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medicine. Thus he hopes to overcome matter of supreme importance to try be. the stately Collegium Medicum that pre- fore them, namely, to accuse Oxylus and sides over the court of law. He pro- Nyction of injustice; for since when, he ceeds to speak of these ancient physicians would like to know, is it customary in with scant respect. Æskulapius with his Hades to part the soul from the body empty glory has not opened his mouth in while full powers of life still exist in the speech for years, he feels himself so left latter? Theodorus so imposes on these behind. When he cannot avoid giving functionaries by the pomposity of his adsome manner of reply, his comrades couch dress and his rhodomontade, that they their questions in such fashion that he obey him obsequiously, and lead him into need only nod in assent or shake his head the inner court where Æakus, Minos, and in dissent. So much for him. Hippok- the Christian Theophilus are seated at a rates, whenever he speaks, utters such tribunal. Pusing out his cheeks, after crabbed and abstruse verbiage as does the manner of the sophists, and speaking not fit into a court of law. The others in inflated language, Theodorus pleads are still more worthless, and Galen, the Timarion's cause as warmly as in 10S2 he only one for whom Theodorus has some defended the cause of the Christians at respect, happens fortunately to be absent the synod held in Constantinople by at present from the council, as he is busy Alexius Comnenus. He shows how Oxj. writing his book on different forms of lus and Nyction had parted Timarion's fever. With regard to their paganism, soul forcibly from his body, and therefore Timarion need have no fears. Strict jus- claims for him a right to return to life. tice lies in the essence of their being, Minos summons the genii to defend them. neither do they concern themselves with selves. They do so, upholding the the. the different religions of those whom ory that Timarion had lost all his bile they have to judge. Moreover, having during his illness, and had consequently regard to the fact that the_faith of the parted with a fourth part of his composi. Galilean is spread over all Europe and a tion. On hearing this the judges resolve part of Asia, it has been deemed fitting to adjourn their sitting until Æskulapius to choose a judge also from their midst. and Hippokrates can be present to decide Theophilus, the late emperor of Constan- this important point.* tinople, has been selected for this post, This adjournment lasted three days, and his justice is well known. Theodo- but Timarion does not tell his friend what rus only adds one piece of advice to Ti- passed in their course. At their expiramarion : "Do you not speak, pleading is tion he is once more formally cited before not your forte; give me unlimited author. the tribunal, and an animated medical ity to speak for you.”

discussion ensues as to whether he has Theodorus then turns to the guides, or has not parted with essentials. Theoand tells them that he is about to accuse dorus's readiness of speech overcomes all them of having unjustly deprived Tima. obstacles, for he proves medically that rion of life. They all proceed onwards, Timarion's body was not suficiently ex. walking over some fifteen stadia, till they hausted to justify its being parted from reach a charming grove, where lovely its soul. The verdict is at last given in flowers blossom, where the ground is cov- Timarion's favor, and he is bade farewell ered with green grass, and birds sing until the time be up and he again appears sweetly. This, Theodorus. explains, are here. Oxylus and Nyction are degraded the Elysian Fields, and soon after they from their office. This is the result in approach the precincts of the court. The brief: the matter had required much talkodorus again bids Timarion, who is unling to and fro, and it was evening before easy about the issue of bis suit, be with judgment was passed in this intricate out fear. As they enter, they learn that case. a knotty case has just been decided con- As it was getting late, Theodorus procerning the incriminated death of Cæsar posed that Timarion should come with by the hands of Cassius and Brutus (a him and spend the night in the abode of curious anachronism this, that Cæsar's the wise. This clearly corresponds to murderers should be judged by a tribunal Dante's limbo glorioso, which* Voltaire presided over by Theophilus who died nearly nine hundred years later). The and the mode in which justice is administered, is a very

# Hase thinks that in the description of the tribunal, constables now cite Timarion before the evident imitation of the Attic orators. tribunal. Theodorus at once takes up the thinks that in these yenii the growing Mahometan inword and begs that he and his client may angels of Death, Mounker and Nekir, who play so great

fluence of the time is to be traced, for they recall the be led before the judges, as they have a a part in Mahometan traditions.

