iour and Redeemer. What kept me at claims from his children, as the proof of their this time from being a Unitarian was, that loyalty and love, that perfect subjection of I retained a perfect conviction that though their own wills to his, of which self-sacrifice I could not see into the truth of the doc. he is the Eternal Pattern; and bestows the trine, it was nevertheless true.”

will and the power only to be guided by him.

self.* gleam of light, the first cold light of morning,' which gave promise of day On one occasion Mill, in giving Carowith its noontide glories,?” dawned on line what she calls “some glimpses of her one day at meeting, when she had truth through those wonderfully keen been meditating on her state in great de- quiet eyes,” explained to her what in pression. She seemed to hear the words Friends' language would be called his articulated in her spirit, “ Live up to the doctrine of the inner light. light thou hast and more will be granted

Every one (such is her note of this conversathee.” “ Then I believed that God speaks tion] has an infallible guide in the sanctuary to man by his spirit.” An exposition of of his own heart, if he will but wait and listen. the tenth chapter of Hebrews, by John Some continue for years in a state of unrest, Stevenson - a minister, we presume, but with few does it continue till the end withamong the Friends — “which he was en out physical disease inducing it. At this point, abled to give and she was permitted to a judicious friend, or a book, has often a wonreceive,” was the next epoch in her spirit- derful and delightful effect in opening truth, a ual life. In this exposition she was much clear belief, and a peaceful conscience to him interested at the time, but it had not its Different men arrive at different points and

who has sought them with such earnestness. full effect till some days after, when, while veins of truth by this process ; none knew truth she was walking sorrowfully and thought- in its fulness, nor can know it whilst bound fully, the description of Teufelsdröch's down to earth and time.f triumph over fear came forcibly and viv.

Caroline herself thought: idly before her.

The idea of a guiding principle has been Why (she said to herself] should I thus help held by the best minds in all ages, alike by to swell the triumph of the infernal powers by Socrates and St. Augustine, though under diftampering with their miserable suggestions of ferent names. There has ever been a cloud of unbelief, and neglecting the amazing gift which witnesses to this moral truth, and the sun Christ has so long been offering me? I know shining brightly behind them even in the darkthat he is the Redeemer of all such as believe est age, and a superhuman light in every one in him, and I will believe, and look for his that has been or that is; and in it is there a support in the contest with unbelief.

distinct vision, a glorious reality of safety and The next morning as I was employed in happiness. I making some notes of John Stevenson's comments in my journal, the truth came before me

To the end of her life, as is common with a clearness and consistency and brightness with Friends, she believed in and claimed indescribably delightful. The reasonableness of į for herself and others “the indispensable some Christian doctrines which had before blessing of an ever.present teacher and especially perplexed me, shone now as clear as guide." poonday; and the thankfulness I felt for the

After Mill's marriage, which separated blessed light that was granted was intense.*

him from so many of his friends, the inAt this time she was much in the so- timacy between Mill and the Fox circle, ciety of John Stuart Mill, to whom "she which had previously lessened, altogether owed very much.” | He explained to her ceased. Caroline's criticisms on his later brother his views on the doctrine of the works and opinions agree with those of

Dr. Martineau : atonement, to which we shall by-and by call attention, and probably it was Mill's No one would believe beforehand [he says influence which induced Caroline to mod- of Mill] that a writer so serene and even, not ify her belief in that doctrine, which at a to say cold, could affect the reader with so later period she thus expressed:

much sadness. You fall into it without know

ing whence it comes. All the lights upon his Namely, that the voluntary sacrifice of page are intellectual, coming from a deep reChrist was not undertaken to appease the serve of moral gloom. S wrath of God, but rather to express his infi

* Memoir, vol. i. 24-25. Conf. John Stuart Mill's nite love to his creatures, and thus to recon

letter to Robert Barclay Fox, vol. ij. (appendix) 317 cile them to himself. Every species of sacri. 13. fice meets, and is glorified, in him; and he

† Vol. i., p. 165.

I Vol. i, p. 141. It is not clear whether these are

Caroline's own opinions, or those of Sterling, recordes • Memoir, vol. i.., pp. 20-25.

and assented to by her. Vol. ii., p. 269.

s Miscellanies, vol. ii., p. 70.





