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and moving is much more difficult. The tain, and the legend has been perverted lading is a work of skill, and the pack by a libeller of human nature.” The tersaddle is a curiosity. It consists of two ror of the .winter camps are wolves; for pieces of wood, rounded so as to fit the them, the small, brave dogs, covered with shape of the animal, with leather at the long, thick hair, and resembling little ends. This is put on exactly like a horse's bears, are always on the watch, and they saddle, but more forward; a piece of rein- attack them fearlessly, but with great deer skin or coarse blanket is placed un- cunning, " taking care not to be bitten by der it, to protect the animal's back; the them, and choosing their time and place burdens are then evenly disposed on either to bite.” Reindeer bulls will often deside, from eighty to one hundred pounds fend themselves against these enemies, being the average weight carried by each. but it is a sore disaster when a pack of The tent-poles are bound together, and wolves gallop into the midst of a herd, drawn along the ground. Some unladen for the reindeer scatter in all directions, reindeer, to act as reliefs, follow in the and the owners have to go long distances rear of the pack animals, who travel in to find them, and often lose great numsingle file, attached to each other by strong bers. When the snow is on the ground, leather ropes, made fast to the base of the hardy little men will pursue the wolves the horns, and led by a guide. Seven is on snowshoes (on these a Lapp can travel the ordinary number under the charge of one hundred and fifty miles in a day of
The tents — one was exhibited eighteen hours), easily overtake, and spear, at the Westminster Aquarium a few years or kill them with clubs; the wolves canago - are very portable, convenient, and not escape when the snow is deep. The durable; unlike those of the nomad Tar. training of the reindeer - -a naturally tars, they are never covered with skins. timid and restless animal — to draw a In summer, the camp will be pitched near sledge and carry burdens is a slow and a spring or stream of water, in the neigh. arduous task, but the process involves no borhood of dwarf birch and juniper, and ill-treatment. They are given salt and not distant from good pasture. About all angelica, which, we presume, is reinthe pools grows the famous Lapp “shoe deeree for beer and skittles. When drivgrass,” and this beneficent product of na. ing with a guide along the Muonio, very ture is gathered in great quantities during far north, with the mercury 10° below the brief summer, and carefully dried for zero, M. du Chaillu came upon a strange winter use. The Lapps wear the grass spectacle, literally, reindeer "diggings.” in their shoes in winter, because it has He entered a forest, and found himself in the peculiarity of retaining heat; in sum- the midst of a number of holes several mer, because it protects their feet from feet deep. He floundered through this the stony ground. In the hilly and deso- dangerous place, and entered another forlate Norwegian regions, above which Su-est, where he came suddenly upon a large litelma towers, 6,326 feet high, with its herd that had just halted. Strange, in. vast glacier, and where, though the mean deed, was the appearance of that dark temperature of the year is about freezing: forest, with the multitude of reindeer point, exquisite flowers grow in great under the foliage. The snow was not profusion over four thousand feet above very deep, not over four feet, and under sea-level and on the snow-line, many rov- it was buried the rich moss. The num. ing Laplanders and herds of reindeer are ber of the animals seemed countless, and to be met with. At two thousand feet all except the young ones were busily above the snow-line, the lichens, and con- digging, first with one fore-foot, then with sequently, the reindeer, disappear. In the other, the holes becoming larger and his yraphic sketch of Lapland, M. Goblet larger, and the bodies of the reindeer d'Alviella gives us a lively notion of the more and more hidden. Wherever he mosquito of the far north; his memora- turned his eyes, they were doing the same ble narrative of his own miseries includes work; they were evidently hungry. On a pitiable account of the sufferings of the his way back he looked for the herd; reindeer, who go plunging along, mad- none were to be seen. He alighted and dened, blinded, and bleeding from the inspected the ground, and then found that attacks of the humming plagues “that they had dug holes so deep that he could would spoil paradise." "Depend upon see only their tails, which swayed to and it,” once wrote a tortured traveller, " it fro. The moving of these wonderful ani. was not a crumpled rose-leat that the mals through deep snow — of course, proverbial malcontent discovered; it was their hoofs are useless upon ice – must a mosquito, on the watch inside the cur- l be a sight worth seeing; though one has