WILL STOUT THE PARISH BEADLE.

A CHARACTER,

very properly preferred to all the nine sions and differences, and attracted much spheres of paradise. In this region lived attention in Constantinople. The idea all the philosophers and sophists, and so that the death of a patient should be deanxious was Timarion to see what he clared invalid upon his reclamation and could of them, that he never closed bis sufficient showing that it is against the eyes all right. He saw Parmenides, Py- rules of a system held as irrefragable, is thagoras, Anaxagoras, Thales, and all the certainly original. The satire is not ele- . other chiefs of all the philosophical sects, gant, but it is very biting in parts, while as they sat cheerfully together, convers- its occasionally scurrilous tone recalls ing peaceably and discussing their vari- Rabelais. The language of Timarion re. ous doctrines. Only Diogenes was ex- sembles that of the Church fathers. In cluded with contempt from their circle. Mazaris it has already fallen into barbaTimarion reports to his friend the conver- rism. Both are interesting to philologists sations that passed, which give him an — but that theme transcends our powers. opportunity of lauding his friends and

HELEN ZIMMERN. vilifying his enemies.

Next morning Theodorus bade Tinarion depart, telling hien that it was long since matters had gone so well with any dead man. He wishes him farewell and

From Chambers' Journal. instructs him to hurry, lest the news of his death should reach Constantinople and distress his many friends. So they part, and Timarion continues his journey In this quiet, out-of-the-world place, the without stopping, till he finds himself in last of the local Scottish "worthies." the open air.

died out with old Will Stout the parish

beadle. We admit the stern necessity of Tanto ch'io vidi delle cose belle, Che porta il ciel, per un pertugio tondo;

getting rid of able-bodied beggars and E quindi uscimmo a riveder le stelle. tramps, yet we owe the poor-laws and the

combination houses a kind of sentimental The Pleiades and the Great Bear were grudge for having devoured our ganshining down upon him, and he greeted grels” and wandering minstrels, whose them with joy. At once he hastened to periodic visits were so welcome, especially seek out his corpse. Descending by the at farmhouses, during the long winter chimney into the hut where he had left it, evenings. Their tales and ballads were he entered his body by the mouth and a source of never failing interest to the nostrils. Resting a few hours, he next servants and children. It was a red-letter day continued his journey to Byzantium. day when the “auld sodger” came round Arrived there, his first endeavor was to to spend his evenings in the kitchen, and find some one newly dead who would sleep in some warm corner of the barn or take to Theodorus his due reward. And cow-house. The children stole away from thus, baving, ended his long recital, Ti. the parlor - where their parents were marion bids his friend good-night. deep in Boston's “ Fourfold State,

Such this satire, that gives us the con- vainly puzzling over Jonathan Edwards ception formed of Hades by the temperate in order to join the kitchen group, as and learned phantasy of a Byzantine soph. they listened with open mouths to tales of ist or doctor of the twelfth century — for the Peninsular War, rehearsed with some one or the other of these the author must, embellishment by the auld sodger,” as in all probability, have been. The treat- he vigorously flourished his one remaining ise itself bears for us much the same re- arm to illustrate his deeds of heroisin. lation as a satire upon homeopathy, hy. We can well recember, too, the pleas. dropathy, or any fashionable medical reg. ure with which we children welcomed the imen might have for the traditional New visits of " hunch-backed ” Singing Sandy, Zealander. The pith of the whole lies in a lingering remnant of the wandering mincertain medical, or, more properly speak- strel fraternity. Too lazy in his younger ing, physiological dogmas connected with days to work, Sandy had gradually acEmpedocles's doctrine of the four element- quired wandering habits, into which he al properties, which Hippokrates brought fell the more readily from being slightly over into animal physiology, whence pa- weak in intellect. It was a standing trathology drew the conclusions posted up in dition among the boys that his “ “hump Hades. These, to judge from this MS., was a made-up one ; and certainly Sandy gave rise at that period to learned discus. I knew how to produce effects. On arriv.

