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above all, the fact that it receives the land of the existence of slime (i.e.asphalte) copious waters of the Jordan and the riv. pits in the neighborhood, as pointing to ulets from the mountains of Palestine and the working of natural agencies of volcaMoab on either side without possessing noes and earthquakes in the catastrophe. any apparent outlet for them, and without The contention that the ground in the exhibiting any variation in its level – all neighborhood of the Dead Sea is volthese combine to render the salt lake of canic is borne out by various other physiPalestine one of the strangest problems cal considerations : 1, numerous large in the world. The question of the origin and deep clefts and dislocation of the of these internal seas or salt lakes hias, rocks in the neighborhood, exactly simiindeed, long occupied the attention of lar to those found in other regions physical geographers; the explanation which have been subject to eruptions and most generally received is that they were earthquakes; 2, the rare occurrence of formerly connected with the ocean, and earthquakes in non-volcanic regions, and were lest, so to speak, stranded by subse. their frequency and violence in Syria and quent upheavals or other geological dis- Palestine. If the Salt Lake now occupies turbances. This theory, originating with the site of the ruined cities, whether their the ancient philosophers, was endorsed destruction was natural or supernatural, by Buffon and Pallas, and even found it is obvious that no ruins of them can favor with Humboldt. More modern re. exist upon its shores. De Saulcy claims search has proved the hypothesis to be to have discovered ruins with nanies sug. false, and has shown that, while the pres- gestive of the Pentapolis at the northern ence of natural salt in the vicinity is suf- end, but the researches of subsequent ficient to account for the intense saltness travellers have not confirmed his views. of the waters of the lake, evaporation Zoar, on the contrary, the only one of the will explain the constancy of their level. five cities which was spared, is spoken of In the case of the Dead Sea, the absence as still existing by the early Latin and of any former connection with the Red Byzantine geographers, and is mentioned Sea is proved by various considerations : as late as the thirteenth century by Edrisi 1, the absence of any post.nummulitic de and Abulfeda. posits of oceanic origin; 2, the absence Having thus endeavored to prove from on the surface-soil of the Arabah of any history and geography that the destrucmarine fossils; 3, the fluvial origin of the tion of the Cities of the Plain was due to post.Eocene deposits of the Arabah; 4, natural agencies alone, and not to a divine the absence, chemically proved, of silver, judgment, the author finally seeks to show in the waters of the Dead Sea, while it that this conclusion should be accepted in exists in those of the ocean; as well as the interests of morality itself. His arguother grave differences in their composi- ments, which are supported by quotations tion. The account given in Genesis un- from the most heterogeneous sources, doubtedly points to the fact thiat the from the early fathers of the Church down destroyed cities of the Pentapolis actu- to Voltaire, are certainly ingenious, but ally occupied a part of what is now the scarcely such as can be reproduced here. southern end of the Dead Sea: “All As regards the pillar of salt into which these were joined together in the Vale of Lot's wise was turned, the author conjecSiddim, which is the Salt Sea” – that is tures that the existence of a natural featto say,
" which is now" (at the time of ure resembling a human figure may have writing the passage) “the Salt Sea,” begiven rise to the legend. It is at least a cause, if it had been so at the time of the singular coincidence that Messrs. Palmer history, it could not have been a battle and Drake discovered on the east coast field, and would not have been spoken of of the Dead Sea a rock bearing a striking as a vale. Just before the destruction of resemblance to a female figure, and still Sodom and Gomorrah, it evidently formed called by the Arabs Bint en nebi Lút, a continuation of the Jordan plain: "And the Prophet Lot's daughter," and the Lot listed up his eyes, and beheld all the travellers add the signiñcant fact that plain of Jordan, that it was well watered amongst the Moabite Arab tribes the everywhere, before the Lord destroyed same word is used for “daughter" and Sodom and Gomorrah, even as the gar-wise.” Signor Falcucci's book will hardly den of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, carry conviction to every reader; but it as thou comest into Zoar." Signor Fal is at any rate a learned and exhaustive cucci also cites the Biblical account of treatise, and speaks well for Italian scholtlie smoke ascending as from a furnace, I arship and geographical research.
