render, for none can give up what he does | houses, surrounded by the mighty walls, not possess; and even to seek to lose our rise the menacing Kasba, and numberless self, we must have known it. If it seem a domes and minarets. On a flat sandbank poor thing to know our selves, it is be at the foot of the city lies Goletta; the cause we have forgotten that none can coast on either side is covered with white know himself who knows not another than villas, to which large pleasure-gardens, himself. Our own nature can be revealed orangeries, and olive-groves are attached. to us only when we are transplanted be. Here and there, but, on the whole, spar. yond it. The depthis within are always ingly, the date-tree true “note" of Af. made clear by some light reflected from rican landscape soars above all. Such another soul, and can be fully illuminated is the actual aspect of Tunis; and on the only by that light which is not reflected, coast, in the midst of this fair scene, rise and which shines from the other of every two bare, mournful mounds to record two human soul, the true complement of our momentous struggles and tremendous de. common humanity.

feats, the triumph of Rome and that of Islam; one marks the ruins of Carthage, the other the place of sepulture of St. Louis, king of France. To the east of

the narrow strip of land on which the From The Spectator.

town extends lies a great salt lake, El “THE BURNOUS OF THE PROPHET."

Bahireh, the dwelling:place of a bird pop THERE are those who tell us that ulation. What a picture that must be, Cairo, even if it escape the evil cliances formed by the long lines of camels jourof war, must inevitably yield to the influ- neying along the bank with their Arab ence of Western civilization — which is guides, and the innumerable multitude of not of a beautifying tendency - and be. pelicans and flamingoes among the reeds come as commonplace as Venice will be, and in the salt-scummed water; their when the “City of Song” has been put plumage of white, and all the shades of to rights, and accommodated with quays. red, from pale pink to rich crimson, showThe traveller of the future, directing the ing out under the cloudless blue African course of the most recent representative sky! Very beautiful, seen from the sea, of Prince Hassan's. carpet whereon is the old stronghold of war, palace in. who is there that has not longed to lay trigue, murderous deeds, and prosperous him down, and be carried to the Beautiful piracy; and although its magnificence and Isles ? — will most likely sind even Tunis wealth are of the past, it cannot be disapmetamorphosed by the process which will pointing to explore the Tunis of to-day, be republican French for Haussmanniza- of which it is said: “The people have tion. But while “the old robber's den, remained the same, and they have preTunis, the whitest of all African towns, served the primitive originality of their 'the Burnous of the Prophet,' as the de- customs and usages, froin the state of vout Arabian calls it,” remains unchanged, constant hostility to the surrounding it is a sight well worth seeing. All writ- tribes in which they live. In Tunis we ers tell of the beauty of the gulf on shall see, therefore, a part of the purely whose shores lie the ruins of Carthage. genuine Orient, a bulwark of the Middle Little isles with rocks towering high Ages reaching dark and threatening into above the blue waves protect it against modern times.” The perfect expression the raging storms of the open sea, and a of Mahomedan life is afforded by Tunis, chain of picturesque mountains frames the when the town of the Franks is passed water towards the east; while westward and one penetrates into the town of the the banks slope gradually, showing far, Moors, through one of five little streets far away

the mist-swept peaks of the last leading up from the Marina (where Westspurs of the Atlas. In the background ern life is represented by Italian coffeeof the gulf, on one of the dark heights, houses), the widest of which is just broad rises the city, which has so fierce a his enough to admit one carriage, while in the tory and so fanciful a name; shaped like others three foot-passengers can hardly an extended burnous, with its citadel, the walk abreast. The narrowest and dirtiest Kasba, for the bood.' Seen from the sea, of these streets lead to the Jews' quar. Tunis, as the Chevalier de Hesse-War- ters, chiefly distinguished for dirt. The tegg describes it, lacks nothing that actual wretchedness of the Ghetto forms a beauty and historical association can lend strange contrast to the growing importo satisfy the gazer. From among the tance of the Jewish population, which is far-stretching crowd of dazzlingly white supplanting the Arabs in trade and indus.

