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only two, that are truly such; and these two are plainly sufficient: one, for our entrance into the Christian covenant; the other, during our whole continuance in it: "Baptism, and the Supper of "the Lord." However, as the word sacrament is not a Scripture one, and hath at different times been differently understood; our Catechism doth not require it to be said absolutely, that the sacraments are "two only;" but "two only, necessary "to salvation :" leaving persons at liberty to comprehend more things under the name, if they please, provided they insist not on the necessity of them, and of dignifying them with this title. And even these two, our church very charitably teaches us not to look upon as indispensably, but as "generally, necessary." Out of which general necessity, we are to except those particular cases, where believers in Christ either have not the means of performing their duty in respect of the sacraments, or are innocently ignorant of it, or even excusably mistaken about it.

In explaining the sacrament of Baptism, I shall speak, first of "the outward and visible sign," then of "the inward and spiritual grace."

As to the former, Baptism being intended for the sign and means of our purification from sin; water, the proper element for purifying and cleansing, is appointed to be used in it. There is indeed a sect sprung up amongst us, within a little more, than a hundred years, that deny this appointment and make the Christian baptism signify only the pouring out of the gift of the Holy Ghost upon a person. But our Saviour expressly requires that we be "born of water," as well as "of the Spirit, to enter into the kingdom of "God." And not only John, his forerunner, "baptized with water," but his disciples also,

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(1) John iii. 5.

(2) Matt. iii. 11.

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by his direction, baptized in the same manner, even more than John."3 When therefore he bade them afterwards "teach all nations, bap"tizing them;" what baptism could they understand, but that in which he had employed them before? And accordingly we find, they did understand that. Philip, we read, baptized the Samarians: 5 not with the Holy Ghost, for the Apostles went down some time after to do that themselves: but with water undoubtedly, as we find, in the same chapter, he did the Eunuch, where the words 66 are, Here is the water, what "doth hinder me to be baptized? And they went "down to the water, and he baptized him."7 Again, after Cornelius, and his friends, had received the Holy Ghost, and so were already baptized in that sense, Peter asks, "Can any man "forbid water, that these should not be bap"tized, which have received the Holy Ghost, as "well as we ?" When therefore John says that "he baptized with water, but Christ shall bap"tize with the Holy Ghost ;"9 he means, not that Christians should not be baptized with water, but that they should have the Holy Ghost poured out upon them also, in a degree that John's disciples had not. When St. Peter says, "The "baptism, which saveth us, is not the washing away the filth of the flesh, he means, it is not the mere outward act, unaccompanied by a suitable inward disposition. When St. Paul says, that "Christ sent him not to baptize, but to

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preach the Gospel; he means, that preaching was the principal thing he was to do in person; to baptize, he might appoint others under him; and it seems, commonly did; as St. Peter did not baptize Cornelius and his friends himself, but

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(3) John iv. 1, 2. (6) Verse 14, &c. (9) Matt. iii. 11.

(4) Matt. xxviii. 19.
(7) Verse 36, 38.
(1) Pet. iii. 21.

(5) Acts viii. 12.

(8) Acts x. 47. (2) 1 Cor. i. 17.

"commanded them to be baptized:" and we read in St. John, that "Jesus baptized not, but "his disciples." 4

Water-baptism therefore is appointed. And why the Church of Rome should not think water sufficient in baptism, but aim at mending what our Saviour hath directed, by mixing oil and balsam with it, and dipping a lighted torch into it, I leave them to explain.

The precise manner in which water shall be applied in baptism, Scripture hath not determined. For the word, "Baptize," means only to wash; whether that be done by plunging a thing under water, or pouring water upon it. The former of these, burying, as it were, the person baptized, in the water, and raising him out of it again, without question was anciently the more usual method; on account of which, St. Paul speaks of baptism, as representing both the death, and burial, and resurrection of Christ, and what is grounded on them, our being "dead and buried to sin ;" renouncing it, and being acquitted of it; and our rising again to "walk in newness of life:" being both obliged and enabled to practise, for the future, every duty of piety and virtue. But still, the other manner of washing, by pouring or sprinkling of water, sufficiently expresses the same two things; our being by this ordinance purified from the guilt of sin, and bound and qualified to keep ourselves pure from the defilement of it. Besides, it very naturally represents that "sprink

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ling of the blood of Jesus Christ," to which our salvation is owing. And the use of it seems not only to be foretold by the Prophet Isaiah, speaking of our Saviour, "He shall sprinkle many "nations," that is, many shall receive his bap

(3) Acts z. 48.

(4) John iv. 2. (6) 1 Pet, i. 2.

(5) Rom. vi. 4, 11. Col. ii. 12. (7) Isaaiah lii. 15.

tism; and by the Prophet Ezekiel, "Then will "I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall "be clean:"8 but to be had in view also by the Apostle, where he speaks of "having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bo"dies washed with pure water." And though it was less frequently used in the first ages, it must also of necessity have been sometimes used; for instance, when baptism was administered, as we read in the Acts it was, to several thousands at once; when it was administered on a sudden in private houses, as we find it, in the same book, to the gaoler and all his family, the very night in which they were converted; or when sick persous received it; in which last case, the present method was always taken, because the other, of dipping them, might have been dangerous. And from the same apprehension of danger in these colder countries, pouring the water is allowed, even when the person baptized is in health. And the particular manner being left at liberty, that is now universally chosen which is looked on as safer; because were there more to be said for the other, than there is, God "will have mercy, and "not sacrifice.":

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But washing with water is not the whole outward part of this sacrament. For our Saviour commanded his Apostles, not only to "baptize "all nations, but to baptize them in the name of "the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy "Ghost." Sometimes indeed the Scripture speaks of baptism, as if it were administered only "in "the name of the Lord Jesus." 195 But it fully appears, 6 that the name of the Holy Ghost was used at the same time; and therefore that of the Father, we may be sure. Now being baptized

(8) Ezek. xxxvi. 25. (2) Acts xvi. 33. (4) Mat. xxviii. 19. (5)

(9) Heb. x. 22. (1) Acts ii. 41. (3) Hos. vi. 6. Matt. ix. 13. xii. 7. Acts ii. 38. x. 48. xix. 5. (6) Acts xix. 2, 3.

"in the name" of these three, may signify being baptized by virtue of their authority. But the exacter translation is, “into the name," and the fuller import of the expression is, by this solemn action taking upon us their name, (for servants are known by the name of their master,) and professing ourselves devoted to the faith, and worship, and obedience of these three; our Creator, our Redeemer, our Sanctifier. In this profession the whole of Christianity is briefly comprehended, and on this foundation therefore the ancient Creeds are all built.

The second and principal thing in Baptism, "the inward and spiritual grace," is said in the Catechism to be, "a death unto sin, and a new "birth unto righteousness; for that being by na"ture born in sin, and the children of wrath, we "are hereby made the children of grace." The former part of these words refers to the old custom of baptizing by dipping, just now mentioned; and the meaning of the whole is this. Our first parents having, by disobedience in eating the forbidden fruit, corrupted their own nature; ours, being derived from them, received of necessity an original taint of the same disorder: and therefore, coming into the world under the ill effects of their sin, and being from the time of our entering into it, prone to sin ourselves; we are said to be "born "in sin." And they having also, by the same disobedience, forfeited their immortality, we, as descending from them, become mortal of course; and inheriting, by way of natural consequence, what they suffered as a mark of God's wrath; we, their children, are said to be "children of wrath." Not that God, with whatever disapprobation he must view our native depravity, is, or properly speaking, can be angry with us personally, for what was not our personal fault. But he might undoubtedly both refuse us that immortality,

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