I am reading (writes Caroline Fox to the Again, to another friend :correspondent whom we have before mentioned] that terrible book of John Mill's on

It must have been delightful to get an exLiberty - so clear, and calm, and cold, he lays perienced sister to assist in the parish work, it on one as a tremendous duty to get oneself but don't let them talk thee into joining a sis

terhood. well contradicted, and admit always a devil's

Woman's work may well be done advocate into the presence of your dearest, without all that ceremony; and, whilst there most sacred truths, as they are apt to grow

are wiseless brothers with parishes to look windy and worthless without such tests, if in after, I think it would be a shame to turn dedeed they can stand the shock of argument at

This is very gratuitous advice, for all. He looks you through like a basilisk, thou never gave a hint of such possible change relentless as fate. We knew him well at one

of raiment. * time, and owe him very much. I fear his re- The deeply religious element in her morseless logic has led him far since then. character was joined with a strong sense

The book is dedicated to his wife's memory, and appreciation of humor. It was, perin a few touching words. He is in senses isolated, and must sometimes shiver haps, “the joviality” which Macaulay with the cold.

claimed to have derived from his Quaker

forefathers.t And again to the same correspondent: Amelia Opie, an authoress among the

She herself speaks of my dear, I don't agree with Mill, though Friends, formerly better known than now, I too should be glad to have some of my ugly as being in “great force, and really jolly." I opinions corrected, however painful the proc. Of this disposition there are many illusess; but Mill makes me shiver, his blade is so trations in the anecdotes and sayings keen and so unhesitating. I think there is which she records. She fixes a date, and much force in his criticism on the mental training provided for the community: the battles gives the name of a witness of a wellare fought for us, the objections to received known scene: views and the refutation of the same all

January 31, 1840. — L. Dyke was in the provided for us, instead of ourselves being church at Torquay last Christmas Day when a strengthened and armed for the combat. Then modest and conscientious clergyman did duty he greatly complains of our all growing so much in the presence of the bishop. In reading alike that individuality is dying out of the the conimunion service he substituted "conland. We are more afraid of singularity than demnation” in the exhortation, “ He that eatof falsehood or compromise, and this he thinks eth or drinketh of this bread or this cup a very dark symptom of a nation's decay. unworthily." “Damnation ! screamed the France, he says, is further gone than we are in bishop in a most effective manner, to the un. this path.*

disguished astonishment of the congregation.|| In her late years Caroline appears to have considered Frederick Dennison

Of some one, whose initials only are Maurice “as a leader in the exposition of given, we are told :Fundamental Eternal Truth.” Her own Poor J. B., in distressing delirium, having theological position she thus defined : taken in ten hours the morphia intended for

I have assumed a name to-day for my reli- forty-eight, he was tearing off his clothes, crygious principles - Quaker Catholicisin — having out, “I'm a glorified spirit, I'm a glorified

What ing direct spiritual teaching for its distinctive spirit! Take away these filthy rags. dogma, yet recognizing the high worth of all should, a glorified spirit do with these filthy other forms of faith; a system in the sense of rags?” On this Esaid coaxingly, “Why, inclusion, not exclusion ; an appreciation of my dear, you wouldn't go to heaven stark the universal and various teachings of the naked ?". On which the attendants who were Spirit through the faculties given us, or inde holding him set off. T pendent of them.t

The following remark of Carlyle to With the ecclesiastical quacks and Calvert, in reference to his dyspeptic ailquackeries of the time she had no sym- ments, we do not remember to have seen pathy.

before : " Well, I can't wish Satan any. If I remember rightly [she writes to her thing worse than to digest for all eterniiy familiar friend) nothing short of the destruction of a world could satisfy Dr. Cumming.

• Vol. ii., p. 307. Oh! the comfort and blessing of knowing that † “ Lord Macaulay was accustomed to say that he our future is in other hands than Dr. Cum got his . joviality' from his mother's family (meinbers ming's; how restful it makes one, and so will. indeed of Quaker origin, he was rather ungrateful in

of the Society of Friends). If his power of humor was ing to have the veil closely drawn which sep. the use he sometimes put it to.” (Trevelyan's Life, arates Now from Then. I

vol. i., p. 21.)