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try so fast, that it will soon be the more I we scan spacious courts, with rows of important element all along the coast. columns; but scarcely do we put our first In the Ghetto, “the streets are, after step leading there, than some Arabs, who every fifty or one hundred steps, blocked are lingering about, drive us back with by walls or houses, the latter having no screams; we have approached a mosque, numbers nor the streets names. The in- inaccessible to Europeans." With these habitants leave their houses rarely, and and other strange features of this typical then only to go to a synagogue, or to see Mahomedan city, the grand quarter of a friend close by. There are others who the Dar-el-Bey contrasts finely. Here is do not leave their houses for years, who a great square, with a well-kept garden, live and die where they have been born, planted with palm and almond trees; a without ever entering the Arabian part or bazaar, where the merchants congregate, the Marina.” When, having ascended to and over which is raised a mosque, covthe Kasba, one looks down from the outer ered with fine sculptures and an hexago. walls, grand even in decay, over the ma. nal minaret of yellow sandstone; on the jestic Moorish town, following the maze third side is the Kasba, on the fourth of the thousand lanes and passages that the stately front of the bey's palace, with compose it, and gazing on the multitude a couple of ragged soldiers at the gate, of domes, snow-white and dark-green, occupied in knitting or basket-making. above the great expanse of houses clus. Near this square stand the palaces of tering down to the sea, with the tall mina. centuries ago, desolate indeed, but still rets towering above it all, one's glance magnificent. “I found,” says the Chevfalls on a quarter in which there is the alier de Hesse-Wartegg, mere monotony of crowded dwellings, in which the colonnades were marble monwithout dome, mosque, or turret, or even oliths, with splendid capitals, evidently a tree to break it. That quarter is the taken from that great quarry which lies Ghetto. The Arab quarter is not much in the immediate neighborhood, where the less dreary, though the streets are wider, building.stones are ready cut, and beauti. for the houses have only a ground floor, fully ornamented, Carthage. This anno windows, and the doors are always cient town was such a fruitful field for shut; but the scene is full of strange the Tunisians, that in every second house features, and well worth studying, before are found Roman stones, with inscriptions the grand quarter, that of the Dar-el-Bey, or sculptures, parts of columns and capis reached. Here are numbers of mosques itals. If Tunis were destroyed, her ruins

- there are five hundred in Tunis would be the ruins of Carthage!” The bazaars, barracks; khans crowded with palaces of the bey are splendid and inheavily-packed camels and mules; silent congruous; the Bardo, an hour from the streets, where now and then a niuffled capital, is a fine sample of Oriental archiwoman slips by; noisy lanes, “where you tecture and decoration, spoiled by Paris. are either pushed about or carried for ian upholstery and vulgar European carward, and where you are in danger of pets. Dar-el-Bey, bis only town residence, getting under the feet of a camel, which, is magnificent and neglected; his real with its bale goods, takes up the abode is in a separate building, walled, breadth of the little street, while slowly and standing in a garden, near the Bardo. and solemnly stalking towards you.” One He goes to the Bardo once a week, to sit may enter a dozen well-paved streets, that in judgment on his subjects, and receive all get narrower and darker, until they are the ambassadors and consuls of the great closed by a high house in ruins or by a powers; and then there is a brief stir, barred and bolted gate; and if one sits and the court presents a stately picture. down to rest on a stone, one may be “It is, however, only an external bril. beaten and pelted, because it is the tomb. liancy, and it cannot deceive the visitor as stone of a saint, arıd have to run from to the misery reigning within the Moorish enraged fanatics. 6 Some of the houses,” empire. Mahomed Es Sadock Pasha a recent traveller tells us, “are bedaubed Bey is an amiable enough prince, by all with the most primitive drawings of wild accounts, fond of children, but childless, animals, plants, or houses, at which a wild and very simple in his habits. He has fellow, half-naked, works, as we pass; be only one wife, and though he pays her a jumps up at us as if he were mad, and formal visit of an hour's duration at her is only kept back with trouble by his co-castle every day, he rarely sees her, as religionists; he is a saint, which in Tunis the hour of his visit is generally one apis equivalent to a fool. Walking on, we pointed for devotion, and on bis arrival be come to wide-open gates, through which I goes to a small room in the palace to pray.