Ceot. 1,200,000 182
From The Economist.
ture, which compares the yield of 1881 THE FOREIGN TRADE OF THE UNITED with that of the previous year: STATES.
COMPARATIVE STATEMENT showing the RelaALTHOUGH the official returns of the TIVE MAGNITUDE of the Crops of CorTON, foreign trade of the United States for the WHEAT, CORN, RYE, Oats, and BARLEY in fiscal year ending the 30th June last have the UNITED STATES during the Seasons of not yet been finally adjusted, the Bureau
1881 and 1880 respectively. of Statistics has issued a preliminary statement, which is sufficiently accurate
1880. Dec for all practical purposes. This shows Cotton, bales
6,600,000 the recorded values of the imports and Coheat
, bush. 380,290.090, 498,549,868 118,269.778 237
1,194,916,000 1,717,434,513 522,518.543 30-4 exports of merchandise in each of the past Rye
3,835,879 156 eleven years to have been:
416,481,000 417,885,380 1,404,38 03
Barley 41,161,330 45,165,346 4,004,016 89 Value of MERCHANDISE IMPORTED INTO and As a consequence, too, of this short sup
Exported from the UNITED STATES; also ply of feeding-stuffs, the supply of meat ANNUAL Excess of Imports and of Ex-ivas diminished, and the inevitable result
of this shrinkage of supply was a great cur. Year
Excess of Excess of tailment of the exports of all agricultural Ending Exports Imports. Exports. Imports. June 30. L €
produce. To what extent these were 144.925,000 5,145,000
reduced, the following comparison of the 1881 180.475,000 128,533,000 51,942,000
values of the shipments during the first 1880 167, 128,000 133,592,000 33,536,000
eleven months of 1881-2 and 1880-1 (the 1879 142,088,000 89, 156,000 52,932.000 1873 138,973.000 87,410,000 51,563,000
figures for the twelve months not being 1877 120,495,000 90,265,000 30,230,000
available as yet) will show: 1876 108,077,000 92,148,000 15,929,000 1875 102,689,000 106,601,000
3,912,000 VALUE OF EXPORTS of CHIEF ARTICLES of 1874 117,255,000 113,431,000 3,775.000 1873 104,496,000 128,427,000
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE during Eleven 1872 88,836,000 125,319,000
36,483,000 Months ending May.
1880-1. Decrease. We have carried the table back to 1972,
& because in that year the excess of imports Cotton 38,024,000 47,602,000 9,578,000
Breadstuffs ivhich froin 1863 to 1871 Provisions
34,579,000 49,849,000 15.270.000 over exports
22,405,000 28, 262,000 5.857,000 had averaged 17,436,000l. per annum reached its maximum. The crash of
95,008,000 1125,713,000 30, 705.000 1873, however, caused a great curtailment Here, then, we have the total decrease of of the American purchases of foreign thirty and one-balf millions in the exports products, and this being accompanied by for the year more than accounted for, and a rapid growth of the exports, the trade in connection with these figures it is inbalance turned quickly in favor of the teresting to notice low enormously the States, so that in 1881 the value of the American agricultural industry predomigoods exported exceeded that of the im. nates over all the others. In 1880-1, the ports by 51,942,000l. Last year, however, exports of agricultural produce of all kinds the balance again swung sharply round in were valued at 145,900,000l. out of a total the opposite direction. The imports fell export of 185,500,0001. Or, stated differshort of those of 1881 by no less than ently, 82} per cent. of the total exports of 30,400,000l., while the imports exceeded that year consisted of agricultural prod. those of the previous year by 16,400,000!., ucts, and only 17} per cent. of manufacand the excess of exports was thus cut tured and other goods; while for last year, down by 46,800,oool., reducing it to 5,145,- notwithstanding the short crops, the prooool.
