable that two thirds of God's bounty is lavished on artificial wants, or wasted to the destruction of human life.

Nor are Christians of somewhat high attainment, wholly exempt from this unhallowed destruction of themselves, and of God's blessings. There is scarcely one who lives for God, in the cultivation of his physical powers; while some seem to live as if their “God was their belly.” It may even be sometimes seen that the sensual minister dare not preach the self-condemning doctrines which require to "crucify the flesh with the affections and lusts.” And it may be still more observed how frequently the word of truth falls without influence upon hearts made stupid from indulgence. The Holy Spirit will not take his abode with luxury nor dwell with sensuality.

When that low standard of temperance which the world adopts is the only rule of life, disorder and disease soon pervade the system. Dyspepsia in its protean forms-or fever in its varied types-nervous affections in all their varieties—or chronic diseases with their wasting influences-or acute diseases with their swift destruction or premature and sudden death, may find an easy access to a frame crowded with frequent surfeit, or wasted by long indulgence.

The hurried action of the heart and vessels—the unequal circulation pressing on vital organs—the deranged function of the most important organs—and the slow or rapid failure of the whole system-these are the inevitable consequences of the adoption of no bigher rule than custom, or any transgression of the laws of Christian temperance. The gospel rule of temperance is a holy standard-it makes no provision for artificial wants, and no compromise with indulgence. It stoops not to licentious custom, and bends not to created appetite. As God has formed the human constitution in accordance with these pure and holy principles, man cannot gratify his sensual appetite, by the variety, quantity, or quality

of his food, without violating the implied command of his Creator, and the clear principles of the human economy. The inevitable consequence of which must be early sickness and premature decay.

Such are a few of the leading principles on which the culture of the body is founded, as drawn from revelation, and, consequently, establishing man's moral duty. To apply these principles to particular practical duty, even under the three general heads of physical culture, which have been noticed, would be to extend the subject much beyond the present purpose; and to enter upon other topics connected with health and longevity, would elicit a volume. I shall therefore close, by making from these moral duties, a few general aphorisms for Christian direction in the culture of the body.

Let the day begin with God—that the peaceful influence of communion with him, may calm the hurried and tumultuous action of the body, in the performance of its daily avocations.

Let the early fast be broken by no more food than will defend the body from severe exhaustion, in the labor or pursuit which is to follow.

Let the exercise or labor which is performed, be in faithful accordance with the injunction, that the food should be earned by the sweat of the brow.

Let the principal food taken, be at a time when it shall repair the parts and powers which have been consumed

by previous exertion of body, or of mind, rather than in anticipation of such decay or waste. So that the body shall not suffer from the increased effort of severe digestion, while it is pushed to labor; and that the mind may not be cramped in its energies, by a crowded system.

Let the sleep be regularly taken, and religiously observed to such extent as shall restore the nervous energy of the frame ; but let not the bed rob God or man, of the service of one hour which belongs to them. To this end, seek rather to ascertain by experience how little will fully suffice the requirements of the system, than how much it can safely bear.

Let the clothing be designed to cover, rather than to adorn the person ; and let it be only so much in quantity, as will defend the body from inclemency, and not to such

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