He is supposed to know nothing of the went to his neighbor, and brought from management of his possessions; before his shop the article asked for. When I him all is splendor, behind his back all is asked him whether it was his property, or desolate ruin. Whichever of his palaces if he had a sbare in it, he always said, he shall die in will be dismantled and left. Kif, kif.' It is the same, whether you to decay, for a bey must not live in a pal. buy here or there." ace in which a predecessor has died. Who shall depict the street life of Tu. “None of them has had himself trans. nis, with its variety of race, color, and ported into the street on death approach. costume? It severely taxes the imagina. ing, and there are more than a dozen tion of us Westerns, who hardly know palaces in Tunis to-day which cannot be what color means, to picture a crowd with used by the beys. A melancholy example the great majority of the individuals comof this absurd custom is Mabomedia, posing it dressed, being Moors, in the once the magnificent residence of Ach. following costume: “ The turbans are met Bey, who had it built thirty-five years sometimes white, sometimes yellow, flowago, at a cost of ten million francs.

This ered, and always carefully wound; the palace, with its secondary buildings and jackets are short, and embroidered, the villas for ministers and dignitaries, was wide trousers full of folds, there is a col. situated two miles out of town; and when ored sash round the body. Then they Achmet Bey died, the furniture was moved, (the Moors) wear a light cloak of thin silk the floors, glazed tiles, doors and windows, round their shoulders; their feet, covered were broken out, and dragged to another with the whitest of stockings, are put into palace. The heavy marble columns, slippers of red or yellow leather; the handstatues, the curbs of the wells, etc., re- kerchief, tied by a corner to the cloak, mained behind with the walls, and he who hangs in front; a rose behind the right passes those imposing ruins to-day might ear, and a cane with a silver button, comthink thousands of years had passed over pletes this dress.” Then there are the them. The land of the Arab destroys red-turbaned Moors, Hadji or Mecca pilthus in our day, in the midst of peace, as grims; the shereefs, or descendants of his ancestors, the Vandals, did centuries the Prophet, green-turbaned; the kadis, ago, only in time of war! So much for with white turbans, in closer folds; the Oriental culture!”

Jews in darker attire, and dark-blue or The population of Tunis is a chaos of black turbans; the Bedouins, in their nations, costumes, grades, and classes. wbite-hooded burnouses; the Kabyle

Society” is represented by the Mam- women, who only are unveiled; negresses, elukes, who in reality are Greeks and and women from Malta and Greece. Syrians; the Moors form the middle class, There can be few stranger subjects of the women are absolutely invisible, except contemplation on the face of the earth when they visit the bazaar which furnishes than the aspect of “the Burnous of the the beautiful and luxurious articles of Prophet.”. their attire; and even then, they are so muffled up that no notion can be formed of what they are like. Moorish ladies are said to be entirely uneducated, without an idea of reading, writing, or music; and

From Nature. so strict is their seclusion that no man

KOREAN ETHNOLOGY. can invite male guests to enter his dwell- At a recent interview with Mr. Charles ing, he must receive them in the Marvin, M. Semenoff, vice-president of gate." There is no social life; the men the Russian Geographical Society, re. meet at the bazaar. The jewel bazaar is marked that "every annexation in central entirely in the hands of the Jews; per. Asia is a source of satisfaction to our sci. • fumes and spices are sold by the pale, entific men. Fresh fields are opened up handsome, grand-looking Moors. It would for research, and all this must naturally be take volumes to describe the bazaars, and of interest to persons devoted to science." the wonderful wares they contain, the as-Some such thoughts will probably have tonishing results that are produced by the occurred to most ethnologists on hearing skill, the patience, and the untiring perse. that Korea has at last broken through the verance of the race that knows nothing at barriers of exclusiveness, and concluded all about competition or the envy of trade. commercial treaties both_with England " It happened to me several times,” says and the United States. Foreigners will the Chevalier de Hesse.Wartegg, "that a doubtless for some time be restricted to dealer had not got what I wanted. He the three treaty ports thrown open on the