to pay a big price for it, packed into the red nostrils, tossing horns, and clinking boat-like sleigh, and perfectly helpless as hoofs, and the wary, vigilant men! they dash onwards, charging the great The moss tracts, vast as they are, have banks of snow at their rushing speed; to be carefully husbanded, for the crop their hoofs, with long hair growing be takes from seven to ten years to grow. tween them, spreading in the snow as Year after year will a Lapp family roam they touch it, and the pace so rapid that over the same tract as their ancestors, all there is no time to sink. On a thirty- their energies devoted to the tending and miles journey, from Mukkavucma to Hel. increase of their herds. M. du Chaillu ligskoven in Norway, during which he thinks the reindeer owned by the nomad encountered a terrific storm, M. du Chail- and sea Lapps number about four hunlu had an opportunity of observing the dred thousand. In the province of Finendurance of the reindeer. In ascend marken alone there are over sixty-five ing the bills they were so exhausted by thousand. The moving season is the be. their struggles with the snow, that they ginning of May; then the herds leave would drop upon it and lie on their backs, their winter pasture-grounds by the rivers apparently in great suffering, then breathe and in the woods, and migrate to the very hard, and be so utterly helpless that higher lands near the fjords. A“moving a stranger would think they were about day” at Kautokeimo is a fine sight, as the to die; but in a few minutes they would great herds muster for their passage over regain their breath, rise to their feet, eat the snow-clad, trackless hills. The newlysnow, and set off again. The expedition born calves are either carried, or put in a had to go down a narrow ravine, by a very sleigh. Reindeer are never housed; they steep and dangerous descent; it was on enjoy the cold and revel in the snow. the western shed of the mountains and Food is never given them, and unless they above the tree vegetation, and this was are specially trained to do so, they will how Peter and Ephraim, two clever Fions, not touch moss that has been gathered. managed it:
When the snow is so deep as to defy their
digging, they are almost as ill-off as Irish Numbers of sleighs were lashed together by tenants evicted after a bad harvest; and a long and strong, leather, plaited cord, which the brief spring of Scandinavia tries them, was first secured to the forward part of each, for the snow then passing along the middle, was made fast,
nelts during the day and a after which it was attached to the next in the thick crust forms at night, so that tbeir same manner, and so on ; and four others were feet break through, and they suffer from connected with mine. With the exception of lameness. They are very tame, and yet the leader, each reindeer was secured to the strangely wild, or rather nervous, and it rear of his sleigh by leather cord from the is bad to startle them. Their speed is base of the horns; almost every sleigh had greatest in October, November, and Dea deer behind. Each man remained in hiscember; a good reindeer in good condi. vehicle, the distance apart being small. Peter tion will travel, in good country, one was to take the lead. The spare reindeer were hundred and fifty miles a day, but eighty for the first time harnessed, and the tired ones
is the average.
They are kindly creaPeter had to start the whole train, which would go with great velocity; he tures, sociable, gentle, affectionate, will. rode with his legs outside, turned back some ing, greatly superior to other cattle in what with his feet touching the snow. Every most respects, easily managed in a herd, man but ine [says M. du Chaillu) seated him but they must not be left by themselves self in the same posture, the feet acting as in suinmer. Their battles are imposing rudder and drag in the snow. I
was not encounters. In those northern regions allowed to ride in that way, for they said my where “Reindeer, thou art wealth alone,” legs would surely be broken. When every the Laplander could not exist without his thing was ready, Peter looked back and gave antlered providence, for the animal is “his the signal, and started his reindeer down the horse, his beast of burden, his food, his hill in a zigzag course. This required great clothing, his shoes, and his gloves.” dexterity, as we flew over the snow with astonishing speed. At times the sleigh would swerve on the declivity, but we went so fast that we were soon out of danger. How strange a sight - had there been
From St. James's Gazette. any one upon the great waste to see it, THE EMANCIPATION OF WOMAN FROM that living line - at once rushing and
THE PIANO. wriggling down the steep snow-field, would In times past women played on lutes, have been; the flying animals, with their | viols, and all kinds of instrumeuts of the