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ing at a village, his first proceeding was to cast-off clothes, which hung so loosely enter some cottage where he saw roses about him as to give the impression that were plentiful, and get the good wife to fix they had been made for Will at a time a garland of them the reddest being when he was of a fuller habit. It was preferred - round his old battered Kil only in his later years that we knew him. marnock bonnet, when forth he issued By that time, being the older official, he with a kind of boyish exultation, flourish- had come to regard himself as of nearly ing his stick round his head, and delight. as great importance to the parish as the ing the hearts of the children with the minister himself

. The attendance at this song of “ Rolling eye:”.

remote parish church had been less affect.

ed by the influence of Dissent than some Oh, whaur are ye gaun, my bonnie bonnie lass? neighboring ones, and Will thought that Oh, whaur are ye gaun, my honie?

he was entitled to no small credit for this. Right modestly she answered me, An errand to my mammie.

A stranger a few years ago remarked on With my rolling eye, faul the diddle eye,

the large attendance at the services, when With my rolling eye dum dary.

Will enlightened hiin as to the cause of

this by naïvely observing : “Weel, sir, ye From the popularity of this song, with its see that me and the minister have kept unfailing chorus, to which Sandy danced them weel together." as vigorously as his stiff joints and rheu- While Will generally performed his matic frame would allow, he was generally duties efficiently in his own rough-andknown by the name of “Rolling-eye,” and ready kind of way, he had some little the song was regarded as in some way his weaknesses and peccadillos that the min. own especial property. "Johnnie Cope" ister and the parishioners as a whole were was another of his songs; but never took charitable enough to overlook as frequentthe place of “Rolling-eye" in the chil- ly as possible. At the time of neighbordren's estimation.

ing fairs, Will's friends were sometimes Another welcome visitor was the “chap- known to “ treat” him beyond what was man,” whose little pack, with its many good for him, in order to hear some of bladed knives and its tinsel gauds and his quaint stories. At such times the jewellery, made the boys' teeth water, minister took care, if possible, not to reand the girls' hearts leap with anticipa- quire his services. One day, however, tion. His sales were certainly not such when on necessary parochial duty; he as to increase his fortune ; but then the chanced to meet Will on his way from pretence of gaining an honest livelihood the fair, earnestly endeavoring to carry was an excuse for obtaining meals — for himself as straight as possible. The min. by some strange coincidence the packinan ister felt bound to tender a mild remoninvariably made his appearance at meal. strance. Will had to stand on his detimes; nor was he in a hurry to depart fence, and having just parted with a petty and push his trade, till he had rehearsed laird, be sought to screen himself by asthe local news and delighted the young- suring the minister that Jeems Tamson sters with some marvellous stories. was away up the road “far fouer than

These harmless and more or less wel. me. We are bound to admit, in fairness come characters are every year becoming to Will, that such excesses were very rare.

As long as we had the old beadle, Will's natural-history tastes were someour parish possessed a character of the what extensive for his opportunities, and genuine old type. The beadle in a coun- on this account he was a great favorite try parish is an official of no small impor. with the manse boys. He had generally tance, at least in his own eyes. He has about him one or two pets, such as jackfrequently very mixed duties to perform. daws, magpies, and squirrels, besides a He is grave.digger, church-officer, bell- miscellaneous collection of birds and fourringer, sometimes minister's nian, garden-footed animals, which he had stuffed with er and general-worker, or jack-of-all-trades. his own hands. It was more than shrewdIf he has been long in the office, he be ly suspected that Will made the acquaint

a great authority on all subjects ance of some animals with other objects of a purely parochial nature. With us in view than the study of natural history; Will Stout had been beadle for over fifty and that by the aid of a little wire, where years, and while ministers might come and the glebe adjoined the laird's policies, be go, Will remained, apparently a perma. had occasionally found the wherewithal nent institution. In personal appearance to make a savory stew. And before our Will was long, lanky, and ill-shapen. He rivers were so strictly preserved, the salwas generally invested in the minister's mon-pools had frequent visits from him