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eastern and southern coasts, and to Seul, | Mongols, while the Sien-pi, numerous the capital, where British and American especially in the south, are, perhaps, the political agents will reside. But the op-above-mentioned Kmaso of the Japanese portunities thus afforded of studying the historians, representing the fair type, interesting inhabitants of this region can- whose presence is attested by overwhelmnot fail to be gradually extended, until the ing evidence.* These Kmaso made frewhole peninsula becomes accessible to quent predatory excursions in very anscientific exploration. Meantime a few cient times to Kiusiu and Hondo, even notes on the ethnical relations of the peo- forming permanent settlemants on severai ple to their neighbors will probably be parts of the coast. It is probable that acceptable to the readers of Nature. they also reached the Riu-kiu (Lu-Chu)

The term Korea, now applied to the archipelago, and thus may the presence whole peninsula, was originally restricted be explained of a certain fair element in to the northern state of Korié, the Chi- Japan itself, and especially in the Riu-kiu nese and Japanese forms of which were group. Kaoli and Korai respectively. With the The Caucasic seem to have preceded fusion of Korié, Petsi, San-kan, Kudara, the Mongol tribes in the peninsula. But and all the other petty States into the they were gradually outnumbered and present monarchy about the end of the largely absorbed by the yellow stock, fourteenth century, the name of the north- owing to constant inigrations, especially ern and most important of these principal from the Chinese provinces of Pechili ities was extended by Japanese writers to and Shantung, throughout the fourth and the whole country, while the monarchy fifth centuries of the vulgar era. It is itself, at that time subject to China, took also to be noted, that with every revoluthe official Chinese title of Chaosien tion or change of dynasty in China, the (Tsiosen), or “Serenity of the Morning,” leaders of the defeated party usually took in reference to its geographical position refuge with their followers in Korea. between the continent and Japan, the The Mongol stock was thus continually “ Land of the Rising Sun.” For the in- fortified, while the stream of Caucasic habitants themselves there seems to have migration had ceased to flow from prebeen no recognized general name, al. historic times. Hence it is not surprising though those of the southern division to find that the prevailing type is now were commonly designated in Japanese distinctly Mongoloid. Of the nine or history by the expression Kmaso, or ten million inhabitants of the peninsula, “Herd of Bears,” yet to the people thus probably five-sixths may be described as contemptuously spoken of, the natives of distinguished by broad and rather flat the archipelago were indebted for a features, high cheek-bones, slightly obknowledge of phonetic writing, for their lique black eyes, small nose, thick lips, peculiar Buddhism, for their porcelain black and lank hair, sparse beard, yellowand some other industries. Political ish or coppery complexion. The rest, relations had been established between representing the original Caucasic elethe two countries certainly before the ment, are characterized by rounded or third century of the new era, when a large oval features, large nose, light complexportion of the peninsula was reduced by ion, delicate skin, chestnut or brown the queen regent Zingu. Since then the hair, blue eyes, full beard. Between the political ascendency has oscillated be two extremes there naturally occur sev. tween China and Japan, and the substan-eral intermediate shades, all of which tial independence hitherto preserved by

* The language of Ernst Oppert is conclusive on this the Seul government must be mainly at point: “Unter den vielen Thausenden, die mir während tributed to the rivalry of its powerful ineiner Reisen im Lande zu Gesicht gekommen, habe neighbors.

sichtsausdruck gefunden, dass man sie, wären sie nach The Korean race is commonly regarded unserer Sitte gekleidet gewesen, für Europäer hätte as a branch of the Mongolic stock. 'But halten können.

grosse Anzahl durch ihre schönen regelmässigen Züge it really seems to have resulted from the und rosige Hautfarbe, ihr blondes Haar und die fusion of two distinct elements, the Mon blauen Augen so auffällig, dass sie von Europäischen golic and Caucasic, the former no doubt des Eindrucks ihrer Abstammung von Europäern nicht predominating. These are probably the zu erwehren vermochte, bis bei weiterem Eindringen Sien-pi and San-han of Chinese writers, ins Land diese Erscheinung eine sehr häufige und from whose union the present inhabitants alltägliche wurde und diese zuerst gefasste Ansicht als

irrig zurückgewiesen werden musste." (Reisen Nach are said to have sprung. The San-han Korea. Leipzig, 1881, p. 8.) However untrustworthy (San-kan, or “Tiree Kan”) prevailed in this writer may be in other respects, his evidence on

this question may be unhesitatingly accepted, agreeing the central parts, and were apparently as it does with that of so many other observers.