portions when finally ascertained, will in Of the influence of this change upon all probability be somewhere about eighty the position and prospects of our own and per cent. and twenty per cent. respecother money markets we speak elsewhere. tively. Here we purpose to deal rather with its Turning now to the imports, which, it causes than with its effects; and looking may be noted in passing, are the largest first to the exports, it is evident that the ever recorded, two reasons for their aug. main, if not, indeed, the sole, cause of mentation suggest themselves. In the their diminution was the unsatisfactory first place, speculation was very active character of the year's harvest. How during the autumn of last year, and one of great was the deficiency of the crops may its results was a pretty general advance in be seen from the following statement, the prices of commodities. On this side prepared by the Department of Agricul- | no similar advance occurred, and as the
American markets thus became relatively indicate that America will have many more favorable to sellers, there was a nat. millions of cuts. of wheat to export in exural tendency to increase shipments cess of last year. Of other food products, thither. A distinct impetus was thus also, she will have a very large surplus to given to nearly all branches of the import dispose of; and although the comparative trade, and, accordingly, in nearly all of abundance of the European harvest is them we find some expansion. And sec- likely to compel ber to accept low prices ondly, in addition to this general cause of for her pments, there is no doubt that, improvement, there was the special influ. at a price, she can and will sell them. In ence of the bad harvest. That not only a little while, therefore, we shall surely compelled a curtailment of the shipments see her exports again largely exceeding of agricultural produce, it led also to an her imports, which is the normal condiincrease in the imports. Thus, in the tion of American trade, for the United official statement, it is pointed out that States having borrowed an during the eleven months ended May, amount of foreign capital, they have of there was, as compared with the previous necessity to provide a surplus of exports year, an increase of 1,615,000l. in the with which to make their annual interest value of the imports of breadstuffs and payments. And this to us is satisfactory, rice, of 1,068,000 l.in fruits, of 732,000l. in inasmuch as it means that during the next potatoes, and of 1,300,000l. in sugar and twelve months we shall have abundant molasses; these four items accounting food supplies at low prices, and that the between them for nearly four and three most important of our foreign customers quarter millions, out of the total increase is likely to enjoy a prosperity that may be of sixteen and a half millions.
expected to react beneficially upon our Thus both the decrease in the exports industries. and the increase in the imports last year were, in a greater or less degree, exceptional, and there can be no doubt that at least one of these movements will this year be reversed. We certainly cannot
From The Economist. look forward with confidence to a continu-THE INFLUENCE OF THE UNITED STATES
UPON THE MONEY MARKET. ance of the imports on their recent large scale. It is true that with a rapidly in- A QUESTION of much importance at the creasing population, the States are likely present time is the influence which the to prove year by year better customers to trade movements, past and prospective, us and other foreign nations. It remains to which we have referred above, are to be seen, however, whether this natural likely to exert upon the money market. growth will compensate during the cur- What their past influence has been we rent year for the reduction in their pur-know. The falling off in the exports of chases which their very abundant harvest produce, has been accompanied by an inwill enable them to effect, especially as crease in the specie shipments, and a the tendency now is for America to pro- decrease in the specie imports, the result duce for herself articles which she has being that whereas in 1830-1 the United hitherto imported. The prices of com- States received 18,234,000l. of gold and modities in the States also have of late silver more than they exported, they last been drooping; and as there is thus not year had to export 1,388,000l, more than so strong an incentive to ship goods they received. The official figures are: thither, it would not be at all surprising Specie Movements, Twelve Months endif instead of a further growth in the im.
