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Irish secretaryship, the home secretary- I of imperial policy, it would be better at ship, and the premiership could afford, once to spare ourselves a tedious and hu. and with an anxiety proportioned to his miliating haggle which can end only in consciousness that, as he said, Ireland one way, for the last demand of Irish was the difficulty of his administration. demagogism must and will be the dissoluWe must therefore be permitted to be. tion of the Union. Mr. Morley has perlieve that the temporary reinforcement of haps hardly taken in the fact that among public justice in Ireland during outbreaks the Irish on both sides of the Atlantic of murderous anarchy caused by agitation political incendiarism is a trade. or distress, and when the ordinary law To talk of English government and has become evidently insufficient, though misgovernment of Ireland is misleading it may not be the highest pinnacle of in fact, though indispensable to the thestatesmanship, is not the lowest depth of ory that Ireland has no faults of her own ignorance, carelessness, or folly. That a theory not easily accepted by those force, while necessarily used to restrain who on the other side of the Atlantic disorder, is no remedy for an economical have seen the Irish unanimously supportinalady, is a truth as certain and as fruit. ing slavery, and forming, under the vile ful as that the strait waistcoat necessarily leaders whom they invariably choose, the used to control madness in its paroxysms regular rank and file of American corrupis no remedy for a disease of the lungs. tion. When England won elective gov

Mr. Morley's own policy for Ireland is ernment for herself, that is in 1832, she not stated in these volumes, but we may won it for Ireland also. Ireland has a divine that he would like to govern Ire much larger number of representatives in land through leaders of Irish opinion. the House of Commons than Scotland, So should we all if it were possible: un- and for a long time she held the balance fortunately it is even less possible now between the parties. But Mr. Morley than it was when Peel's Coercion Bill was has to record Cobden's verdict on the brought in. O'Connell was not strong on character and conduct of Irishmen at the side of truth or honor; nor was he Westminster. “ The most discouraging the offspring of a high political civiliza. thing to an English member of Parliation. Cobden says of him, that though ment who wishes to do well to Ireland is they were on friendly terms he never the quality of the men sent to represent shook hands with him or faced his smile it in the House of Commons; hardly a without a feeling of insecurity; and that man of business among them; and not as for trusting him on any public question three who are prepared cordially to cowhere his vanity or his passions might operate together for any, one common interpose, he should as soon have thought object.” “Would it mend matters," asks of an alliance with an Ashantee chief. Cobden, “if such men were sitting in Still O'Connell was a real power; through Dublin instead of London ?" For the the priesthood, which was devoted to him, Galway contract Irish members were only he commanded all Ireland, the division too ready to co-operate; to that job for which now exists between the priest party more than one session all worthier objects and the Fenians or Nationalists not hav- were sacrificed, and for the sake of it all ing commenced in his time; if he made natural and honorable connections were terms he was able to keep them; he had disregarded. Let it be shown that in one comparatively little need of further agita- instance, during its long tenure of power, tion to sustain his popularity, nor did any the Liberal party has refused to entertain competitor threaten his demagogic throne. any reasonable proposal for the benefit of His successors are men who are at the Ireland supported by the body of Irish most leaders of a section with another members. Unless this can be done, we section against them; not one of them are entitled to say that Ireland through has or ever has had a tithe either of his the representatives of her choice has misability or of his power; every one of them governed England fully as much as Ensubsists solely by agitation, and can, there. gland has misgoverned Ireland, to say fore, never afford to bring it to a close; if nothing of the entirely evil and everhe did, a more dynamitic rival would im. increasing influence of the Irish vote over mediately pluck him down. : Govern the city constituencies on this side of St. ment can only degrade itself by these George's Channel. alliances; degradation was about the only There is a sense, indeed, in which Irefruit of alliance even with O'Connell. in land may be said to be misgoverned by truth, if compliance with the demands of England, but in which England also mis. Irish demagogism is to be the principle governs herself. Were it not so, a power



