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books, writing and drawing paper, a considerable quantity of cartridge paper, to be used in preserving specimens of plants; nets, twine, fishing lines and hooks, together with many articles to be used at winter-quarters, for the service of the post, and for the supply of our Indian hunters, such as cloth, blankets, shirts, coloured belts, chiefs' dresses, combs, looking glasses, beads, tapes, gartering, knives, guns and daggers, hatchets, awls, gun-worms, flints, fire-steels, files, whip and hand-saws, ice chisels and trenching-irons, the latter to break open the beaver lodges." p. 14.

Three light boats, built of mahogany, with timbers of ash, and ornamented with the images of various European animals to strike the imagination of the savages, and a small boat framed of well-seasoned ash, fastened with thongs and covered with prepared canvas, which could "be taken to pieces and made up in five or six parcels, and was capable of being put together in less than twenty minutes," were prepared by the government in England, and sent out in June, 1824, to York factory on the western shore of Hudson's Bay. The larger boats were designed for the navigation of the Arctic Sea as the birch bark canoes of the Canadian traders are "too slight to bear the concussion of waves in a rough sea, and are still less fitted, from the tenderness of the bark, for coming in contact with ice." The small boat "was intended to provide against a similar detention in crossing rivers, to that which proved so fatal to the party on their former journey." A party of men were sent along with these boats, who, ascending in the spring of 1825, by the usual passage from York factory to Lake Winnipeg should there be on the route which Captain Franklin himself intended to pursue.

Captain Franklin, with most of his officers and some additional men, provided with all such instruments for astronomical and philosophical observations as were sufficiently portable for their mode of travelling, left Liverpool for New-York on the 16th of February, 1825. From this city, he passed through Albany, Utica and Rochester, to Niagara, then crossed Lake Ontaria in a sailing boat to York, the capital of Upper Canada, from York, he travelled to Lake Simcoe in carts and other couveyances, and crossed Lake Simcoe in "canoes and boats." A journey of nine miles on foot carried this party to the river Nattawassaga, which they descended in boats, and passing through a part of Lake Huron, arrived at Penetanguishene, a British post on the borders of that Lake. Our travellers left Penetanguishene on the 23d of April, in two large canoes, reached the Sault de St. Maric on the 1st May, and coasted the northern shore of Lake Superior to Fort William. Here they exchanged their two canôts de maître for four small north canoes, and proceed

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ing through Rainy Lake, the Lake of the Woods, Lake Winnipeg, the Saskatchawan River to Cumberland House, where they arrived on the 15th of June, and learned that their boats from Hudson Bay had left that place on the 2d of the same month on their forward journey. Their voyage was continued through Pine Island Lake, Beaver Lake, crossing the Troy Portage, and ascending the English River they passed through Deep River, Clear and Buffalo Lakes, and overtook their boats in Methye River on the 29th of June.

The Methye river where the whole party were assembled, is, through its whole course of forty miles, the most shoal and the most obstructed by rapids of any part of this wonderful inland navigation, and the Methye Portage of ten miles and three quarters long, the most laborious part of the journey. The journey, or rather voyage, was continued on Clear Water River, then into the Elk or Athabasca River to the Athabasca Lake, where they arrived on the 15th of July. At Fort Chipewyan on this lake, they completed their stock of cloth, blankets, nets and twine, to a quantity sufficient for two years consumption. "Our arrival at this post," says Captain Franklin, "caused great surprise to its inmates when they learned that we had come from England to that advanced post so early in the season, being only two days later than the time at which Dr. Richardson and Mr. Hood had arrived in 1819, though they passed the winter at Cumberland House.