1 Vol. ii., p. 20. • Vol. ii., p. 270, 271.

$ The late Bishop Philpotts. t Ibid., pp. 52-54, 195, 216.

i Vol. i., p. 102. # Ibid., p. 240.

T Ibid., p. 33.

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with my stomach. We shouldn't want eminent men were very stupid at school, fire and brimstone then." *

there was every hope for the sixty-three Carlyle certainly was not only eminently there.'* dyspeptic, but, like Thurlow, “ eminently On another visit to a school : " The dyslogistic,” as appears by his remarks good teacher was taking most patient tó Caroline on Mill: “He is too fond of pains with an endlessly stupid little girl, demonstrating everything. If he were to who meekly and respectfully whispered get up to heaven, he would be hardly con- the most heterogeneous answers to the tent till he had inade out how it all was. simplest questions. • Who did Adam and For my part I don't trouble myself much Eve sin against when they ate the fruit?' about the machinery of the place, whether. Their parents and friends, ma'am.' there is an operative set of angels or an • Were Adam and Eve happy when they industrial class. I'm willing to leave al left the garden?' Holy and happy, that." +

ma'am.'” + Of Martin Farquhar Tupper, Caroline We have space only for one more exspeaks as “the proverbial philosopher tract of this kind:

A damsel belonging to Barclay's establish

ment being here, I thought it right “to try Caroline labored much among the poor, and do her good,” so I asked her, after many and she gives some curious instances unsuccessful questions, if she had not heard of which will be appreciated by those ac- the Lord's coming into the world. • Why, quainted with the Cornish poorer class, she said, “I might have done so, but I have and which illustrate the depth and exact. forgotten it.” “ But surely you must have ness of the knowledge gained from the heard your master read about it, and heard of religious teaching so abundantly heaped it at school or chapel.” “Very likely I have,” on them — *Called on some of the said she, placidly, “ but it has quite slipped old women. 'One of them said •It was like face and a mild blue eye. I

my memory;” and this uttered with a lamb. quite a frolic my coming to read to them.' What different views some people bave

Caroline's devotion to benevolent la. of frolics!”Ş

bors shortened her life. For some years Here is another entry which by many she had been subject to attacks of chronic of the straiter sects of our religion would bronchitis, and during the Christmas of be considered profane : “ What things 1870, while going her rounds with New wives are! What a spirit of joyous suf- Year's gifts to her poorer neighbors, she fering, confidence, and love was incar- took a cold, which rapidly developed inio nated in Eve! 'Tis a pity they should eat bronchitis. Her power of rallying, which apples." || It must be remembered that had previously brought her through many Friends from the first protested against severe attacks, now failed, and she died

being under bondage to the letter” of in her sleep in the early morning of Jan. Scripture, and took broader views on lit- uary 12, 1871. eral inspiration than is common among

To readers of the Westminster Re. other evangelical religionists. Reading view, the chief interest of these volumes Scripture lessons in public worship was will be the large portion which refers to considered by older Friends unduly hon- John Stuart Mill. In Caroline Fox's oring “ the letter.”

memories of him and in his own letters In a cottage visit (in Norfolk, by the to Barclay Fox, he appears in a far more way, not in Cornwall) “a young woman genial light than in his Autobiography,” told us that her father was nearly con

or in the recollections of Professor Bain.s verted, and that a little more teaching These letters also seem to us to throw å would complete the business, adding, 'He new light upon Mill's religious opinions. quite believes that he is lost, which of We must, however, first speak of Stercourse is a great consolation to the old ling, who in these volumes fills a space man.'"

as large as even larger than Mill. On finishing her week's work at the Mill, while Sterling was yet living, held a Falmouth infant school, she “wrote in similar opinion of his character and inthe visitors' report-book that as many fluence to that which he has recorded in

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Vol. i., p. 220. † Ibid., p. 309. I Vol. ii., p. 246. Ś Vol. i., p. 27 i Vol. ji., p. 11.

Ibid., p. 16.

* Vol. ij., p. 23.
† lbid., p. 157.
| Ibid., p. 157.