violin and guitar family. In Italian and "attached "), and some of them will take to Flemish pictures up to the end of the cultivating it for its own sake; while the seventeenth century, a “music party” remainder will at least spare both themmeant something very like what would be selves and their friends a considerable called a quartet party in the present day. amount of annoyance. No one had any suspicion as to the violin's The enormous difficulty of modern being an ungraceful instrument in the pianoforte music constitutes in itself a reahands and arms of a lady; and Dome. son why in the education of young girls the nichino bas represented St. Cecilia herself piano should not, like “ dancing and deperforming a solo, not on the violin, but portment,” be made obligatory. A woman on the far more formidable violoncello. can get through life so well without play. After the introduction of the harpsichord, ing the piano; and for a few shillings, or however, and, above all, after the replace even in extreme cases for a single shilment of the harpsichord by the more per- ling, she can, if her lot happens to be cast fect pianoforte, stringed instruments were in London, hear from time to time the fingenerally abandoned by the fair sex. The est players that this great pianoforte-playpianoforte now came to be regarded not ing age has ever produced. It is not merely as the only instrument for a lady because the piano is unworthy of her atto cultivate, but also as one which every tention that woman should be liberated lady was bound to learn. The prejudice from the task work imposed upon her in on the subject of pianoforte playing as an connection with it. It is because music, indispensable "accomplishment must like every other art, demands from its have caused a considerable amount of votaries special gifts and inclinations, and annoyance and pain to multitudes of dull because among women who are thus en. girls and to a certain number of bright dowed it is a mistake to suppose that the
It has never been expected of piano is the only instrument suitable to every lady that she shall be an able pian- them. Let it be understood in the first ist, any more than it is expected of every place that it is no more a disgrace for a gentleman that he shall be a finished young lady not to play the piano than it scholar. It has always been enough for a is a disgrace for ber not to draw, to man to be in a position to say that he paint, or to model; and, in the second learned Latin and Greek when he was at place, that if she does mean to play some school; and a woman satisfied all the instrument it is a mistake for her to reclaims of society when she set forth that strict herself as a matter of course to the she had studied the piano, but, owing to piano. Next to the organ, the piano is, domestic occupations of another kind or thanks to the orchestral effects which it for no matter what reason, had been un can be made to produce, the finest instruable to “ keep it up."
ment in the world; and it is the only Of the rather vague principles put for instrument for which every great com. ward under the name of women's rights poser writes as a matter of course, and there is not one which generous-minded for which every great composer's orchesmen would more willingly concede than tral works are arranged in reduced forın. the right of young women, or even of To praise at the expense of the piano the little girls, to refuse instruction in the art violin, which except when tours de of playing the piano. There are houses force are indulged in — yields like the in which the practising of scales is quite human voice but a single note, is a very an ordinary punishment for juvenile of common thing, but it is one that we should fenders. Such a sentence is one that in not ourselves care to undertake. The volves pain and suffering not to those violin to be effective in a truly musical alone on whom it is pronounced; and that sense must, like the human voice, be acin itself is a sufficient reason for abolish- companied either by the orchestra or by ing it from the family book of punish the pianoforte, or by other members of ments. Little girls fear the piano, and the violin family. The pianoforte is (put. long for the time when, having at last ting aside, of course, the too colossal ormastered its difficulties, they will not be gan) the only instrument which, for harcalled upon to play upon it any more; monic as well as melodic purposes, is while numberless great girls regard it as complete in itself, and which is really an one of the many nuisances which they orchestra in little. must put up with until they get married. There are good reasons, then, why all Once, however, liberate young women who care much for music should study from that piano to which like serfs they the piano, but no reason why they should have so long been “assigned" (but not study the piano exclusively. Often in
the same family there are two, three, and
From Blackwood's Magazine. even four pianists. How much and how
URBS ROMA VALE! advantageously the musical domain of
“Hic ver purpureum : varius hic flumina circum such a family would be increased if, with Fundit humus flores: hic candida populus antro or without neglect of the piano, the in
Imminet, et lentæ texunt umbracula vites."
(VIRG., Eclog. ix., l. 40-42.) struments of the violin family were taken up, with a view not necessarily to string
“ Vester, Camenæ, vester in arduos
Tollor Sabinos: seu mibi frigidum quartets, but, at least, to the numerous
Præneste, seu Tibur supinum, pieces written by great composers for
Seu liquidæ placuere Baiz."
(Hor., Carm. III. iv., l. 21-24.) violin or violoncello, and piano. “The violin - I include always the viola and
“ Ille ego qui quondam gracili modulatus avepa
Carmen, violoncello - is no doubt,” says Mr. Hul.