From Fort Chipewyan the journey was continued, (the boats, as had been the case from Fort William, separating or moving in company, as suited the arrangements of the officers,) to Slave Lake; the party then entered the Mackenzie River, and after descending three hundred and thirty-eight miles, reached Fort Simpson, the principal depot of the Hudson Bay Company for this department. Here further arrangements were made for the supply of provisions to the party during their residence at Bear Lake during the ensuing winter. Continuing their descent of the river, they arrived at Fort Norman, two hundred and thirtysix miles below Fort Simpson on the 7th of August.

"Being now only four days journey from Bear Lake, and there remaining yet five or six weeks of open season, I resolved on following up a plan of a voyage to the sea, which I had cherished ever since leaving England, without imparting it to my companions, until our departure from Chipewyan, because I was apprehensive that some unforeseen accident might occur in the course of the very intricate and dangerous river navigation between Fort. William and the Athabasca Lake, which might delay our arrival here to too late a period of the year. It was arranged, first, that I should go down to the sea accompanied by Mr. Kendall, and collect whatever information could be ob

tained, either from actual observation or from the intelligence of the Loucheux Indians, or the Esquimaux, respecting the general state of the ice in summer and autumn: the direction of the course east and west of the Mackenzie; and whether we might calculate upon any supply of provision. Secondly, Dr. Richardson, on his own suggestion, was to proceed in a boat along the northern shore of Bear Lake to the part where it approached nearest to the Coppermine River, and there fix upon a spot to which he might bring the party, the following year, on its return from the mouth of that river. And, thirdly, that these undertakings might not interfere with the important operations necessary for the comfortable residence and subsistence of the expedition during the following winter, Lieutenant Back was to superintend them during my absence, with the assistance of Mr. Dease, chief trader of the Hudson Bay Company, whose suggestions relative to the proper distribution of the Indian hunters, and the station of the fishermen, he was to follow. Accordingly, Dr Richardson, on his quitting this place two days previous to our arrival, had left the largest of the boats, the Lion, for my use, and a well-selected crew of six Englishmen, and Augustus, the Esquimaux." pp. 35-36.

At Fort Norman, lat. 64° 40′ 30′′ N. long.124° 53′ 22′′' W. all the stores intended for the voyage along the coast next season were deposited, and Capt. Franklin leaving that post on the 8th, and separating from his companions at the mouth of Bear Lake river, continued his progress down the Mackenzie. On the 10th, he reached Fort Good Hope, the lowest of the Company's establishments, three hundred and twelve miles below Fort Norman, and in some measure the termination of all accurate knowledge respecting the country. On the 14th, in lat. 68° 40′ N. he passed the last fir-trees, the only wood beyond this being stunted willows, which became more dwarfish as they approached the mouth of the river; and on the 16th, they landed on the north-eastern point of the entrance to the main channel, in lat. 69° 14' N. long. 165° 57′ W.

"The sun was setting as the boat touched the beach; and we hastened to the most elevated part of the island, about two hundred and fifty feet high, to look around; and never was a prospect more gratifying than that which lay open to us. The Rocky Mountains were seen from S. W. to W. N; and from the latter point round by the north, the sea appeared in all its majesty, entirely free from ice, and without any visible obstruction to its navigation. Many seals, and black and white whales were sporting on its waves; and the whole scene was calculated to excite in our minds the most flattering expectations as to our success, and that of our friends in the Hecla and the Fury, (alluding to Capt. Parry on his third voyage)" p. 49.

We have made this rapid survey of the first movements of Capt. Franklin and his party, without pausing to notice any

particular occurrences and remarks, to shew the extraordinary facility with which, under proper arrangements, this rude and desolate country can be traversed. Capt. Franklin left Liverpool on the 16th of February, and after having crossed the Atlantic, and travelled four thousand, six hundred miles, was on the 16th of August on the shores of the Polar Sea.