which has coped with the world in arms The explanation is said to be his would not be showing inistrust of itself, career; but not only was his best army and almost quailing before the menaces of raised before men knew that he was a the Irish Land League and its American great guerilla chief, but his career, though confederates. Two difficulties at this marked by one almost miraculous success, crisis are pressing on the nation. One is was by no means a successful one. He an economical difficulty peculiar to Ire- was beaten in Rome, beaten at Mentana, land, and consisting mainly in the mul- beaten, or at least utterly unsuccessful, in tiplication of an unprosperous peasantry France. He failed entirely as legislator, on an unproductive country under the in. his dictatorship in Naples produced no fluence of a Church which does not teach civil fruit, and we can remember no great prudence, and in its own interest discour: measure in Italy in which he ever took ages emigration. The other is a political any very prominent part. His seclusion difficulty, extending to the affairs of the in Caprera in fact, though voluntary, was whole kingdom, and felt especially in mo- the result of a sound instinct. That Italments of national peril, or where, as in ians should love him for his action in dealing with the Irish question, forecast Italy, for his defence of Rome, for his and a steady course of systematic and marvellous overthrow of the Bourbon dyresolute action are required. It consists nasty, a feat which stands alone in his. in the weakness of a supreme government tory, for his still more marvellous surrenvested in a body far too large for united der for the sake of Italy alone of the council, and distracted in itself by faction, kingdom he had won, is intelligible established and consecrated under the enough; but why did other peoples love name of party. The inability of the bim? Patriotism does not necessarily House of Commons, as at present elected endear the patriot to strangers, nor does and organized, to govern the country, has all mankind always honor the deliverer of been pressed upon the attention of the part of it. German love for Hofer was nation by these calamitous and humiliat- limited, nor did Europe worship William ing events not less forcibly than by any- the Silent. It was not any thought that thing immediately connected with the Garibaldi gave out. He must have had Irish question. Even this hideous strug. practical ability in large measure, but his gle of civilization with murderous anarchy memorable sayings have been few, and his may in the end bring more good than letters must seem, even to Southerners, evil to the nation if the proper moral be mere words, while to Northerners they drawn. GOLDWIN SMITH. have in them a kind of feminine screami

ness which is to them detestable. Englishmen who think him one of the grandest figures in history cannot read a line of

his with pleasure. Even Mazzini thought From The Spectator.

his marvellous colleague a kind of “in.

spired idiot,” while to Englishmen, among GARIBALDI had been dead politically whom perhaps the had as many believers for years before he left this world - to as among Italians, he seemed like a grand find in the next, let us hope, that St. Peter child. The English were certainly not did once exist — and the interest of his attracted by his religious creed, which career is now mainly historical. It may was simply that priests are liars, or by his be condensed into the question, — Why political creed, which, in spite of the high did this man, with no claim of birth, no political sense he showed in Italy, was, so education, and no great power of thought, far as could be ascertained, too nearly so enchant the European democracy that summed up in the frightful motto painted he was, for a quarter of a century, á per on the banners of the Legion with which ceptible force in Europe, that he was be advanced to the assistance of the deeply reverenced by millions who had French, “Patatras, Patatras, Patatras." never seen him, and that, though he had Nor do we think that his grand faculty of no wealth, he was the single private man command, his sway, over all who served in Europe, in an age when private war is immediately under his banner, quite exextinct, at whose bidding an army would plains it. The gloomy Wallenstein had spring up from the ground? If, in 1880, that in almost equal measure, and excited he had landed in Illyria, as he half threat- no general enthusiasm; and Mabommed, ened, he would have had ten thousand who had that even in larger measure, who followers, and have instantly, by his mere was believed in by men among whom he name, have attracted twenty thousand | ate and lived under circumstances of ter