ing June 30. ports there was during the current year some diminution of their volume. As re
£ gards the exports, on the other hand, Imports
8,495,000 22,10 5,000 there is the certainty of a very large in- Exports
9.883;000 3,881,000 Last year, for example, the wheat
Excess of exports crop was estimated to have yielded only
Excess of imports three hundred and eighty million bushels,
18,224,000 whereas this year the yield is variously Consequently, while in 1880-1 there estimated at from five hundred and fifty was a persistent drain of gold from this million to as much as six hundred million side to the States, the current has latterly bushels. Possibly these estimates may been flowing in the opposite direction. prove to be somewhat exaggerated, but Gold has been coming hither from Amer. in any case they may safely be taken to lica, and it is to this timely supply, which
has enabled Italy to accumulate a specie | the conclusion that the States have at reserve without encroaching unduly upon present gold sufficient for their wants, other European stocks, and has helped to and, that, therefore, they will be inclined replenish the depleted reserve of the to take securities or coinmodities rather Bank of France, that the ease which has than specie in payment of any balance of prevailed in the money market has been trade debt that may be due to them. On mainly due.
the other hand, however, it is to be reBriefly stated, our past experience has membered that it is by the agricultural thus been this. In the year in which the States of the Union that the great abStates bad a large excess of merchandise sorption of gold has been made. Forexports, they were able to take, and ciid merly the coin sent to them cach autumn take, gold from us in part payment of for harvest purposes used to return to the their trade balance; while in the year in reserve banks after it had accomplished which the excess of exports was small, its work, but since the resumption of they had to supplement their shipments specie payments very little of it has found of commodities by shipments of gold and its way back. The great bulk of it has silver. Now, the current year, as we have been retained in the West and South, seen, promises to be like 1880-1, a year and it has been this continuous drain in which the exports of goods from the upon the stocks of the metal in the reUnited States will very largely exceed the serve cities that has been the chief cause imports. Are we, then, likely to be sub- of the imports from Europe. Last year, jected in it also to a drain of gold? That however, owing to the poverty of the harthe States will, in consequence of their vest, the power of the agricultural dislarger shipments of produce, have the tricts to absorb gold was smaller than power to take the metal from us if they usual, and it is probable that it was bewish it can hardly be doubted. The only cause they took less that there was more doubt is as to whether or not that power to spare for other purposes. But this will be exercised. It certainly will not year the conditions are very different. unless gold is wanted on the other side; The harvest will probably prove to be the for of all modes of settling international largest on record, and the movements of trade debts settlement by the transfer of money in connection with it are likely, specie is the least satisfactory, and the therefore, to be on an unusually large question thus practically resolves itself scale. And although the American sup into an inquiry as to the probable bullion ply of gold has proved sufficient for a requirements of the United States. poor harvest year, it by no means follows
This, of course, is a subject upon which that it will suffice for a year of bumper it is impossible to speak with any confi- harvests. The probability rather is, that dence, but at the same time it is one with it will have to be supplemented by innrespect to which we are not without some ports from abroad; for it must be kept in maierial for forming an opinion. We mind that, owing to the conditions of its know, to begin with, that the United issue, the note circulation of the United States have of late years added enor. States is singularly inelastic, and that it mously to their stock of gold, and this is consequently by an expansion of the naturally inclines us to the belief that coin circulation that new wants will have their requirements have already been so to be satisfied. well satisfied, that they will be under no And this opinion as to the probability pressing necessity to increase their sup- of gold shipments from this side is ply of the metal beyond the amounts with strengthened when we consider the alterwhich their own mines furnish them. ations that have been recently made in And this belief is strengthened by the the financial arrangements of the United fact that latterly they have been able to States. During the past two years the part with several millions of gold without national revenue has enormously exceeddisturbance to their money market. In-ed the expenditure. Thus, in 1880-1, deed, notwithstanding these shipments, there was a surplus of 20,000,000l., and the New York Associated Banks now last year the excess revenue amounted to hold a larger specie reserve than they did no less than 