This whole journey, if the route by the Erie Canal and Lake Erie and Huron had been adopted instead of that by Upper Canada, could have been made by water with the exception of two or three inconsiderable portages. And although many of the rivers are shoal and abound with rapids, the skill of the boatmen who have been trained to the navigation of them, and to the management of the slight skiffs which are used in the commerce of the Hudson Bay Company, is able easily to surmount these obstacles. This wonderful inland navigation is formed by a chain of small lakes connected by rivers that discharge their waters into Lake Superior, until the summit level of that part of the continent is attained near the Methye Portage, when another chain of lakes is gained, connected as the former, and discharging their waters through the Mackenzie River into the Polar Ocean. On most of these lakes, and on many of the connecting and adjoining streams, the Hudson Bay Company has trading-houses. And from this grand line of communication, several others branching off to the east and west, communicate on the one hand with the factories in Hudson Bay, and on the other extend to the base of the Rocky Mountains. It was at these posts that pemmican and other provisions had been prepared for the expedition, and to them every necessary article had been previously sent, that all might be transported without delay to the neighbourhood of Bear Lake, about six hundred miles from the mouth of Mackenzie River, where the party was to spend the winter, in order to secure the whole of the ensuing summer for the prosecution of their enterprise.

Capt. Franklin having passed a few days in examining some of the channels, and some of the many islands at the mouth of the Mackenzie River, retraced his steps and reached Fort Franklin, the head-quarters of the expedition on the great Bear Lake, on the 5th of September. During his absence, Dr. Richardson had been engaged in surveying the greater part of the Bear Lake to determine the point to which it would be most convenient for him to return from the separate expedition with which he was charged, (to survey the coast eastwardly from the mouth of the Mackenzie to the Coppermine River,) and where VOL. III.—NO. 6.

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boats should await his arrival in the autumn of the ensuing year. He accordingly fixed upon Dease River, at the north-east corner of the lake, as the spot to which if not prevented by accidents he should return.

On the borders of this lake, the party, amounting to fifty besides Indians who hung about them or visited them occasionally, passed a long and dreary winter. Captain Franklin in ascending the Mackenzie, found ice formed in his kettle on the 22d of August, and it was near the end of the following June before they could resume their travels. If their occupations and amusements were few, these were varied as much as possible to keep up the spirits and preserve the health of the men, and in exchange for short days, they frequently enjoyed most brilliant nights and fine appearances of the Aurora Borealis. They lived during the winter principally on fish, a few animals were obtained, and their stock of pemmican was used as sparingly as possible, as no one could say where and under what circumstances the ensuing winter would be passed. Their hunting was sometimes carried on under circumstances that would make the most adventurous of our southern sportsmen quail, and was always precarious.

"On the 4th of this month, when all were heartily tired of short allowance, a report was brought of the traces of a moose deer having been seen about twelve miles from the fort. Had the days been longer, and a crust formed upon the snow, the hunters would have found no great difficulty in running down the animal, but our principal hope lay in their getting within shot without "raising it," the expression used when a deer is scared. Beaulieu being the most expert moose-hunter, went out on this occasion, accompanied by two others, Landré, a Chipewyan lad, and a Dog-Rib hunter. When they arrived on the deer's track, they found that it had been raised, probably by the Indians, who first discovered it; but anxious to procure meat for the fort they commenced the pursuit. From their knowledge of the habits of the animal, and of the winding course it takes, they were enabled to shorten the distance; but after running four successive days without coming in sight, Beaulieu had the misfortune to fall over the stump of a tree and sprain his ancle ; the other two hunters being previously tired out. When this accident happened, they knew they were near the deer, and that it would soon give in, because its footsteps were stained with blood. Beaulieu, however, on account of his lameness, returned to the house, and his companions came with him. During the chase, they bivouacked on the snow, and subsisted on a few ptarmigan which they killed. Landré, after a night's rest, again set out, and was successful after two more days' running; not, however, without having nearly lost his life, for the moose, on receiving a shot, made a rush at him, striking furiously with his fore-feet. He had just time to shelter himself behind a tree, upon which the animal spent its efforts, until his gun was again ready.” p. 75.

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