rible hardship, was hated by all but his | French peasant, even in his own heart, devotees. Cromwell, who had also this doubted her sincerity or her gift, or ascendancy, was unknown outside his thought that she could betray France, or island ; and the enthusiasm for Napoleon, doubted that her impelling force, so far as who also had it, was outside France and it was not strictly supernatural, was other Poland limited to individuals. That Garthan self-devotion for his sake. It was ibaldi was followed often by trained sol- so also with Garibaldi. Nobody felt disdiers belonging to various nationalities, trust of him, or rivalry towards him, or that he was never disobeyed, that it never suspicion about him. Friend or enemy, occurred to any one whom he led to think detractor or worshipper, no European of him as less than dictator, is full evi- doubted that Garibaldi desired the good dence to the innate royalty in him; but it of mankind, to the utter forgetfulness of does not explain his nearly world-wide self, and would, if once in motion, go forcharm. And lastly, we do not see that the ward to secure it, uninfluenced by any very usual explanation, that the democ- bribe, undeterred by any danger, unfetracy loved him because he was the sol-tered by any fear. When he handed over dier of democracy, will bear careful ex- southern Italy to Victor Emanuel, without amination. Garibaldi was scarcely a conditions, there were men among his consistent democrat. He believed in own friends who felt an electric shock of republics, provided the house of Savoy rage; but the most irritated among them was not present; when it was, he ac- never suspected that Garibaldi had been cepted kings. Hundreds of his own fol- influenced by any motive, except his own lowers sighed over his royalism in Italy, idea of what was best for Italy, strengthand though republicans followed him to ened, perhaps, by the inborn feeling of a the last, it is more than probable that any Nizzard for the house of Savoy. That other man who had done the things he quality of disinterestedness excites in did would have been written out of the men reverence to all who possess it, and lists of the faithful republicans of Eu- it has repeatedly been a main constituent rope. That his feeling for the house of in the power of statesmen, and when seen Savoy was most beneficial to Italy may in a great hero, a man who has done mar. be absolutely true — certainly we shall not vellous things in a marvellous way, who dispute it - but it was not consistent with has, so to speak, walked up to the lion the scheme of thought which the Conti- and rent him with his hands alone, who nent recognizes as democratic.

has personal dignity in its highest form, Wherein, then, lay the charm? We and a face the ablest French caricaturist think it lay in the two words "unselfish could make only heroic, it develops rev

and “heroisin,” which, when found erence to passion. We will not think so together under circumstances in which ill of human nature as to think men re. both can be fully perceived, exert over gard disinterestedness as in itself so wonthe masses of mankind a sort of super- derful as to testify to something supernatural charm, till they are content to natural in the man who displays it; that believe, without either seeing or knowing. is only a cynical view. Rather it is selfTo the multitude, in all European coun- devotion which they regard as at once so tries, Garibaldi was a figure nearly resem. marvellous and so beautiful, and the dis. bling that which Joan of Arc must have interestedness as its perfect, because vispresented to the peasantry of northern ible and comprehensible test. They found France, - a being so heroic as to be al. it in its supreme degree in Garibaldi, and most more than mortal, incapable of fear, found it, too, in a man who was not a incapable of mistake, incapable of final saint, but a born warrior, a man who dedefeat, yet seeking nothing, asking noth- lighted in adventure, and who, in battle, ing, desiring nothing, utterly self-devoted had that serenity which cannot belong to them. They knew, or believed, that even to the bravest when he commands, Garibaldi cared only for them, and what unless he feels that for him the guidance he thought their wrongs; and that once of battle is natural and wonted work. in motion he would go forward steadily, They worshipped it in him, and followed moved, as Joan of Arc was moved when him with an ungrudging fidelity which the she obeyed her “voices,” by some inter-ablest statesmen have often failed to nal impulse, apart from a reasoning proc. evoke, and which was not evoked by the ess, until he was victorious or slain. man whose nature in many respects most Charles the Seventh's courtiers might closely resembled Garibaldi's, the sedoubt the maid, or question her gifts, or renely heroic Genoese who gave us a new attribute to her mixed motives; but no I world. Columbus had all the heroic vir.