.." lah in his excellent little work on “ Music
(VIRG., Æneid I.) in the House," "a difficult instrument; but the difficulty of acquiring a service. While yet a boy, nor then of dew able amount of skill on it has been much Of Castaly a deep imbiber, exaggerated. To become a Joachim, a I scribbled stanzas “On a view Holmes, or a Piatti, is the work of a life. “Of distant Rome," and of “the Tiber." time, even for men gifted with equal apti.
II. tude and perseverance to these- turned to account under skilful guidance and at That was nigh fifty years ago : the right time of life, and supplemented Perusing them, methinks they flow
And yet, i' faith, and by our Lady! and encouraged by a thousand circum
In current smooth, if sometimes shady. stances as impossible to take account of as to bring about and foresee. But there is an amount of skill below - very much But still, although perchance not bad below — that of artists of this class whic!, For a young hand's essay at college, if accompanied by feeling, taste, and in. In Rome herself I fain would add telligence, may contribute largely to the Some brief results of further knowledge. yariety and agreeableness of music in the house." It may be hoped that in a few years, without the number of our domes. For I have stood by Delphi's spring, tic pianists being too much diminished, So may my Muse propose to sing
And deeply quaffed that pure potation : that of our domestic violinists will be
With ampler meed of approbation. considerably increased. Some half-dozen lady violinists have appeared this season
V. in London, at public concerts, who pos. Dear Muse ! though coy, nor always kind, sess the very highest merit; and at a Say, don't you think it were a pity half private, half public concert given re. To go from Rome, and leave behind cently at Stafford House for the benefit No tribute to the Eternal City ? of a charity the chief attraction was a string band consisting of no fewer than
First laud we —
The diver. twenty-four lady executants.
- what I loved the best sion, then, of feminine talent from the The far’snow-clad Soracte's crest;
Pines, :lex, villas, flowers, and fountains; piano towards the violin is not a move.
Albano's Hills; Sabina's Mountains. ment which has to be originated : it needs only to be encouraged.
Weird mountains : phantom hills; now bright,
Now faint, with opalescent changes :
Half show, half hide those sunny ranges.
When Rome's delicious Spring declares A little old book has she,
Her advent, in sweet floral flushes, A faded leaf in the old book lies,
And nightingales their plaintive airs Withered as leaf can be.
Trill from dark brakes and bloomy bushes, The hands are withered that plucked it once For her, on a day in spring;
Seek we, through yon translucent veil,
Lariccia, Nemi, and Genzano,
ANASTASIUS GRUN. Castel Gandolfo, and Albano.
x A boundless scope : ambrosial air :
Campagna, reaching to the ocean : Idyllic Pastorals dwell there,
And thrill the heart with old emotion.
Still spreads the beech-tree, bloom the lilies : Their gloom of excavated caverns;
Forums: Basilicas : St. Paul's And Tityrus, fair Amaryllis.
“Hired house :” “Three Fountains :" and
The Tiber. – Though its waves may be
At sunrise, or at sunset, ruddy; Such nectar, set the brain romancing !
More often have I chanced to see
That river brown, – and very muddy.
Blend grateful shade where streams meander; St. Peter's : and the Papal See.
Such themes my Muse at distance passes : Gild the green mazes where we wander. E’en “ Papal Choirs ” allure not me
“ To take my pleasure with the Masses." XIV. On Tusculum's Pelasgic height
How dawned those old historic ages? Besides, in that majestic pile,
So exquisite, so Apostolic,
As to provoke æsthetic colic.
And place among “the Upper Ten,”
Thy lower diggings, San Clemente !
Yet oft I bowed before the throne
OF “Sacred LOVE,” in the Borghese :
Chase bright Aurora's footsteps rosy,
Till Air, Earth, deep-blue Ocean, shine;
O Dawn-effulgent Rospigliosi !
Nor failed I to confess the spell
Of Ludovisi's fair Casino; Lone, cypress-girdled Adriana.
Where Morn and Night, symbolic, tell
Of twilights,— Life, and Death, -Guercino ! XIX.
The Statues. — How dare I recount
The wondrous grace of each “piano"
The Capitol, and Vaticano !
(Though leading oft to divers lurches); And – cynosures of pilgrim souls —
Her eighteen score and seven Churcbes.
Apollo, or such “ancient stager"?
Diana, Flora, Meleager,