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by torchlight. The success of such visits | ble and kindly disposition, Will would was amply attested by the fact that Will occasionally show that he could assume a was able to regale himself with a piece of self-defensive attitude. When the minis.

kippered" salmon when others had to ter of the parish was unexpectedly called content themselves with more homely away from home, an afternoon service fare. He in all probability regarded this conducted by a neighbor clergyman would as a harmless way of supplementing his sometimes be substituted for the regular somewhat limited income. His salary as service. Ať such times it was Will's duty beadle was by no means an extravagant to apprise the parishioners of this change one; and one year when there happened of the hour of service for the day. On to be a general rise of wages, he made an one of these occasions, somewhat to the application for the modest increase of one chagrin of the minister officiating, a very pound. In the heritors' minute-books we small number of the parishioners were find it recorded that it was agreed to grant present. With some irritation he accused the increase on condition that Will would the beadle of having failed to make due give up salmon-poaching,

intimation. Will stoutly maintained that Will remained a bachelor, residing with he had faithfully fulfilled his duties, by his old mother, who lived to the age of not only naming the hour of meeting, but nearly a hundred years. In mature life also announcing the name of the minister he was urged by some of his friends to who was to conduct the services. Still take a wife. He was very cautious, how. unsatisfied, fresh doubts were insinuated ever, in regard to matrimony, and declined regarding the veracity of Will's statement, the advice, excusing himself on the ground which being more than Will could endure, " that there are many things you can say he quietly informed the minister that if he to your mither you couldna say to a fremit would have the true reason of the small (stranger] woman. While beadle, he attendance, “it was that he was not very had seen four or five different ministers popular in the parish.”. in the parish, and had buried two or three A meal that Will thoroughly relished of them. And although his feelings be- and was never in living memory known to came somewhat blunted regarding the miss, was his Sunday dinner at the manse, sacredness of graves in general, yet he It was a hearty one, and doubtless served took a somewhat tender care of the spot to make up for the homely fare of the where the ministers lay. After his ex- Saturday previous and the Monday fol. tended experience, he was asked to give lowing. It was a dinner given most unhis deliberate judgment as to which of grudgingly by the minister, who regarded them be had liked best. His answer was Will as part of the Sabbath household. guarded; he said he did not know, as Moreover, he generally had share of what. they were all good men. But being fur. ever had been on the minister's own ta. ther pressed and asked if he had no pref-ble. On one occasion, Will had rather erence, after a little thought he again ad. the best of the dinner. The minister's mitted that they were all . guid men, guid family were from home. A modest steak, men; but Mr. Mathieson's claes fitted me intended for the minister, had been prebest."

pared by the thrifty housekeeper, and One of the new incumbents, knowing was standing ready on the kitchen-table Will's interest in the clothes, thought that when the beadle arrived. While the serat an early stage he would gain his favor vant was making the necessary arrangeby presenting him with a coat. To make ments for dinner in the minister's parlor, him conscious of the kindly service he Will in the interval despatched the steak. was doing, the minister informed him that when the housewife broke out in indig, it was almost new. Will took the gar. nation, he quietly remarked that he had ment, examined it with a critical eye, and used it under the impression that it was having thoroughly satisfied himself, pro- the “bit bit” prepared for himn. The nounced it “a guid coat, a guid coat," but minister, enjoying the unconscious humor pawkily added: "When Mr. Watt the of the situation, first congratulated Will auld minister gied me a coat, bie gied me on his good fortune, and then good-hubreeks as weel.” The new minister, who moredly dined on bacon and eggs, which, was fortunately gifted with a sense of it may be mentioned, are a never-failing humor, could not do less than complete resource in remote country manses. Will's rig-out from top to toe, and so es. Poor old Will's step got gradually tablished himself as a permanent favorite slower and slower; but nearly to the very with the beadle.