28,900,000!. These enormous at this time last year, their latest return free balances were used for the repay. showing an excess of 375,000l. above the ment of debt, the money thus applied to legal minimum, whereas at the corre. the redemption of bonds coming out of the sponding date in 1881 there was no excess, Treasury in large amounts, and passing but, on the contrary, a deficiency of 160,- directly on to the market. All who have oool. All these considerations point to watched the course of financial affairs in the United States know how effectual | strictly the case. We wish here to give these Treasury disbursements have been room for no misunderstanding, and, if in keeping the banks supplied with money, possible, for no intentional misinterpretaand how but for them very great strin. tion. All animals may die, but death is gency would often have prevailed. In the not in all departments of the aniinal king. current year, however, this source of sup- dom an inherent absolute necessity. On ply will be very greatly restricted. Con- the contrary, in one of the two primary gress has been very lavish in its appropri- divisions of the animal world, the protoations of public money, and it is estimated zoa, it is, though common enough, merely in Bradstreet's, that because of this the casual, the result of some accident. A expenditure for the current year will ex. protozoon may be swallowed up by some ceed that of 1881-2 by nearly' 29,000,000l. larger animal; it may be crushed out of This may be an exaggerated estimate, existence, burned, or poisoned by “disin. but it is at least certain that the expendi- fectants introduced into the water or ture will be very largely in excess of that other fluid which it inhabits. But it has of previous years; and there can be no no natural term of life, and, as we shall hope of anything like an equivalent in presently see, cannot be spoken of as crease in the revenue. The surplus young or old. That this may be underavailable for the redemption of debt will stood we must briefly compare the life thus be very much smaller during the en: history, and especially the reproduction, suing twelve months than it has been, of the Metazoa and the Protozon. In the and the Treasury, therefore, will not be former group – which includes all the able to give the market anything like the backboned animals from man down to the same amount of assistance it has recently humblest fish, all the insects, mollusks, as rendered. It is quite true that disburse. well as lower forms of life which scarcely ments from the Treasury in the shape of attract popular notice — there is always a general expenditure equally, with dis distinct difference between parent and offbursements in the form of redemption of spring. The latter is certainly a portion bonds add to the outside supply of money. separated from the body of the parent But their effect upon the money market from the female in all those forms in which is very different. In the one case the there exist two sexes - but it is as comissue is in small sums, which are scattered pared with the parent minute in size, rudi. all over the country, and only filter slowly mentary in structure, and it has to in. into the channels of trade; whereas in crease in bulk, and still more to undergo the other it is in large amounts, which a process of development, a series of pass immediately under the control of transformations, before it reaches the financial institutions, and are thus made normal stature and make of its species. immediately available for business re. When this point has been attained it enquirements. The curtailment of the ters upon the task of reproduction, and Treasury purchases of bonds will thus, gives birth to one brood of young ones, or in all probability, make the American in the higher forms to several. With banks more dependent upon imports of these it coexists for a longer or shorter gold for the maintaining and replenishing time, and then dies, the maiter which conof their reserves than they have been stituted its body passing into decomposiduring the past two years. As to the tion. If we look at these very familiar effect which an attempt to draw a supply facts in the life of a metazoon, be it a from this side would have upon rates man or an oyster, we find that the ideas here, it is not necessary to speak. Every of birth, of growth, of maturity, of parent. one can see that if the present small re- hood, of a natural term of lile ending in serve of the Bank of England is thus death, at once suggest themselves. If we drawn upon higher rates for money will examine such a metazoon we can, in most have to be enforced.
cases, at once decide whether it is in the immature or the adult phase of its being. But in the protozoa — as Herr Bütschli has not long ago pointed out in the Zoolo
gischer Anzeiger — this is distinctly difFrom The Journal of Science.
Let us suppose we are watching DEATH NOT UNIVERSAL.
through a microscope one of these minute WHATEVER lives, we hear it said, single-cell creatures. We see it expandwhether plant or animal, must, sooner or ing into an ellipsoidal ligure, which belater, die. It will, therefore, greatly shock comes for a time longer and longer. It many persons to learn that this is not then begins to contract about what we