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From The Pall Mall Gazette.

early summer for the golden scented cow- ! of those who have read the accounts slip that springs ever freely in a broad, i given by recent travellers in the southern bright field, beyond which lie three or seas of the state of things in Polynesia, four un-named tombstones, discovered or the still more terrible narratives of long ago, when the little church was built those who describe the slavery which has that crowns the lane. Perhaps some of been established in Queensland, or the our six children sleep there unmovingly war of extermination which is being through all the lapse of years: perhaps waged in northern Australia. Mr. John the elder sister, whose bridal wreath may Wisker, of Melbourne, contributes to the after all have been woven for her marriage current number of the Fortnightly Rewith death alone, there found balm for view an account of the doings of Englishher broken heart! But it is all specula- men under the Southern Cross which tion. Nothing lasts, save the immortal would be pronounced incredible but for range of hills beyond the garden, that are the confirmation supplied by other inde. now as when the garden was in its prime; pendent witnesses. M. Rochefort is forand as we stand at the gate, and try to ever sneering at the nation which scatters avoid the rusted hinge that always stays tracts over the universe, and at the same us while we retwist the wire fastening, time mercilessly exterminates the aborig. and prepare to plunge into the world ines at the antipodes; and for once M. again, we seem to part with a multitude Rochefort's sarcasm is barbed with truth. of ghosts, who doubtless, when the moon It is in northern Queensland and Cape rises high in the sky, walk hand in hand York that this process of colonization by in the garden, and talk mournfully to massacre is to be seen at its best or worst. gether of the days when they and it were The “pioneers of civilization,” gold-digin their prime.

gers and adventurers, with a liberal leaven of the scoundrelism of two worlds, have been waging for years past an intermittent war with the black. fellows, who it seems are stronger, braver, and more in

dependent than the degenerate specimens THE CRIMES OF COLONIZATION.

of humanity who are being crowded out In the name of God, the Clement, of existence in Victoria and in New the Merciful,” began a curious document South Wales. As the pioneers took no recently produced before an Indian mag- women with them they supplied themistrate, "let Hafiz Saheb, who is the pos- selves with the wives of the aborigines. sessor of virtue and good qualities,” pur- Human nature being the same all the chase at the slave market of Mecca two world over, a fierce war of reprisals beyoung negresses who, for the satisfaction gan, and is kept up to this hour. Every of “the exalted Sirkar," must be "young, native trouble is said to be traceable to comely, and cheap.” These slave girls the same fatal cause. The black robbed were purchased at Mecca and imported of his wife slays the first white who into Bombay, and the law courts of the crosses his path. The colonists combine latter city are engaged in meting out a and massacre all the black fellows within righteous punishment to those engaged range of their rifles. And so it goes on. in this nefarious traffic. The lofty invo. Even when there is no blood feud, pot. cation which prefaced the letter does not shots are taken at “niggers" as if they contrast more rudely with the instructions were wild ducks, and their women are to the slave-dealer than do the practices regarded as the common property of the indulged in by Englishmen in dealing first comer. Children are born of these with the weaker races with our ostenta. lawless unions, but none survive. Whethtious professions of morality and religion. er their parents kill them or the hybrid It is an old story, and a hideous one. lacks stamina to face the climate remains But from time to time it must be retold, a mystery. Every year the black man is if only that, while our ears are filled with hunted farther and farther back from the mellifluous phrases about our humanity, lands which are coveted by the white, and fraternity, and civilization, we may not in northern Queensland ere long it will entirely forget that to multitudes of men be as it is now in New South Wales, we are only known as the pitiless expo.i where, with a territory as large as France nents of a system of murder, greed, and and England combined, seven hundred lust.