last he carried the minister's books up to Although he was naturally of an amia- the pulpit, and with his own peculiar

66

ences.

twitch of the rope, made the bell speak of cruelty inflicts, that we read in all out its metallic ding-dong, ding-dong. books of Arctic travel of the savage treatEven during the few weeks when he was ment it receives from men whose life deconfined to bed, he would show symptoms pends upon its endurance and sagacity. of keen interest in his duties and remi- , With equal certainty we may expect to niscences, when some of his old friends find in all books of travel in South Africa led him to tell again some of his experi- descriptions of the horrible cruelty with

When the end was visibly ap- which the drivers of the ox-teams treat proaching, poor Will wondered who would the patient drudges that earn the wealth dig bis grave. The minister touched his of the country. heart by telling him that he would like to We may read and enjoy M. du Chaildo that service for him with his own lu's account of the reindeer without any bands. For as Will always loved his such drawback. The little people of the minister, and would bravely stand up for Arctic borderlands are not cruel (though him, whenever any one hinted a queru- strange murder-crazes have occurred in lous or disparaging word, so, like a true their history), and they do not torture the hearted man, the minister loved old Will, wonderful animals of which William Howand felt that he was losing a true friend. itt wrote, forty years ago : This offer of the last service being the expression of true regard, deeply touched With thy patience and thy speed; the heart of the failing man, who, after

With thy aid for human need;

With thy gentleness, thy might; that, seemed content to die. Although

With thy sinple appetite; the churchyard was very crowded with

With thy sure foot, frauied to go graves, Will had reserved a spot in which

Over trackless wastes of snow; to rest beside his old mother. On his

More than gold-mines is thy worth, funeral day, the whole parish, young and Treasure of the desert North, old, assembled to show their respect for the good old creature.

There is a charm for the imagination in The church seems now scarcely like the solemn dreariness of the landscape itself, since the old quaint form departed in the far-spreading country of the reinfrom it. He will be long remembered as deer, where the wanderings and the enthe last of the parish characters; and campment of the men are regulated by kindly feelings will be awakened in many the supply of food for the animals, so that as they read on a simple stone: “Here Lapps may be said to live that reindeer lie the remains of William Stout, who may browse; in the bare, rounded hills, was for fifty years parish beadle."

covered with stones wrenched from the rocks by thousands of years of frost; in the lakes, the rivers, the cascades, the snow-covered pastures, and the scanty

birch-trees, without which even the Lapps From The Spectator.

could not make out their wandering lives.

Where the lichen grows the reindeer Of animals whose place in nature and herds seek it, and the men inust follow association with the needs of man render them. A great herd of reindeer swimthem especially attractive to the imagina- ming across a wide river or a fjord must tion, the camel, the reindeer, and the be a fine sight; also, the sagacious creaEsquimaux dog are the most striking ex- tures coming to the camp to be milked. amples. The camel has been made the The milk of the reindeer forms an imporsubject of many pens, and of very various tant item in the food of the Lapps, and is treatment; some of our fondest illusions more nutritious than that of the cow or respecting him have been ruthlessly de- the ass. Cheese is made in large quantistroyed. The noble droinedary of " Katies, but little butter, and that so bad that looláh” has taken its place, with Sindbad's it is like tallow. The women know all roc, and the Arab steed of Mrs. Norton's the animals in the largest herds, and miss poem, among the delightful creatures that a straggler at once, when the herd come so easily might have been, but are not. noiselessly about the tent, accompanied It is quite otherwise with the Esquimaux by hungry dogs, and some lie down, while dog; * Cerf Vola's " master has not only others eat the moss, using their sharp, preserved, but elevated and adorned the handy fore-feet to detach it. When the legend of that inestimable product of the camp is broken up in summer, trained terrible north; so that it is with more reindeer carry the baggage, instead of than the ordinary pain which every tale | drawing the loads, as they do in winter,

REINDEER.

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