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tues; but if he did not seek money, he plated the immediate annexation of the sought power, power as of a born king. kingdom of the two Sicilies. They thought

It seems a strange and even absurd the Piedmontese had annexed more territhing to say, but we have never been able tory than they could manage; they dreaded to resist an impression that circumstances, the action of the Neapolitans in a united and, perhaps, the age, spoiled Garibaldi's Parliament; and they feared that if Na. career. His character would have fitted ples were attacked, either Austria or him best for the part of a new religious Fr might strike a serious blow in leader. With a little more knowledge defence of the menaced State.

It was and a faith, that royal nature of his would resolved, therefore, to wait. The govern. have made of converts devotees, and he ment of Turin offered Francis the Secwould have founded a sect which might ond peace, with an understanding that have made Italy Christian, or have changed peace should last his lifetime, if only he the whole character of the peasantry of would adhere in general policy to northFrance. The feeling he excited in his ern Italy, and the revolutionary party followers was precisely that evoked by were informed that the time was not progreat religious teachers, and like that, pitious. The sincerity of this attitude appeared to be independent of any alter- has been doubted, but there seems no ation from events. • Mentana no more reason to disbelieve that it was honest, broke his influence than Ohod broke the and that the rulers of north Italy really influence of Mahommed, and he was as contemplated an arrangement under which fully believed to be a democrat after he south Italy would have become a base had crowned Victor Emanuel, as Mr. for both Austrian and French intrigues Wesley was believed to be a Churchman against them. Francis the Second could after he began ordaining his own preach. not have maintained himself without ex

We can imagine Garibaldi controllo ternal help, whlle he.could have given to ing a vast religious organization almost any great power he favored the dominion without orders, raying out devoted mis- of the Mediterranean. His policy, theresionaries to the ends of the earth, and fore would have been to become the huminfusing new fervor into them in strange, ble friend either of the Hapsburgs or the half-unintelligible epistles, wbich, after Bonapartes; and as he would have been all, resemble nothing so much, in their aided by the pope, the whole force of half-poetic, half-angry screaminess, as north Italy would have been exhausted in some of Malommed's Suras. That he the effort to preyent attack from the would have been greater in that capacity south. The fleet must have been greatly we cannot say, perhaps it is enough to increased, the army must have been kept have enfranchised eleven millions. But on a permanent war footing, and Italy he certainly would have been more intel. must have been crushed with taxation, ligible to posterity, which will be sorely without gaining a real place among the puzzled to account for a man apparently powers of Europe. without a mind, in whom three nations at It was under these circumstances that least believed, who took a kingdom as a General Garibaldi, aware of his own hold passenger in a railway train, and with all over the population, and of the utter rotItaly at his feet lived an unmeditative tenness of the Neapolitan kingdom, reanchoret on a little island in the Mediter- solved to strike a great blow. He is said

to have been Cavour's agent, and no doubt he had Cavour's permission to un. dertake an enterprise in which success inight be valuable while failure could compromise no one, but the audacity of the

conception was his own. With one thou. GARIBALDI AND ITALY.

sand men, collected from all the nations All Liberal Europe laments the death of the world, he landed at Marsala, in of General Garibaldi ; but it may be Sicily, defeated the royal troops, and questioned whether many Englishmen, crossing back into Naples, attacked the even while honoring his memory, pre- monarchy in its capital. The enterprise cisely understand the character of the vas almost a mad one, for King Francis, 'service which he rendered to Italy and besides the royal army, had eight thouthe world. He twice prevented Italy from sand good Swiss, who could, and would, being divided into two halves. It may be have destroyed Garibaldi's little force. taken as certain that in 1860 neither Vic. The general, however, had understood his lor Emanuel nor Count Cavour contem. I enemies exactly. Though he did not re