and fifty thousand colonists protest they These are hard words, but who can say can find no room in which to locate the they are undeserved ? Not assuredly any miserable, dwindling remnant of the original owners of the soil. The colonists, gin of most of the troubles in the Pacific however, do not do all the murders them- we shall not enter now. For them we selves. They massacre by deputy. Un are not so directly and exclusively responder the guise of a police force they have sible. The rascaldom of many countries armed a body of blacks as savage and is engaged in the work of demoralizing, more drunken than their naked brethren, of plundering, and of murdering the un. and these they periodically lead forth to fortunate islanders. To adequately police massacre gatherings of the tribes. the southern seas a kind of European

The story which Mr. Wisker has to tell concert is required, for international comof the state of things on the cane planta- plications might arise if we were to string tions of southern Queensland is not less up to the yard-arm every scoundrel of a horrible. On the strength of official doc-beachcomber whose lust and avarice conuments be maintains that in many cases vert a paradise into a pandemonium. At the imported Polynesians are actually present we shell villagers who have visworse off than slaves. The labor traffic, ited blind vengeance upon their whitedespite all attempts at regulation, is, in skinned enemies, and only make bad his opinion, little better than an organ- worse. But, leaving the Polynesian quesized slave trade. On paper the regula- tion on one side for the moment, what is tions seem to be satisfactory. In prac- to be done in Queensland ? It is a diffitice they are too often nugatory. The cult problem, no doubt; but ought it, law provides that the native shall only be therefore, to be left to solve itself? If engaged for three years, at the rate of six so, the history of the aboriginal races will pounds a year, besides food, lodging, and be told in two words - extermination and clothes. The native is paid his eighteen slavery. That to the Kanaka and the pounds at the end of his term of service, Australian is the practical meaning of and is then returned to his island. If he Cliristianity and civilization. dies before the three years expire, his master saves both his wages and the expense of sending him home. The economic problem, therefore, which confronts

From The Saturday Review. every cane-grower is, first, how to extract from his laborer the inaximum amount of

ALEXANDRIA. labor on a minimum quantity of food; Few cities of the world have underand, secondly, how to arrange for his gone greater vicissitudes than the scene death as near as possible to the close of of our latest naval exploit. It is not his three years' service. A skilful cane- many years since Alexandria was a vilgrower who can use up his laborers in lage, existing by fishing and the sponge two years and eleven months is £17 1os. trade, cut off from the interior by arid in pocket. A clumsy hand who works sands and fetid marshes, almost water. his man to death in two years only gains less, and shrunk into a narrow corner £12. Thus a system ingeniously devised among the ruins of Greek magnificence. so as to combine all the worst features of So completely bad Iskanderieh forgotten slavery and of freedom has been estab. its ancient glories, that it has even been lished under our eyes, and no one seems found impossible to identify the ancient to care. It is slavery plus murder. The sites of the famous buildings it once con. employer is allowed to pocket his work- tained. The Serapeum has perished as man's wages on condition that he kills completely as the tomb of Alexander; and him off before the end of three years. within a few years the only two reinnants The result is that in Queensland the of Egyptian art which remained to show death rate of Polynesians between the that the town was not altogether modern age of sixteen and thirty-two varies from have disappeared. The traveller may eighty to one hundred per thousand. search Alexandria from one end to the In England the death rate is only nine. other without discovering anything older The fact is vouched for by government than the pillar which a Roman prefect inspectors and police magistrates. We erected on the neighboring hill in honor have spent millions in emancipating of Diocletian. True, there are, or were, slaves and in crusading against the slave older objects in existence; here and there trade. Surely we are not going to allow the whole inner court of a house is supwithout even a protest the gradual con ported. on syenite columns from some version of this great colony into a slave i splendid temple; here and there a mosque state.

