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Lectures on Jurisprudence: Or, The Philosophy of Positive Law, Volume 2
John Austin,Sarah Austin
Volledige weergave - 1879
Lectures on Jurisprudence: Or, The Philosophy of Positive Law, Volume 1
John Austin,Sarah Austin
Volledige weergave - 1869
According actions actual advert affect analogy answer applied arise body bound bulk called causes character civil commands commonly completely conduct consequence considered consists contract covenant delicts denotes desire determinate distinction distinguished Divine duties enforced established evil example exist expression fact forbear given habitual human hypothesis immediately import imposed independent independent political society individual injury intention jurisprudence kind LECT lectures legislation limited marks matter meaning ment merely mind monarch motive nature notes obedience object obligation observe opinion original particular party persons portion positive law positive morality possession powers precisely present principle promise proper properly so called question reason reference regard render respect Roman rules sanction sense sentiments signifies simply society political sovereign sovereignty styled subjects subordinate superior suppose term theory things tion utility various wherein wish writers
Pagina 179 - Every positive law, or every law simply and strictly so called, is set by a sovereign person, or a sovereign body of persons, to a member or members of the independent political society wherein that person or body is sovereign or supreme. Or (changing the expression) it is set by a monarch, or sovereign number, to a person or persons in a state of subjection to its author.
Pagina 226 - If a determinate human superior, not in a habit of obedience to a like superior, receive habitual obedience from the bulk of a given society, that determinate superior is sovereign in that society, and the society (including the superior) is a society political and independent.
Pagina 205 - I think I may say, that he who imagines commendation and disgrace not to be strong motives to men, to accommodate themselves to the opinions and rules of those with whom they converse, seems little skilled in the nature or history of mankind...
Pagina 206 - Solitude many men have sought, and been reconciled to: but nobody that has the least thought or sense of a man about him, can live in society under the constant dislike and ill opinion of his familiars, and those he converses with. This is a burden too heavy for human sufferance: and he must be made up of irreconcileable contradictions, who can take pleasure in company, and yet be insensible of contempt and disgrace from his companions.
Pagina 204 - For though men uniting into politic societies have resigned up to the public the disposing of all their force, so that they cannot employ it against any fellow-citizens, any farther than the law of the country directs ; yet they retain still the power of thinking well or ill, approving or disapproving of the actions of those whom they live amongst, and converse with : and by this approbation and dislike they establish amongst themselves what they will call virtue and vice.
Pagina 417 - In deliberation, the last appetite, or aversion, immediately adhering to the action, or to the omission thereof, is that we call the will; the act, not the faculty, of willing.
Pagina 176 - Every law or rule (taken with the largest signification which can be given to the term properly) is a command. Or, rather, laws or rules, properly so called, are a species of commands.
Pagina 230 - When a number of persons (whom we may style subjects) are supposed to be in the habit of paying obedience to a person, or an assemblage of persons, of a known and certain description (whom we may call governor or governors) such persons altogether (subjects and governors) are said to be in a state of political SOCIETY.* XI.
Pagina 204 - Thus the measure of what is everywhere called and esteemed virtue and vice, is the approbation or dislike, praise or blame, which by a secret and tacit consent establishes itself in the several societies, tribes, and clubs of men in the world; whereby several actions come to find credit or disgrace amongst them, according to the judgment, maxims, or fashion of that place.