From The Economist.

ceive either then or ever much active aid He unreservedly surrendered his confrom the Neapolitans, they were favor- quest to the king, and from that moment, able to his cause; the king's forces were though the Italians still had to wait for honeycombed with treachery, and on his Rome, Italy, was made. The advantage advance all active opposition faded away. to Italy of this surrender was enormous. The Swiss received no orders, owing Not only was the chance of civil war probably to some intimation from Cavour averted, but her supply of men for the that he would endure no intervention of army was quite doubled, while her control foreigners; the Neapolitan soldiers did of a population of twenty-eight millions not act; the court Aed to Gaeta; and enabled her to deal with rival nations as a within three weeks Garibaldi was dicta. first-class power, the defeat of which would tor of Naples, and the unity of Italy, of involve a grand disturbance throughout which even Cavour despaired for the mothe Mediterranean. The taxation of Italy, ment, had become possible. A situation no doubt, was not lightened, while, owing of permanent danger had been prevented to the low state of civilization in Naples, by an act of supreme audacity, such as her 'civil difficulties were greatly inonly a man confident alike in his cause creased; but then the object for which and in his skill would have ventured to the taxes were borne and the civil diffi. attempt.

culties encountered was, in the imagina. With the conquest of Naples, however, tion of the people, adequate. They were the danger was not over. So absolute to live in Europe as Italians, and not as was Garibaldi, so entirely were the people north Italians, as without either Rome or devoted to him, that it was open to him Naples they would quite accurately have to declare Naples a republic, and to re- been described. An adequate object is sist its amalgamation with north Italy. often worth more to mankind than adeThe Neapolitans, who had much local quate means, and the Italians, with a feeling remaining, would have supported historic country to defend, have built up him, the inhabitants of the provinces re- a strong army, have borne exceedingly cently annexed to Piedmont would have high taxation, and have collected a fleet marched on him with reluctance, and it is sufficient to make them a serious power very doubtful whether if Victor Emanuel within the Mediterranean. had employed force either Austria or Whether the power will be wisely exerFrance would not have interposed a veto. cised is as yet undetermined. Italy has At all events, terms might have been even now scarcely gained full indepenmade, and the republican fanatics round dence in foreign policy, and in her search Garibaldi implored him to make the at. for a firm alliance has tended to become tempt. Garibaldi himself must have hes a more or less highly considered depenitated. Though without ambition himself, dant of Austro-German diplomacy. The he enjoyed the exercise of power, he was effect of this has been that she has em. devoted to folly to his friends, and he had barrassed France without securing much issued some important decrees, notably good either for herself or for the world. one about the land tenure, which it was She was nearly powerless during the certain that the northern Italian govern- Berlin negotiations, she did not help ment, with its traditional regard for prop- Europe in the debate with Turkey about erty, would not support. There was for the cessions to Greece, and she rather some weeks every danger that the risks provoked than resisted the imprudent attendant on two governments in the French aggression upon Tunis, which peninsula would continue, and would be must for years to come directly decrease greatly exasperated as regarded domestic French strength, and by embroiling her affairs, though not perhaps as regarded with the sultan must limit her efficacy in foreign influence, by the fact that one of the settlement of the Eastern question. them was republican. The Liberal party In Egypt, too, she has been a marplot in north Italy, though willing to accept rather than a pacificator, and has fomented the house of Savoy, was not devoted to trouble out of jealousy of the ascendancy any dynasty, was deeply infected with of Great Britain and France. It is quite republican leaven, and was disposed to possible, however, that this attitude is believe that a policy of modified feder- temporary: Nations are guided in the alism, afterwards called “the regional long run by their interests, and the per. policy," would be more in accordance manent interests of Italy must lead her in with the genius of Italy than an adminis. the end either to a close alliance with trative unity. The self-denial of Gari- Austria, which would help to protect that baldi, however, ended the complication. I power against both Germany and Russia,

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