or a church has capitals, or pavements, or Into Mr. Wisker's exposure of the ori. I lintels which denote the ruin of some


great edifice. But these remains are not palace of Meks, a domed ruin, without so easily found, and are only revealed when much as a blade of grass near it, gives some street alteration reveals the interior you the first impression of inodern Egypt. anatomy of a falling house. The only As the inner harbor is reached, the palace spot identified with any certainty is the of Ras el Tin – Fig Cape, where no figs Kom el Dik, a hillock on whose summit grow – is on the left, and presents some is, or was, the reservoir of the waterworks. pleasing features in verandahs and balThis, it is tolerably plain, answers to the conies. This is the western extremity of Paneum, from which, as ancient travellers the former island of Pharos. On its easthave recorded, a view may be obtained ern extremity is the lighthouse, and from over the whole city. No two modern the deck of a steamer it is easy to see that writers agree as to where the Soma was, the island is now a peninsula, and that on or the museum, or the library, or the pal- the connecting isthmus, the ancient Hepace of Queen Cleopatra. This is the tastadium, an artificial causeway, now more strange as few cities have their geo widened out, the modern city is placed. graphical features more strongly marked. The houses separate the two harbors, both But the ancient Alexandria extended much of which still exist, but the western only, further to the east and west along the with its breakwater and piers, is now shore, and to the south-east into what is used. The harbor, indeed, good as it is, now almost a desert, while the modern might be immensely improved; but the city covers very little besides the site of jealousy of rulers like Araby has conthe ancient Heptastadium. The Euro-stantly prevented the opening of better pean quarter is larger, if not more popu. entrances than the Boghaz Pass, of which lous, than the Arab quarter; and before we have heard so much lately. The depth the recent exodus and the bombardment of water over the bar is so slight that the city must have boasted of a quarter when a high sea washes over it the pas. of a million of inhabitants, of whom very sage is dangerous even to small vessels, very little more than half can have been which often touch the ground at almost natíve Moslems. European trade gave the deepest part of the channel. The best employment to most of them. They are, view of Alexandria is from the eastern or were, turbulent, noisy, grasping, and coast a few miles out, whence it is seen, dirty, but well affected to the Franks, and perhaps against a sunset sky, with pinespecially to the English, to whom, as nacles and domes jutting out into the blue they well knew, they owed their liveli. Mediterranean, the long low line of buildhood. Except from a soldier, the traveller ings terminating in the lofty horn of the seldom had any cause to complain of in. Pharos. From Ramleh, indeed, the Encivility in Alexandria; and, except in the glish quarter, which spreads at intervals Greek quarter, it was perfectly safe for a along a line of low cliffs for five miles or stranger to walk through any part of the more, the traveller obtained far too favortown by day or night, alone and unarmed. able an impression of the place. A few

Alexandria could not in any sense be minutes' walk in the interior showed him called a beautiful city. It does not con- sights and made him smell smells that tain a single handsome building. And, soon dissipated it. As you proceeded though the streets are wide, the houses, along the square of Mohamet Ali, with even in the central square, are irregular bis equestrian statue in the centre, and a without picturesqueness. The view from kiosk where a band never played, you the sea cannot be described, if we may passed coffee-houses, haberdashers, Enrepeat the standing joke on board a pas- glish book-shops, exchanges, hotels, and senger steamer, for the simple reason that in front of thein blue-veiled women with there is no view from the sea, and you are naked brown children astride on their actually in the harbor before you feel cer- shoulders, negro soldiers in white canvas tain that Alexandria is in sight. A num- uniforms, every one marching to his own ber of wirdmills on the low sand-hills step, yellow, mangy dogs creeping miserbetween the city and the marshy expanse ably along the gutter, water-carriers with of Lake Mareotis, and nearer the sea a great leather sacks on their backs, greennumber of factory chimneys, first come in turbaned sheykhs cantering past on fat sight. Then among the chimneys and white donkeys, and elegant English carwindmills you are persuaded that Pom- riages filled with well-dressed ladies, and pey's Pillar is visible. As you approach driven by coachmen in top-boots. nearer, the low mounds of yellow or white The native population of Alexandria sand take the likeness of fortifications; will have cause for many a year to come and as you enter the outer harbor, the I to deplore their submission to Araby.