$ John Stuart Mill. A Criticism with Personal
Recollections by Alexander Bain, LL.D., Emeritus
Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen.
Longmans, 1992.


his “Autobiography." Sterling," he | any, will appreciate a remark of Sierwrote, in 1842, to Barclay Fox, "fancies ling's. On an excursion to Glendurgan, himself idle and useless, not considering the lovely abode of one of the Foxes, how wide an effect his letters and conver- Sterling, at one part of the road where sation must produce; and, indeed, the there were a few trees, naïvely exclaimed, mere fact of such a man living and breath." Why, this really reminds one of Ening amongst us has an incalculable in- gland."* fluence."'*

Aster Sterling's death, Car. Sterling suggested to Caroline that as lyle, in his usual dyslogistic spirit, passed she saw many eminent persons, she should a more sober judgment on him. “ His make notes of their appearance as well character was not supremely original; as their conversation. The idea " seemneither was his fate in the world wondering to her good,” she resolved to try her ful. What he did was inconsiderable 'prentice hand on him himself, and bere enough; and as to what it lay in him to is the result: have done, this was but a problem, now beyond possibility of settlement.” | He

John Sterling is a man of stature, not roforetells that the two volumes published by clinging closely round his head, complexion

bust, but well-proportioned ; hair brown, and Archdeacon Hare “ will be held in mem

very pale, eyes grey, nose beautifully chiselled, ory by the world, one way or other, till mouth very expressive. His face is one exthe world has extracted all its benefit pressing remarkable strength, energy, and refrom them.” † That time has, we think, fivement of character. In argument he comcome; Hare's book is long since out of monly listens to his antagonist's sentiments print, and neither in that great public with a smile, less of conscious superiority than convenience, the railway library of W. H. of affectionate contempt (if such a combinaSmith & Son, nor in one of the best pub. tion may be) - I mean what would express, lic libraries possessed by any provincial

“Poor dear! she knows no better.” In argutown, can we find a copy of it. These ment on deep or serious subjects, however, he memories of Sterling, by a friend who ous strength into reasoning and feelings. Small

looks earnest enough, and throws his ponder. bad a thorough knowledge of him, zeal chance then for the antagonist who ventures to for his memory, if not rather a personal come to blows! He can make bim and his affection for him, and ability rightly to arguments look so small; for, truth to tell, he estimate and faithfully to represent him, dearly loves this indomitable strength of his, will revive his memory for a time, but in and I doubt any human power bringing him the end will, like the rival biographies by to an acknowledgment of mistake with the Hare and Carlyle, preach, to use the consequent conviction that the opposite party words of Sir James Stephen, one more

was right. Sterling possesses a quickness and unheeded sermon on the text, “Oh, ye with it a power of originating striking thoughts,

delicacy of perception quite feminine, and candidates for fame, put not your faith in and making them the foundation of a regular coteries."

and compact series of consequences and de. The friendship between Sterling and ductions, such as only a man, and a man of Caroline Fox began during his first visit extraordinary power of close thinking and to Falmouth. It increased after he took clearness of vision, can attain unto. He is np his abode there, and continued un- singularly uninfuenced by the opinions of abated to the close of his residence in others, preferring, on the whole, to run coun. that place. The relation of master and ter to them than make any approach to a compupil existed between them, and the promise.f master's multifariously diversified specu- This brings the man more vividly be. lations on theology, philosophy, and liter- fore us than the labored efforts of Car. ature, are reported with Boswell-like fidel. lyle, or so far as at this distance of time ity by his admiring pupil. Caroline first we can remember, anything in Hare's mentions Sterling as a very "literary man memoir. with whom her brother had been much

The subjects of some of the conversapleased, and who was an intimate friend tions between the master and his pupil of S. T. Coleridge during the latter part are remarkable, considering that the mas. of his life.” On first acquaintance she ter, though he had been some years marpronounced him to be "a very agreeable man, with a most Lamb-likinų for town • Vol. i., pp. 102-3, 149. Had Sterling in his mind life.” Cornish readers, if so be we have te lines of the old poet quoted by Camden in the

** Britanuia?

“ Cornwall from England, Tainar's streams divide, Vol. i., p. 291. Conf. p. 189. Conf. Mill's Auto

Whence with fat salmon all the land's supplied." biography, 152 et seq. i Life of Sterling, p. 7.

Unhappily, the last line is now a mere poetic dream. 1 Ibid., p. 205.