ich sehr und

Auch unter den Kindern war eine

Kindern kaum zu unterscheiden waren, und ich mich


serve to explain the contradictory ac- morphological resemblance, few traces counts of the missionaries and travellers can now be detected of any fundamenspeaking from actual observation, but tal unity of speech between the Koreans generally ignorant of the original constit- and the surrounding Mongoloid peoples. uent elements and ethnical relations of Like the Manchu, Mongolian, and Japanthe natives. All, however, agree in de- ese, the Korean is a polysyllabic, agglutiscribing them as taller and more robust nating and untoned language, with a rich than the Chinese and Japanese, while phonetic system, including as many as fully equal to them in intelligence and fourteen vowels and several gutturals and moral qualities. They are a simple, hon- aspirates. In structure and vocabulary est, good-natured people, very frank, labo- it seems to approach nearest to the Japan., rious, and hospitable, although hitherto ese, with which W. G. Aston has comcompelled by their exclusive laws to treat pared it.* strangers with suspicion and an outward The national writing system is purely show of unfriendliness. That this un- phonetic, consisting of a syllabic alphabet friendliness is merely assumed through of great antiquity, but unknown origin. fear of the authorities is abundantly evi- It is probably an offshoot of the comdent from Capt. Basil Hall's account of mon alphabetic system formerly diffused his intercourse with the natives of the throughout east Asia and Malaysia, and islands on the west coast.

scattered members of which are still.found Polygamy, although permitted, is little amongst the Lolo and Mosso of southpractised, in this respect resembling their west China, the Tagalas and Bisayans of peculiar Buddhism. But while some con- the Philippine Archipelago, the Korinchi, sideration is shown for the women, to Rejangs, and Lampungs of Sumatra, and whom the streets are given up in the the Dravidians of southern India. In evening, the gods are treated with the Korea, however, the literati use the greatest contempt and indifference. In Chinese ideographic system exclusively, many towns there are no temples, nor even leaving the despised native writing to any domestic shrines. The images of women and children. This alphabet may gods and saints are mere wooden blocks be seen in the first volume of Dallet's set up like landmarks by the wayside, and “ Histoire de l'Eglise de Corée,which inferior as works of art to the idols of the has hitherto been almost our only authorPolynesians. When one of these divini-ity on the subject of the Korean language ties gets blown down or rots away, it be- and literature. Last year, however, a comes the sport of the children, who large Korean-French dictionary and a amuse themselves by kicking it about Korean grammar in French were pubamid the jeers and laughter of their lished in Tokio. There is also a “ Korean elders. The religious sentiment, which Reader," by Ross (Shanghai, 1979), which may be said to culminate on the Tibetan the writer has not seen. plateau, seems to fade away west and east

A. H. KEANE. as it descends towards the Atlantic and Pacific seaboards.

“ It seems probable that the distance which separe Formerly masters of the Japanese in ates. Japanese from Korean is not greater than that

which lies between English and Sanskrit. . . . Everymany arts, the Koreans at present culti-thing considered we may regard them as equally closely vate few industries beyond the weaving allied with the most remotely connected members of the

Aryan family." (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society and dyeing of linens and cottons, and the for August, 1879.) In this awkwardly worded sentence preparation of paper from the pulp of the the writer does not mean to say that Japanese and KoBrussonetia papyrifera. Silks and tea

rean are allied to Aryan, but that they are as nearly

related to each other as are the most remotely conare imported from China and Japan, and nected members of the Aryaa family to each other. the exports to those countries have hitherto been mainly restricted to rice, raw silk, peltries, paper, tobacco, and gin. seng.

But for the Chinese influences, which are of comparatively recent date, the THE POWER OF ACCUMULATION IN speech of the Koreans would betray few indications of their mixed origin. Here THE power of accumulation from the as elsewhere the primeval languages have gradual growth of small sums has rarely refused to intermingle; the Caucasic has been shown in a more forcible manner perished, the Mongolic alone surviving than in a return recently published, which But the dispersion took place at such a gives the amount of fractions of a penny remote period that, beyond a generallon dividends of the national debt now

From The Economist.


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