There was no local industry except that little to choose between the two. Alex. of attending on Europeans. For them andria being on an old site, and having an the little market gardens along the Mah. ancient Arab town in its very heart, is moudieh Canal existed. For them an less healthy than Port Said. Its outlets army of carriage-drivers and runners, of are much the same. Ramleh, which has boatmen and porters, of shoeblacks and always been a hotbed of fever, though shopsweepers, plied their various callings. high and dry, will yield to the ranges of There is no tongue nor language known hills surrounding the Bitter Lakes. Mornto articulate-speaking men of which in ing trains will convey the banker and his Alexandria some dragoman would not clerk to Port Said from their villas at have a smattering. A little boy whose Kantara or El Gisr, as lately they con. business consisted in constantly pursuing veyed them to Alexandria from Sidi Ga. an unhappy ass would give you words in ber or Bulkeley. There were no fine six languages. A recent traveller heard houses at Alexandria to regret, no palsuch a boy call a very dirty-looking sow aces or guildhalls. Everything, except porco, schwein, cochon, khanseer, and the English church, was of the most other names, ending with what he thought Aimsy character; the noise of the bomthe English form — namely, beeg. All bardment will by itself have shaken down these industries are now checked. There soine of the most imposing structures in is no agriculture, no native trade, noth- the city. Alexandria had not the power ing, in short, for the Arab in Alexandria of attaching her children. People who to do when his only employers are with have been once in Cairo long to see it drawn. And it is a question whether again, and dwell with pleasure on recol. they will return and when. Meanwhile lections of sunsets seen from the citadel, he must live, or if that is not evident, or of the sound of the blind men calling must die. The town has been emptied. the faithful to prayer, or of the verdure of The desertion of the European quarter the ride to Heliopolis; but they have no must be followed by that of the Arab such feeling towards Alexandria. It is, quarter. Of course, those who talk of or was, a place to get money in, and leave Egypt for the Egyptians will rejoice at as soon as possible; a place which every the depopulation of Alexandria, but the inhabitant qualified as dreary, cold, and world in general can hardly be expected wet in winter, hot and dusty in summer, to share their views. It is no secret that unwholesome at all times, ugly to look at, for a long time past Alexandria has been bad to smell. There was but one outlet at a standstill. The Alexandrians have - Ramleh, always Ramleh; and that long, and justly, dreaded Port Said as a sandy oasis, where so many of our coun. rival destined eventually to outstrip them trymen and countrywomen have lived and altogether. It is asserted, on good au- died, is one of the most desolate places thority, that a railway along the northern imaginable, without shade, without roads, shore of the Delta from Alexandria past except the railroad, and without any place Aboukir, Rosetta, and Damietta has only beyond to which you could go for variety; been completed for a certain distance, or a change from the dull monotony of and has not been allowed to approach sand and sea. If Alexandria ever recove Port Said. Jealousy like this may availers, she must exert herself to attract for a time, but cannot succeed in the long trade. The harbor entrance must be run, and a catastrophe such as that which deepened. The custom-house must be Araby las brought upon Alexandria rebuilt, or built, for it is a mere heap of means ruin to a town which has been hovels. A good hotel must be estab. supported in any degree artificially. The lished. Some attempt at drainage must completion of the railway, either from be made. In short, like a man recover. Ismailia, on the canal, or from Alexan- ing from a dangerous illness, Alexandria dria, along the coast, will transfer the must undertake to reform itself, to live seat of commerce to Port Said, which cleanly, to facilitate locomotion, to already, without any means of communi change its do-nothing Turkish governor cating with the interior except along the for a corporation formed from among the Suez Canal by steamboat, bas attracted ratepayers, who may be, not only able, but an enormous trade. In situation there is willing, to improve their port and city.


Fifth Series, Voiamo XXXIX.

No. 1991.- August 19, 1882.

From Beginning,

Vol. CLIV.

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Blackwood's Magazine, III. MUHAMMAD AND HIS TEACHING, .

Nineteenth Century,
IV. A Cat's-Paw,

Chambers' Journal,

Chambers' Journal,
VI. GEORGE CONSIDINE. By the author of “The
Ghost of Aldrum Hall,”



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