Vol. i., p. 241.

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ried, was still only in his thirty-fourth, saying, When I look at this, I determine while bis pupil was only in her twenty- to cast all tolerance to the winds.' Ster.

"We talked," she notes, “on ling quietly remarked, . My dear fellow, the mental differences between the sexes, I had no idea you had any to cast.'”* which he considers precisely analogous to A pendant to this is a retort of Charles their physical diversities : her dependence Lamb to Coleridge, which she records on upon him, he the creative, she the recep the testimony of one who heard it. tive power." *

one occasion Coleridge was holding forth Mill, with his later views on the rela- on the effects produced by his preaching, tions of the sexes, would have thought and appealed to Lamb, . You have heard that his friend Sterling was far from the me preach, I think?' • I have never truth. On another occasion, when Ster- heard you do anything else,' was the urling and Caroline were joined by Calvert bane reply.” † and Anna Maria, the conversation ranged When Sterling's life came to be writover Napoleon, Byron, Wordsworth, Shel. ten, Hare naturally applied for informaley, the practices of the Society of Friends, tion to the Foxes, who had heard much the evils of marriages between persons and so many of Sterling's later opinions. of differing religious beliefs, the Churches Caroline notes in her diary the receipt of Rome and England, to Keightly's from Hare of a long letter - detailing dif“History of Rome.” Caroline, with a ficulties which we liad foreseen, and could spice of mischiel, adds:

well enter into. He seems almost forced As we neared home, Bobby (the pony), got order to leave Mill and Carlyle no pre.

to publish more than he could wish, in his bit out of his mouth, and it was delicious to see the ignorance of common things mani- text for an opposition portrait.” I fested by our transcendentalists. “ You'd bet. Her opinion of Hare's work was

so that ter let him go, he'll find his way home,” said it was full of exquisite interest, but of a Sterling, with á laudable knowledge of natural very mixed kind.” § history, and a confused recollection of the in- Mill intended to write Sterling's life, stinct of brutes. We, thinking it would go and Caroline gave him some cautions as probably to Kergillack, thought it best to lead to it. “ Clara Mill writes : 'Is Caroline's him. So, Sterling took his forelock, and I his note a brave note in answer to my cautail, and marched the little kicking beast hoine- tious entreaties? Publish what you will, ward. “Calvert, just put the bit in his mouth, and all you can, it can only do him can't you; it's very easy.” “Oh, yes, perfectly easy,” said Calvert ; “ do you do it, Ster- honor.' "ill ling?”+

What a life of Sterling by Mill would

have been we know from the mention The communications between the mas. in his “ Autobiography," " of that short ter and the pupil occasionally took a light and transitory phasis of Sterling's life, er shape, if, indeed, they did not amount during which he made the mistake of beto flirtation, supposing such a thing pos coming a clergyman.”!! sible between a married clergyman and a According to Hallam, who so told Carfemale member of the Society of Friends. Oline Fox, the impression produced by To us it seems as impossible as did flirta- Hare's work on those who knew Sterling tion by a bishop to Sydney Smith. "John intimately, was “that it portrayed a mere Sterling,” says the lady, wrote the fol- bookworm, always occupied with some lowing impromptu to me by way of auto- abstruse theological problem, rather than graph” (of autographs she was a great the man they delighted in for his geniality collector): –

and buoyancy of feeling." ** What need to write upon your book a name,

This feeling was, no doubt, the origin Which is not written in the book of fame ; of Carlyle's opposition portrait of SterBelieve me, she to reason calmly true,

ling, and of his caricature of Hare's. Though far less kind, is far more just than you. I

A pale sickly shadow is presented to us here

- weltering, bewildered, ainid heaps of what She narrates, on Sterling's authority, the


call “ Hebrew old clothes," wrestling with following reply by him to Carlyle : "Car. impotent impetuosity to free itself from the Tyle was as often pouring out the fulness of his indignation at the quackery and

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Vol. ii., p, 208. speciosity of the times. He wound up by

† Ibid., p. 23.
# Ibid., p. 95.

Ś Ibid., p. 97.
* Vol. i., p. 128.
Ibid., p. 118.

1 Autobiography, p. 155. † Ibid., p. 115.

** Ibid., p. 138.

1 Ibid.

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